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Human Factors Integration and Human Centred Design Concepts

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Title: Human Factors Integration and Human Centred Design Concepts


1
Diploma in Aviation Medicine Human
Performance Revision June 11
2
  • Objectives of Aviation Psychology
  • to enhance flight safety
  • to improve effectiveness

3
Why is There Interest in Human Performance in
Aviation?
  • Aviation is a safety-critical operation
  • Aircrew are subjected to many sources of
    stress
  • High levels of human performance must be
    achieved (e.g., fast jet pilots)
  • Human error is heavily implicated in aviation
    accidents

4
The Human in the Aviation System
5
Content of Human Performance Module
  • General Principles
  • Introduction to Human Performance Module
  • Fundamentals of Human Performance
  • Individual Differences
  • Social Psychology and Aviation
  • A small amount of basic theory to help you to
    interpret the practical studies

6
Content of Human Performance Module
  • New this year!
  • An early session on human error
  • to provide a context for the module

7
Content of Human Performance Module
  • Personal Environmental Factors
  • Stress Workload in Aviation I
  • Stress Workload in Aviation II
  • Perceptual Issues in Aviation
  • Situation Awareness
  • Selection of Aviation Personnel

8
Content of Human Performance Module
  • Training and Simulation
  • Simulation and Training
  • Fundamentals of CRM Training
  • Practical Aspects of CRM LOFT

9
Content of Human Performance Module
  • Systems Factors
  • Aviation Ergonomics I
  • Aviation Ergonomics II

10
Content of Human Performance Module
  • The Human Factor in Aviation Accidents
  • Seminar Flight Safety
  • Prof Peter Jorna, former head of division at NLR
    Amsterdam
  • Also an accident module at Henlow, providing a
    context for this module
  • See also lectures on Sleep, Fatigue and
    Shift-Working

11
The Human in the Aviation System Relevance of
Module Topics
Individual Differences
Selection
12
The Human in the Aviation System Relevance of
Module Topics
Ergonomics
Workload
Technical Training
13
The Human in the Aviation System Relevance of
Module Topics
Perception
Stress
14
The Human in the Aviation System Relevance of
Module Topics
CRM Training
15
The Human in the Aviation System Relevance of
Module Topics
Situation Awareness and Human Error
encompass all these interactions
16
Human Information Processing
17
  • Cognition
  • Processes involved in the input, storage,
    transformation, and output of information by
    humans
  • Main topics
  • Memory
  • Attention
  • Skills

18
  • Memory
  • Three major memory systems
  • Sensory memory
  • Short-term memory
  • Long-term memory

19
Summary of properties of memory systems (inferred
from classic experiments on memory) learn
this! Sensory Short-term Long-term Capacit
y High 7?2 chunks no known limit Dur
ation 1 sec 10-15 sec permanent? Type of
storage Physical acoustic semantic characteri
stics Nature of retrieval parallel serial hie
rarchy? Nature of forgetting decay/masking inter
ference failure of retrieval
20
Attention Selective attention attend to one
of several competing sources of
information Divided attention attempt to
attend to more than one information source or
task at the same time
21
  • Shadowing task
  • Can detect physical changes on the unattended
    channel, but not semantic content
  • Dichotic listening task
  • Performance very poor
  • Subjects tended to organise their recall by ear,
    not by recency of presentation
  • Led Broadbent to propose Filter Theory. But,
    later shown that
  • subjects tend to hear their own name on the
    unattended channel
  • subjects tend to follow the message, even if
    it switches ears
  • hence, there is semantic processing on the
    unattended channel
  • However, we can assume that recognition of
    unattended information is
  • less likely than recognition of attended material
  • Make sure that you understand this!


22
Divided attention Key question Does man
have a single information-processing channel
(all tasks compete for the same resources or
capacity) or specialised resources for
particular types of activity? (tasks
performed concurrently compete only if they draw
upon the same resources)
23
Some support for the multiple resource theory
often, the degree of task interference depends
upon the similarity of the tasks But sometimes
tasks that are dissimilar are found to
interfere Baddeleys working memory model is a
compromise between extreme single-channel and
multiple-resource views
24
  • Skills (obviously relevant to training
    lectures!)
  • Characteristics
  • typically a sequence of activities
  • goal-directed behaviour
  • use of feedback
  • Skill acquisition
  • Three phases are sometimes distinguished
  • Early or cognitive phase
  • Intermediate or associative phase
  • Final or autonomous phase
  • In the final phase, behaviour becomes automatic
    delegated to the
  • control of motor programs that do not require
    conscious attention
  • and do not place heavy demands for mental
    resources
  • Many everyday errors (actions not as planned) are
    associated with
  • overlearned behaviour

25
  • Issues in skill acquisition
  • Whole versus part learning
  • Massed versus spaced learning
  • Transfer of training very important aspect of
    simulator-based training

26
Individual Differences
27
  • Two major types of individual difference covered
  • Intelligence/ability/aptitude
  • Personality
  • Factor Analysis
  • make sure that you have a good intuitive
  • grasp of this you dont need to know the
    underlying
  • mathematics!
  • Basic psychometric criteria

28
  • Intelligence/ability/aptitude These are the key
    issues
  • Intelligence Innate or learned?
  • Intelligence How many abilities?
  • There is evidence for a general ability factor
  • However, specific abilities also appear to
    exist
  • Intelligence The Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • Aptitudes
  • Test Fairness
  • Intelligence Are IQ tests valid?

