Respiratory Protection - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation

Respiratory Protection


Respiratory Protection An Overview Respiratory Protection When Are Respirators Needed? Oxygen Deficiency Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) Why Respirators Are the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:131
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: facultyKf8


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Respiratory Protection

Respiratory Protection
An Overview
Respiratory Protection
  • When respirators are needed
  • Types of respirators and their limitations
  • What you must do when respirators are required
  • What you must do when respirators are optional
    (wearing voluntarily)

When Are Respirators Needed?
  • In an oxygen-deficient atmosphere
  • When chemical Permissible Exposure Limits
    are exceeded
  • When required by a pesticide label
  • When you require it by company policy

Normally, an oxygen deficiency will only be found
in a confined space or a major chemical leak or
spill. Permissible exposure limits are covered
in following slides. There are only a few
pesticides that have label requirements for
respirators. Some employers require their
employees to wear respirators as a safety
Oxygen Deficiency
Oxygen deficiency can occur in confined or
enclosed spaces, during fires or large chemical
releases. Normal air contains 21 oxygen. An
area with oxygen content below 19.5 is
considered oxygen deficient. Only a supplied
air respirator can protect against the effects of
oxygen deficiency.
Immediate death
Oxygen content
Oxygen deficiency exists
Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
Toxic chemicals and dusts
Most chemicals and dusts have limits in the air
that will cause adverse health effects if
exceeded. If airborne levels cannot be reduced
below these limits by other means, respirators
must be provided to protect exposed employees.
There are about 600 chemicals with listed
permissible exposure limits in regulations.
Most of these limits are based on 8-hour average
exposures, but some have short-term exposure
limits based on 15 minute exposures. A few have
ceiling limits, which cant be exceeded even for
an instant. The limits are based on the levels
at which harmful effects are first know to occur.
Why Respirators Are the Last Choice
  • Respirators have major limitations
  • They can leak, wear out, or be the wrong kind
  • They can be hot, uncomfortable and make it
    hard to see or communicate
  • They can be hard to breathe through
  • They are easily removed in contaminated air

The first choice is to reduce chemical exposure
by other means. Most people do not like wearing
respirators and may remove them to talk to
another worker. Tight-fitting respirators are
especially inclined to leaking.
How to Avoid Using Respirators
  • Use one or more of the following controls to
    reduce exposure to airborne chemicals
  • Ventilation
  • Dust suppression with water
  • Eliminate use of chemical
  • Substitute with a less toxic chemical
  • Isolate or enclose the chemical processes
  • Other processing changes

Respirators should be used only if these methods
are not feasible or dont reduce exposure.
Types of Respirators
Air-purifying respirators filters air through
cartridges or filtering facepieces (dust
masks) Powered air-purifying respirators
filters air through cartridges with assistance of
a blower. Airline respirators provides
unlimited clean air from a compressor. Self-conta
ined breathing apparatus (SCBA) provides 30- 60
minutes of clean air from a tank. Escape
respirators provides air for escape only from a
small bottle.
Types of Air-purifying Respirators
Half-face cartridge respirator
Filtering facepiece (dust mask)
Full-face cartridge respirator
Powered air-purifying respirator
Air-Purifying Respirators
Air-purifying respirators trap air contaminants
in a cartridge or filter when the wearer
inhales. Particulate respirators capture dusts,
mists and welding fumes. Chemical cartridge
respirators capture gases and vapors.
Combination cartridges are available.
These type of respirators have many limitations
and restrictions and cannot be used where air
contaminant levels are extremely high or when
there is an oxygen deficiency.
How Cartridge Respirators Work
Air inhaled in
Air inhaled in
Air exhaled out
This picture shows how air moves in and out of
the respirator. The act of breathing creates a
negative pressure inside the mask, which is why
these and dust masks are sometimes called
negative pressure respirators. If the mask
does not fit properly along the edges,
contaminated air can enter during inhalation.
Air-purifying Respirator Limitations
Cartridges must be changed periodically to
provide protection. The right cartridge for the
contaminant of concern must be
chosen. Air-purifying respirators provide
protection up to 10 or 100 times the PEL. Will
not provide adequate protection in confined
spaces, major leaks or spills or for certain
highly toxic chemicals.
  • Respirator Protection Factor

Half-face cartridge and dust mask respirators
only provide protection to levels 10 times above
the chemical or dust permissible limit.
Respirator Protection Factor for ammonia 250 ppm
Ammonia Permissible Limit 25 ppm
ppm parts per million
  • Limits of Chemical Cartridges

Chemical cartridges can absorb only so much
chemical. When their capacity is reached,
breakthrough will occur. You cant always tell
if a respirator leaks by a chemical odor. Some
chemicals have no odor, or can only be smelled at
high levels.
Breakthrough means the chemical goes through the
cartridge into the facepiece. If a worker smells
the chemical with their respirator on, they will
know it is not working. But if the chemical has
no odor, or it can only be detected at high
levels above the permissible limit, they may not
know if your respirator is working properly. For
these reasons, cartridges must be changed
Supplied Air Respirators
Airline Respirator
Clean air comes from a compressor or tank and
provides the highest protection to users.
Supplied air respirators can provide protection
up to 1000 to 10,000 above the permissible
exposure limit, depending on the type of
respirator. The two types of respirators shown
here have tight-fitting facepieces. Loose
fitting respirators are also available.
Loose-fitting supplied air respirators
Full Body Suit
Air is supplied from these respirators by means
of a hose from an air compressor. These are the
only type of respirators that do not require
fit-testing. Their protection varies depending
on the type. The loose-fitting facepiece is the
least protective of this type.
When Are Supplied-air Respirators Required?
  • Oxygen deficiency
  • High levels of toxic chemicals in the air
    above IDLH levels
  • Other conditions of high levels of highly
    toxic chemicals in the air
  • Firefighting