29
  • Personality key issues
  • Types of personality test
  • Interview (not reliable)
  • Projective tests
  • Personality questionnaires
  • (discussed examples of each)
  • Is there a pilot personality?
  • Does personality influence success in flying
    training?
  • Is there an accident-prone personality?

30
Social Psychology
31
  • Types of social influence (can use this info for
    CRM questions)
  • Compliance behaviour consistent with direct
    request
  • foot-in-the-door phenomenon
  • door-in-the-face phenomenon
  • Conformity behaviour consistent with group norms
  • size of group (up to about four)
  • attractiveness and status of group members
  • Informational influence (trusting others
    judgements) and normative
  • influence (seeking group acceptance)
  • Obedience to authority
  • Milgram experiment
  • 62.5 of the 40 subjects administered shocks to
    the highest level
  • factors affecting obedience, such as status of
    experimenter,
  • proximity to student

32
  • Group Decision Making Polarisation
  • Was thought that group decision making was more
    risky than individual DM (risky shift) but
    became apparent that there is a shift in the
    direction of the pole that, on average, the group
    favours as individuals (polarisation)
  • Stoners experiments
  • Normative and informational influences produce
    group polarisation

33
  • Group Decision Making Groupthink
  • Work of Janis. Based on real-life examples such
    as Bay of Pigs (or, more recently, UK MPs
    expenses!)
  • Desire for consensus overrides group members
    motivation to assess risk and consider
    alternative courses of action
  • Groupthink occurs under the following conditions
  • High cohesiveness of the group
  • Uncertainty of approval
  • Insulation of the group
  • Directive leadership
  • High stress situations
  • Symptoms include
  • Illusion of invulnerability
  • Stereotypes of out-group
  • Mindguards
  • Direct pressure on dissenters
  • Collective rationalisation
  • Effects on decision making

34
  • Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM)
  • Work of Jensen decision error is cause of most
    fatal aviation accidents argued that decision
    making can be improved through training
  • Decisions have two components
  • Rational judgement (Headwork)
  • Motivational judgement (Attitudes)
  • Hazardous attitudes
  • Anti-authority
  • Resignation
  • Impulsivity
  • Invulnerability
  • Macho
  • ADM courses aim to provide
  • Ability to recognise hazardous attitudes
  • Knowledge of effects of these attitudes
  • Skills to overcome the effects

35
Perceptual Issues in Aviation
36
  • Perception is the process of acquiring,
    selecting, and organising sensory information
  • The most important perceptual processes for
    aviation are those associated with vision and
    hearing
  • 1 The ear and the auditory system
  • balance and the vestibular system
  • localisation of sound and identification of
    source
  • 2 The visual system
  • bottom-up processing
  • top-down processing
  • cues to depth perception

37
The ear and the auditory system
The ear serves two main functions
  • Balance. The vestibular system of the inner ear
    detects angular and linear accelerations of the
    head
  • Hearing. To detect sounds, to determine the
    location of their sources and to recognise the
    identity of these sources

38
Practical implications
Balance and the vestibular system
With regard to the otolith, the weight force in a
climbing aircraft operates similarly to the
resultant force in an accelerating aircraft.
Without visual feedback, pilots can mistake
acceleration for pitch.
Accelerating aircraft
Ascending aircraft
The situation is aggravated if the pilot attempts
to compensate for an incorrect percept. Although
feedback from the vestibular system can be
compelling, a pilot needs to learn to trust
instrumentation.
39
Auditory perception
Localisation of sound
  • Interaural differences
  • Intensity. Most suited to localising high
    frequencies
  • Time/phase. Most suited to localising low
    frequencies.

Sounds emanating from directly in front and
behind the head produce the same interaural
differences.
40
Practical implications
Auditory perception
  • Cockpit design
  • The cockpit relies heavily on the presentation of
    visual information. Adoption of auditory signals
    may reduce the workload experienced by pilots in
    the visual domain.
  • Localisation of auditory warnings
  • Similar sounding warnings emanating from similar
    areas may cause confusion
  • Adoption of white noise bursts within ambulance
    sirens


41
What you see is what you get?
Visual perception
  • Visual modality is obviously extremely important
    in aviation. But can we always trust our eyes?
  • The visual scene is captured by the eye as a poor
    quality, two-dimensional representation
  • What is perceived is determined by
  • Bottom-up processes. The percept of a stimulus
    is determined by features of the stimulus as
    processed by the visual cortex
  • Top-down processes. The interpretation
    (consciously or not) of a stimulus can be
    determined by our experience and knowledge
  • Important distinction!

42
Visual perception
Top-down processes
  • If the percept is generated deterministically
    (bottom-up processing) from the visual cortex . .
    .
  • . . . how can one distal (real world) stimulus
    produce two percepts?
  • By a mental model Our own experience and
    expectations help to determine what we see
    (top-down processing)

Thirteen or B?
Necker cube
Old or young women?
Lincoln or women?
43
Visual perception
Depth perception learn this!
  • Convergence
  • of the eyes.
  • Stereopsis
  • disparity between the two images.
  • Accommodation
  • of the lens.
  • Retinal versus actual size
  • for known objects.
  • Overlap
  • a near object will occlude the view of a far
    object.
  • Position in visual field
  • objects nearer the horizon are farther away.
  • Aerial Perspective
  • clarity of objects is reduced at distance.
  • Relative motion
  • angular velocity greater for near objects.
  • All require both bottom-up top-down processing.


44
How we perceive depth
  • Position in visual field
  • objects nearer the horizon are farther away
  • Textual Gradient
  • Surfaces will have a finer texture with distance
  • Stereopsis
  • Binocular disparity between the two images
  • Convergence
  • of the eyes
  • Occlusion
  • a near object will occlude the view of a far
    object
  • Perceptual constancy
  • Retinal versus actual size
  • Relative motion
  • angular velocity greater for near objects
  • All require both bottom-up top-down processing.


Know this
45
Visual perception
Some perceptual problems
  • Featureless surfaces, or those with textures of
    unknown sizes, can produce inaccurate judgements
    of size.
  • Sea.
  • Beehives for caravans.
  • Can produce an inaccurate mental model of the
    situation which overrides the correct perception
    of the instruments.
  • Top-down influences.
  • Exacerbated by fatigue and workload.


46
Practical implications visual approach
Visual perception know the practical
implications (next few slides)
  • Pilots may have to visually judge the glide slope
    without any cues other than those from the
    surface of the world.
  • The aspect (retinal shape) of the runway is not
    very useful.
  • However, the visual touchdown point is a constant
    and unchanging cue, relative to the horizon.
  • If the horizon cannot be seen, its location must
    be implied,
  • The runways sides meet at the horizon.
  • The terrains texture gradients.
  • The relative position of the aircrafts canopy.

47
Visual perception
Practical implications visual approach (2)
48
Visual perception
Practical implications visual approach (3)
49
Visual perception
Practical implications mid-air collisions
  • Identification of a colliding aircraft is
    confounded by
  • Constant relative bearing.
  • Unique characteristic.
  • Periphery of retina detects sensitive to
    movement.
  • Non-linear increase in retinal size.
  • Retinal image doubles with each halving of
    closure distance.
  • Uneven visual acuity across the retina.
  • Maximal acuity at the fovea.
  • Detection only if pilot is looking directly at
    it.
  • Implications for visual scanning to acquire
    proximal image on the fovea.


50
Visual perception
Practical implications mid-air collisions (2)
Impact
Aircraft A
51
Visual perception
Practical implications mid-air collisions (3)
3 secs / 0.5 degree
1.5 secs / 1 degree
0.1 secs / VERY BIG
52
Perception
Summary
  • Bottom-up (information from our senses) and
    top-down (expectations and experiences) processes
    affect the way we perceive the world.
  • The resultant perception is often not a true
    reflection of the external world.
  • This can be advantageous when it is in our
    interest for differences between features in the
    external world to be exaggerated but potentially
    catastrophic when perceptual illusions lead us to
    take inappropriate behaviour.


53
Ergonomics
54
Why Ergonomics? Murrell
55
  • The HSI Framework seven domains
  • Manpower
  • Personnel
  • Training
  • Human Factors Engineering (aka Ergonomics)
  • Workplace design
  • Anthropometry
  • Critical Dimensions
  • System Safety
  • Health Hazards
  • Social Organisational
  • HSI often called Human Factors Integration (HFI)
    HFI is really the process by which HSI is
    applied to equipment procurement

Some people adopt a strict definition of
ergonomics others treat all of HSI as being
within the scope of ergonomics. You would not be
penalised for adopting the latter definition!
56
(No Transcript)
57
Tragic consequences
58
HSI Domains KNOW THESE Manpower numbers of
personnel required to operate, maintain, sustain,
train to deliver capability (e.g. aircrew
complement) Personnel cognitive/physical
capabilities required to train for, operate,
maintain, sustain system Training
instruction/education/ training to provide job
skills, knowledge, values, and attitudes
(different methods summarised) Human Factors
Engineering (aka Ergonomics) Workplace
design Anthropometry Critical Dimensions Systems
Safety applying HF expertise into programme
Safety Management Process Health hazards
conditions inherent in the system that may cause
injury or reduce performance or
well-being Social/organisational factors
applying techniques from organisational
psychology, social sciences, information science,
and system of systems
59
  • Human Factors Engineering
  • (aka Ergonomics)
  • focused on the integration of human
    characteristics into system definition, design,
    development, and evaluation to optimise human
    machine performance under operational conditions.