Unlike air-purifying respirators (cartridge-type
respirators or dust masks), supplied air
respirators provide a high degree of protection
for the user in these life-threatening
situations. If air contaminant or oxygen levels
are unknown and testing cant be done in confined
spaces, emergency spills or leaks or at hazardous
waste sites, it must assumed that IDLH levels are
exceeded and supplied air respirator must be
worn. Assume the worst case, unless you have
evidence otherwise.
What is IDLH?
IDLH means immediately dangerous to life or
health Most chemicals have a listed IDLH level
link to NIOSH IDLH Table Oxygen deficiency is
also IDLH IDLH conditions can occur in confined
or enclosed spaces, large chemical spills or
leaks and fires
In most workplaces, IDLH conditions rarely occur.
Confined spaces are the exception - IDLH
conditions are much more common in sewers or
tanks where welding is done or which contained
chemicals or fuel.
Escape Respirators
Escape bottle attached to airline respirator
Carried escape respirator
These cant be used for entry going in a room
to turn off a valve or make a repair. They only
contain 5 -10 minutes supply of air, enough time
to exit a room or building where there has been a
major chemical leak or spill, or when the
supplied air respirator fails.
Air Quality for Supplied Air Respirators
Air for tanks or from compressors must be Grade
D air. Tank air is purchased from
vendors. Compressors supply air for airline
respirators. Compressor air must be equivalent
to Grade D air. Low pressure compressors may not
provide adequate amount of air.
Link to Grade D air requirements
Construction Plant Air Compressors
Use these compressors with caution
Be careful these do not provide clean air
without a filter system!! Oil-lubricated
compressor are especially hazardous. You must
test for carbon monoxide or have a high
temperature alarm. Locate air intake away from
engine exhaust which can contaminate breathing
Respirator Selection
One of the most important task is selecting the
correct respirator for the hazard. Knowledge of
chemical identity, extent of use, levels in the
air and permissible limits is needed. You must
conduct a workplace hazard assessment air
sampling may be necessary.
Personal air sampler
Respirator Selection
Type of Respirator
IDLH conditions or oxygen deficiency SCBA or airline respirator with escape bottle
Dust/chemical levels up to 1000 times PEL Airline respirator with full facepiece or hood
Dust/chemical levels up to 100 times PEL Air-purifying respirator with full facepiece
Dust/chemical levels up to 50 times PEL Powered air purifying respirator with half facepiece
Dust/chemical levels up to 10 times PEL Air-purifying respirator with half facepiece
Respirator Fit
  • Respirators Must Fit Properly

Fit-testing must be done before first wearing a
respirator. Tight-fitting respirators must fit
properly to prevent leaks around the
edges. Beards are not allowed when wearing a
tight-fitting respirator because they will leak.
Respirator Fit-testing
Checking fit of respirator on individual employees
Required for all tight-fitting respirators. Four
qualitative methods and three quantitative your
choice. Quantitative methods are more
accurate. Fit-testing methods are covered in
detail in the Respirator Rule.
Link to fit-testing methods
Medical Evaluations
Medical evaluations are required for anyone
wearing respirators. Respirator use places a
burden on the body. Respirators can be hazardous
to people with heart or lung problems.
Air-purifying respirators restrict breathing,
particularly during heavy exercise. They also can
add to heat stress in hot conditions. Tank-type
respirators (SCBAs) are heavy. Airline
respirators are less of a burden to the body.
Respirator cleaning maintenance
Respirators must be cleaned, inspected and
maintained regularly. Respirator maintenance and
repair are essential for proper
functioning. Store in a clean, dry place.
Dont store like this!
Employee Training
Training is required for any employee wearing
respirators. Training must cover why respirators
needed, their limitations, how to clean and
maintain and how to use. Hands-on training is
especially important for emergencies and SCBA
Link to respirator training modules
What is required in a respirator program?
  • Respirator program administrator
  • Written procedures and records
  • Proper respirator selection
  • Medical evaluation of respirator users
  • Fit-testing of respirators to each user
  • Respirator maintenance, repair storage
  • Assured air quality for supplied-air respirators
  • Employee training

Written Respirator Program
  • Prepared materials
  • from manufacturers
  • From WISHA sample program
  • Other boiler plate programs
  • Must be workplace-specific

Link to sample written respirator program
Much of your written program can be composed of
compiled procedures from several sources. But
some procedures will need to reflect your
specific workplace practices. Be careful of
boiler plate programs which may not describe
your workplaces selection considerations or its
specific emergency procedures. The purpose of a
written procedure is to get a specific,
consistent outcome by giving instructions that
can be applied in your actual work area.
Voluntary Respirator Use
  • If you allow employees to wear respirators
  • Provide the mandatory handout,
  • ensure safe use,
  • provide medical evaluations
  • ensure proper cleaning, storage and maintenance

Link to mandatory handout
These requirements apply to voluntary use of all
respirators including dust masks. Fit-testing is
not required.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)