60
Workplaces interfaces
  • Cockpits
  • Workstations
  • Control rooms
  • Offices
  • Transport systems
  • Factories
  • Controls
  • Displays
  • Computer hardware
  • Computer software
  • Protective clothing
  • Other people

61
Physical workplace design
  • Inputs required from
  • EHFA
  • Task analysis
  • Link analysis
  • Allocation of function
  • Consider
  • Operational and environmental context
  • Human dimensions
  • Biomechanics and physiology

62
Functional factors
  • Task issues
  • Procedures
  • Critical elements
  • Responsibilities of organisation and individuals
  • Communications
  • Verbal
  • Non-verbal
  • Visual issues, such as sight lines
  • Flows of materials and personnel
  • Access and clearance
  • Normal
  • Emergency
  • Maintenance
  • Protection
  • Protective clothing equipment
  • Barriers guards

63
Anthropometry
  • Physical human dimensions
  • Population specific
  • Linear dimensions, for example
  • Stature
  • Functional reach
  • Sitting height
  • Girth dimensions, for example
  • Waist
  • Head circumference
  • Each dimension is expressed in terms of
    percentile

64
Be careful with percentiles when applying
anthropometry
  • Requirements often state must accommodate the
    5th percentile and the 95th percentile human
  • But, these people do NOT exist!

65
Critical dimensions
  • Choose dimensions relevant to the workstation,
    posture, and task
  • Sitting, standing, reach, fit, walking, crouching
  • 5th percentile (smaller) dimensions considered
    for
  • Seat adjustment, reach, vision, control movement,
    foot rests
  • 95th percentile (larger) dimensions considered
    for
  • Seat adjustment, ingress, fit, access, clearance

66
Clothing
  • Clothing increases most dimensions through the
    addition of bulk
  • e.g. stature, sitting height, chest depth,
    shoulder breadth
  • But
  • Decreases the reach dimensions due to restriction
    of movement
  • e.g. functional reach, vertical functional reach

67
When to integrate Human Factors
(Eurocontrol, 1999)
68
HSI Designed to Fit MoDs Acquisition Operating
Framework (AOF) Policy and Good Practice
  • CADMID cycle
  • System Readiness Levels
  • (DEF STAN 00-250. May 2008 http//www.aof.mod.uk
    www.hfidtc.com )
  • MoD JSP to be introduced later this year

Has now happened
Concept
Assessment
Demonstration
Manufacture
In service
Initial Gate
Main Gate
System Acceptance
69
Summary
  • HSI covers all aspects of applied human factors
  • Human Factors Engineering is just one element
    that needs to be integrated
  • HSI comprises tools and processes that fit with
    systems engineering
  • HSI is widely applicable
  • Early inclusion is so much better than late
    intervention

70
Stress and Workload
71
  • Types of stress
  • Life stress
  • less important than the others in this context,
    but be aware of it
  • Environmental stress
  • Cognitive stress

72
Life stress Typically measured by
questionnaire Some correlation between
questionnaire scores and illness Some evidence
that life stress is associated with accidents
73
Yerkes-Dodson law Know this Inverted U relation
between arousal and performance Performance
declines as arousal increases or decreases from
the optimal level The optimal arousal level is
inversely related to task difficulty
Environmental stress
Performance
Difficult task
Easy task
Level of arousal
74
Know this
  • Fear
  • disruption of manual dexterity
  • disruption of secondary task performance
  • Noise
  • greater effect on difficult tasks
  • effect on error
  • increased attentional selectivity
  • effect on arousal (increases initially, then
    returns to normal)
  • Sleep loss
  • periodic lapses
  • decreased attentional selectivity
  • greater decrement on easy tasks
  • decreased arousal
  • Hypoxia
  • performance affected at over 10,000 ft
  • some evidence that task learning is affected
    at only 8,000 ft

75
Patterns of effects of stressors (from
Hockey) Stressor Arousal Selectivity Speed Accu
racy STM Noise 0 - - Anxiety 0 -
- Incentive Stimulants 0
- Heat 0 - 0 Alcohol - - - - Slee
p loss - - - - 0 Fatigue - - - 0 Depress
ants - - - - - increase - decrease 0 no
effect
no need to memorise all this, but know that each
stressor has its own pattern of effects (cannot
be explained by Yerkes-Dodson law)
76
Personality and stress Know this
Two major dimensions of personality
are neuroticism (trait anxiety) introversion-extr
aversion
Introverts are chronically over-aroused Extraverts
are chronically under-aroused An arousing
stressor (caffeine) has different effects on
these individuals Trait anxiety comprises worry
and emotionality Worry appears to interfere with
task performance Performance of high-anxiety
subjects impaired under high workload Evidence
that personality influences success in flying
training
77
  • Is the Yerkes-Dodson law adequate? Know this
  • For
  • Can explain effects of combined stressors
  • Can explain some effects of personality
  • Can explain some effects of task difficulty
    (e.g. greater effect of sleep
  • loss on easy tasks)
  • Against
  • Does not explain specific patterns of effects
    of individual stressors
  • Does not explain effects on attention
  • Too flexible does not lead to firm predictions

78
  • Factors influencing the effects of stressors know
    this
  • Task difficulty
  • Task duration
  • Personality
  • Intensity of the stressor
  • Motivation
  • Importance of the task component
  • Presence of other stressors

79
Workload (cognitive stress) know this
  • Types of workload measure
  • Subjective
  • Example NASA Task Load Index
  • easy to obtain
  • face valid
  • unobtrusive
  • subjects can readily quantify their
  • experience
  • Physiological
  • Example heart rate variability
  • do not disrupt performance
  • often provide continuous record
  • Performance-based
  • Primary task or secondary task
  • (e.g. time estimation)
  • provide direct measure of operator
  • difficult to establish which questions to
  • ask (dimensions of workload)
  • difficult to compare different types of task
  • ratings may not be correlated with task
  • performance
  • equipment may be physically intrusive
  • only indirect indication of performance
  • operator may invest more effort to
  • maintain primary-task performance
  • choice of secondary task is important

80
  • Effects of high workload
  • operator is prone to actions not as planned
    unable to monitor
  • activity fully
  • increased attentional selectivity
  • may respond quickly but inaccurately
  • may shed some sub-tasks completely

81
Strategies for workload reduction know
this Change the task apply sound ergonomic
principles automate some functions use new
technologies Change the operator provide
extensive training, to produce motor programs
(overlearning) Personnel selection for example,
low trait anxiety may confer better ability to
cope with high task demands
82
Selection
83
  • Aims
  • Deciding
  • What to measure
  • How to measure
  • Effectiveness of measures

84
Stages in Selection System
  • The Systems Approach to developing selection
    processes.
  • Job / Competency analysis Identify Knowledge,
    Skills and Attitudes (KSAs) required
  • 2. Use KSAs to identify appropriate selection
    methods.
  • 3. Establish the reliability and fairness of the
    process
  • 4. Validate

Specify selection criteria
Specify assessment methods
Evaluate
(After Hunter Burke 1995)
85
Job Analysis
Job Requirements
Person Requirements
Task Competencies
Aptitudes
Prediction
Criteria
Predictors
Job Description
Person Specification
(After Hunter Burke 1995)
86
Job Analysis
  • Aim Identify critical competencies required
    for successful job performance
  • Outputs What does the job holder do?
  • Inputs what skills, knowledge, abilities does
    the job holder need?
  • Result is a competency framework identifying
    critical success factors associated with
    successful performance
  • Why?
  • To achieve the best possible prediction of job
    performance (put the right people in the job)
  • Legal requirement test fairness

87
Types of Job Analysis
1. Hierarchical task analysis (Annett, Duncan et
al 1971)
  • 2. Functional Analysis (Fletcher 1991)
  • Techniques
  • Critical incidence technique (CIT) (Flanagan
    1954)
  • Identify key roles and functions of job
  • Identify critical behaviours (related to
    success or failure)
  • Classify into similar behaviours
  • Summarise
  • Validate using other SMEOther techniques
    include Repertory grid

88
Classifying Aptitudes
  • Fleishmans Taxonomy of Skills
  • Abilities were classified into
  • Cognitive Information processing and problem
    solving
  • Perceptual/spatial Attention and spatial
    orientation
  • Physical Flexibility, strength and stamina
  • Psychomotor Coordination and reaction time
  • NATO Study Aptitude dimensions for military
    fast-jet pilots (Bydorf 1993)
  • Situational awareness Perceptual closure
    reaction time
  • Spatial orientation
  • Time sharing
  • Aggressiveness
  • Divided attention
  • Psychomotor coordination
  • Perceptual speed
  • Selective attention
  • Visualisation

89
Weighting Aptitudes
  • Determining priorities
  • Need to identify relative importance of
    aptitudes in job performance
  • DIF Analysis. Ratings of
  • Difficulty
  • Importance
  • Frequency

90
Choice of Measure
Personality Questionnaire Group exercises
Life Experiences
CV Biodata Interview
Motivation
Temperament
Ability
  • Occupational Interest
  • Inventories
  • Measures of
  • personal values
  • Interview
  • Psychometric tests
  • Work sample tests
  • Physical tests

Performance
91
Types of aptitude measure
  • Paper pencil measures
  • Computer-based testing BARB (British Army)
    OASC (RAF) MicroPat
  • (AAC, RN, BA, Cathay) TASKOMAT
    (Commercial) BAT (USAF)
  • Ease of administration
  • Experimental testing
  • Dynamic measures possible
  • Measure processing capacity
  • Multi-tasks
  • Sophisticated measures such as response
    latency
  • Work sample
  • RAF Flying Grading
  • Simulation based
  • Advantages of CBT work sample
  • Lower costs
  • Example Canadian Automated Pilot Selection
    System

92
Effectiveness of measures
93
Evaluating Selection Reliability and Validity
  • Reliability Accuracy and stability of the test
  • Internal consistency reliability
  • Split-half reliability
  • Parallel forms
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Inter-rater reliability
  • Validity Does the test really measure what it
    claims to measure?
  • Construct validity
  • Content validity
  • Predictive validity
  • See other lectures as well!

94
Error in allocation
Cut-off score
True Positives
False Negatives
Pass Mark
Performance score
False Positives
True Negatives
Predictor score
95
Higher Correlation reduces error
TP
FN
Performance score
FP
TN
Predictor score
96
Effect of setting Cut-off scores
Cut-off score 1
Cut-off score 2
Pass Mark
Performance score
Predictor score
97
Average Correlation between competency ratings
and job performance
  • Interpreting scores
  • Norm referenced most cognitive/ability tests
  • Self referenced Attitude/Personality
    measures
  • Criterion-referenced job skills

98
Validity of Different Methods
Mean Validity Co-efficient
Selection Method
Interview - Unstructured 1
.14
.35
Interview - Structured 2
Biodata 1
.37
References 3/1
.17 to .26
Cognitive ability testing 4/1
.25 to .53
Personality testing 1/5
.10 to .33
Work-sample tests 1
.54
Trainability tests 6
.46

99
Example RAF Aircrew Selection
  • READY TO CHANGE YOUR LIFE?
  • Your visit to OASC will take several days and
    includes
  • an initial briefing
  • aptitude tests
  • an aptitude test review
  • the exercise phase
  • an interview
  • an occupational medical and
  • fitness assessments.
    (from OASC
    brochure)

100
Example RAF Aircrew Selection
  • ADPO10369
  • EVOLUTION OF APTITUDE TESTING IN THE RAF
  • M. Bailey, RAF Cranwell
  • Before 1940 main method was
  • unstructured interview
  • About 50 pilot training failure rate at start of
    WWII
  • First set of Aircrew Selection Board tests
    included
  • Essay writing
  • Elementary maths
  • General intelligence
  • Early developments
  • need recognised for separate tests of skills
    and personality
  • shift to testing for specific roles (e.g.
    electromechanical coordination)

101
Example RAF Aircrew Selection
  • 194484
  • Many more tests created but at the end of this
    period tests were not markedly different
  • Preliminary Flying School closed 1974 selection
    then relied purely on aptitude tests. For
    various reasons validities dropped for example,
    to .14 for training results
  • Second generation selection tests
  • exploited increased computing capability
  • at first, computerised versions of existing
    tests
  • later, new tests (based on abilities required,
    using Fleishmans system) Air
  • Traffic and Fighter Controller Test Battery
    produced
  • Nine weighted test scores used
  • Good predictive validity
  • Issues
  • No formal job analysis
  • Tests driven by theory and test availability
  • Hence 1990s
  • Shift to domain-centred framework

102
Example RAF Aircrew Selection

103
Simulation and Training
104
Information from
  • skill lecture
  • simulation and training lecture (technical
    skills)
  • CRM lecture (non-technical skills)
  • Human error lecture
  • etc

105
  • Key Issues
  • Training needs analysis (organisational,
    occupational, individual)
  • focus on Knowledge, Skills, Abilities/
    Attitudes (KSAs)
  •  
  • Design of training programme
  •   Develop Instruction by Objective
  • Select Instructional Strategy
  • Select/ organise element to be trained
  • Identify training aids
  • Organise materials/resources
  •   Apply learning principles
  • Develop Evaluation Instruments
  •   Implementation (who, where, when)

106
  • Training issues (see also Human Information
    Processing lecture)
  • Massed versus distributed practice
  • Whole- versus part-task approach
  • Phases of learning
  • Feedback
  •  
  • Media and technology
  • Simulation very important in aviation, where
    the objective is to maximise the transfer of
  • learning from simulator to aircraft
    fidelity is a key issue do not need physical
    fidelity
  • (simulator does not need to resemble the
    aircraft), but functional fidelity is important
  • Internet-based increasingly important can
    be accessed even in the field

107
Situation Awareness
108
Topics
  • Definitions
  • Models
  • Theory
  • Metrics
  • Applications
  • Limitations

109
Why is Studying Situation Awareness Important?
110
Historical Origins of SA
  • SA popularised to describe the psychological
    processes of
  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Perception
  • Prediction
  • Pattern Matching

111
Definitions of SA 1
  • Situation Awareness is . . .
  • . . . Knowledge of current and near-term
    disposition of both friendly and enemy forces
    within a volume of airspace. McMillan (1994)
  • . . . Ones ability to remain aware of
    everything that is happening at the same time and
    to integrate that sense of awareness into what
    one is doing at that moment. Haines Flateau
    (1992)
  • . . . A pilots continuous perception of self
    and aircraft in relation to the dynamic
    environment of flight, threats, and mission, and
    the ability to forecast, then execute tasks based
    on that perception. Hamilton (1987)

112
A Working Definition of SA
  • Situation Awareness is . . .
  • The perception of the elements in the
    environment within a volume of time and space,
    the comprehension of their meaning, and the
    projection of their status in the near future
    Endsley (1988)
  • It is derived from the aircraft instrumentation,
    the out-the-window view, and his or her senses
  • The quality of an operators SA is moderated by
    individual capabilities, training, experience,
    objectives, and the ability to respond to task
    workload
  • The term SA should only ever be applied to
    dynamic environments

113
Summary know this
  • When all is said and done we know that Situation
    Awareness refers to an operators knowledge and
    Understanding of the dynamic environment in which
    he/she is operating
  • It is knowledge of the Big Picture
  • SA provides the basis for subsequent decision
    making and performance in the operation of
    complex, dynamic systems

114
A Model of SA
Endsley (1995)
115
Endsleys Modelbe aware of main elements
Model of SA in dynamic decision making (from
Endsley, 2000)
116
QinetiQs Model of The SA Process
117
The SA Process
  • A series of complex cognitive processes,
    including Perception, Working Memory, Pattern
    Matching, Attention and Long Term Memory
  • NOT task or individual specific
  • Also referred to as Situation Assessment (SAS)
  • Will be influenced by a multitude of SA Factors

The SA PROCESS
118
Factors Affecting the SA Process
  • These factors WILL BE task AND individual
    specific
  • Each factor will have different weightings or
    importance attached to it for differing military
    domains
  • The number of such factors is vast

Know the main headings!
119
SA as a Product
  • The output of the SA PROCESS will be a number of
    Situation Models (or dynamic mental models)
  • These situation models are essentially knowledge
    and understanding
  • The quality of a persons SA is defined by the
    match between these situation models and reality

120
SA Elements
  • The person will have a situation model for each
    of the relevant SA Information Domains
    associated with a specific task or job
  • Each SA information domain will comprise a number
    of SA Elements
  • Example Endsley (2001) illustrates this for the
    task/job of piloting a civil aviation aircraft

121
In Summary
  • The development and maintenance of SA occurs
    within an individuals head
  • The SA process (or SAS) is a generic continuous
    process/cycle that is impacted upon by many
    factors
  • These factors will vary in their importance and
    influence depending upon the specific task and
    the individual undertaking that task
  • An individual will continuously cycle through the
    SA process for each SA Information Domain,
    developing a situation model for each
  • These situation models will be task-specific
  • All situation models will be continually updated
    and revised as new information becomes available
    or as the factors affecting the SA process change
    in importance or in state

122
Team SA
  • SA can be applied to teams as well as to
    individuals
  • Caution needed here, as SA cannot be shared (it
    resides inside the individuals head), but
    information can be shared
  • We could be talking about
  • 1) The overlap in SA for the team
  • 2) The SA of the team as moderated by the primary
    decision maker
  • 3) The collective SA of the entire team

123
Measuring Situation Awareness
  • SA has become a major design driver
  • Developing operator interfaces to enhance SA
  • Developing automated systems without resulting in
    a loss of SA
  • Training techniques are designed to develop
    better SA
  • Development of SA metrics for evaluation purposes
  • Development of metrics since the late 1980s
  • Varying degrees of maturity / validation
  • Various forms of metrics
  • Subjective Vs Objective
  • Self-report Vs Third-Party rating
  • Simulator-based Vs Test flight

124
SA Metrics
  • Crew SA
  • SA Global Assessment technique (SAGAT)
  • Snapshots
  • SA Flight Training Evaluator (SAFTE)
  • China Lake SA Scale (CLSA)
  • SA Rating Technique (SART)
  • SA Supervisory Rating Form (SASRF)
  • Physiological Measures Eye Activity

125
SA Metrics Summary
  • Know at least SAGAT/SART in a little detail, plus
    names of a few others

126
SA Metrics Summary
  • Most SA measures have been designed using a
    particular SA definition, and with a specific
    application in mind
  • Keep this in mind when selecting an SA measure
  • In practice, 2 of the SA measures outlined
    previously are used far more than the others
  • SART (subjective)
  • SAGAT (objective)
  • This is probably due to the extensive validity
    data that accompanies these measures (we know
    they are measuring SA)

127
So, of What Use is SA Research?
  • There are three main military applications for SA
    research
  • 1) System/interface design, development,
    assessment and evaluation
  • Operator interfaces designed to enhance SA
  • Automated systems must switch without losing
    operator SA
  • 2) Training operators to have better SA
  • 3) Selecting operators who are predisposed to
    having high SA

128
Limitations of SA
  • Immature concept
  • Still much debate over definitions and measures
  • SA is a theoretical construct
  • Practical difficulties in measuring and
    predicting SA
  • For those who do not understand the theoretical
    basics of what SA is all about, there can be an
    element of perceived circularity

129
Crew Resource Management (CRM)
130
CRM Training
  • Introduction
  • Need for effective interaction
  • Aviation accidents most have human error
    component
  • CRM Evolution
  • Evolution of CRM to fifth-generation


131
CRM Training
  • Objectives of CRM
  • Knowledge, skills, attitudes to promote safe,
    efficient operations
  • Effective decision making
  • Good crew communication
  • Understanding/acceptance of role and
    responsibilities
  • CRM focuses broadly on training transportable
    teamwork skills


132
CRM Training
  • Types of CRM course
  • Foundation Course
  • Wide range of topics covered
  • Focus on discussion and video
  • Continuation Courses
  • In depth coverage of topic areas
  • Skills practice (low fidelity)
  • LOFT/MOST
  • Skills practice (high fidelity)
  • Crew-centred debrief


133
CRM Training
  • Topics in typical CRM courses
  • Human information processing
  • Personality and attitudes
  • Communications
  • Teamwork structures
  • Teamwork behaviours
  • Leadership style
  • Decision making
  • Stress management
  • Human error
  • Situation awareness
  • Automation on the flight deck
  • Fatigue and workload
  • Case studies research findings
  • Be able to list the main topics


134
CRM Training
  • Leadership issues
  • Effects of captains attitudes
  • Authority Gradient


135
CRM Training
  • Communication
  • US ASRS most accidents involved failure of
    information transfer
  • Low-error crews demonstrate different patterns of
    comms
  • Communication skills know them!
  • Inquiry
  • Advocacy
  • Listening
  • Conflict resolution
  • Critique
  • Feedback
  • Barriers to communication
  • Physical word usage interpersonal mental
  • Cultural and language barriers
  • Subordination problems
  • Power-distance barriers


136
CRM Training
  • Core teamwork behaviours
  • Monitoring
  • Feedback
  • Backing up


137
CRM Training
  • Ad hoc teams
  • Frequently arise in airline ops
  • 73 of accidents occur on first day crew flying
    together
  • Situation awareness
  • Important topic in CRM
  • See lecture on SA!


138
CRM Training
  • CRM training resources
  • Self-study
  • Classroom awareness training
  • Modelling
  • Classroom skills training
  • Skills practice in simulators
  • Practice/coaching during flying


139
CRM Training
  • LOFT
  • Run in a high fidelity simulator
  • Realistic sortie/real time
  • Crew and facilitator in role
  • Few failures
  • Non-technical focus
  • Focus on choice dilemmas
  • Non jeopardy
  • Crew-centred debrief using video


140
CRM Training
  • CRM Issues
  • What is best practice?
  • Does it work?
  • Those needing most help from CRM most resistant
    to change
  • May change attitudes but not behaviour
  • Needs management commitment
  • CRM skill fade occurs over time
  • Cultural issues should be considered


141
Error and Accidents (See Accident module) The
following may help you structure your Knowledge
of this topic drawn from work of John Chappelow
142
Be able to list/ describe the main factors
143
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144
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145
Neurotic
Youve seen this before...
Impulsive
Anxious
Extraverted
Introverted
Stable
146
Major causal factors Human factors
Expanded data set
147
Sensitivity Human factors
Social factors
Distraction
High task demand
This graph shows benefit of eliminating the
factor, and cost of an increase in
its severity Social factors are seen to be
more important when we conduct sensitivity analysi
s these problems are soluble
Inexperience
Administrative support
Briefing
Lack of airmanship
Supervision
Sensory limitations
Social context
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Expanded data set
148
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