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Chapter 23 - Participles

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Title: Chapter 23 - Participles


1
Chapter 23 - Participles
2
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • General When we take a verb and make an
    adjective out of it, we have constructed a
  • verbal adjective or participle

The shouting woman departed.
The men saw the destroyed town.
3
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • A participle, like any other adjective, must
    agree with the noun it modifies in gender,
  • number and case.
  • But the participle also has attributes of tense
    and voice

shouting is present active
destroyed (i.e., having been destroyed) is
perfect passive.
4
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • Because the participle, although an adjective,
    retains verbal force, it may take a direct
  • object

We saw Hercules drinking the wine Vidimus
Herculem vinum bibentem.
Drinking the wine modifies Hercules.
5
Chapter 23 - Participles
Formation
Active
Passive Present amäns, amantis
----------
(loving) Perfect
---------- amätus, -a, -um

(having been loved) Future
amätürus, -a, -um amandus,
-a, -um (about to
love) (about to be loved)
6
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • Present Active Participle

Agens, agentis leading, of the one leading (gen)
  • Add -ns to the present stem (-ntis for genitive
    singular)
  • decline like third declension adjectives of one
    termination.
  • In the case of i-stem verbs,
  • -ie- will appear capiëns, capientis.

7
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • Perfect Passive Participle

actus, a, um led, having been led
  • This is the fourth principal part of the verb,
    declined as an
  • adjective of the 1st and 2nd declension.

8
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • Future Active Participle

acturus, a, um about to lead, going to lead
  • Take the fourth principal part of the verb,
    drop the -us
  • add -ürus, -a, -um. Then decline as a 1st and
    2nd declension adjective.

9
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • Future Passive Participle

Agendus, a, um about to be led, must be led
  • Add -ndus, -a, -um to the present stem.
  • Then decline as a 1st and 2nd declension
    adjective.
  • In i-stem verbs, -ie- will appear audiendus,
    -a, -um sentiendus, -a, -um.

10
Chapter 23 - Participles
Uses of the Participle
  • The tense of a participle is always relative to
    that of the main verb.
  • A present participle refers to action
    contemporaneous with that of the main verb
    (whether the main verb is
  • past, present or future).

11
Chapter 23 - Participles
  • A perfect participle refers to action prior to
    that of the main verb.
  • A future participle refers to action subsequent
    to that of the main verb.
  • A proper understanding of Latin participles
    must always bear in the mind their tense and
    voice.

12
Chapter 23 - Participles
Present active participle contemporaneous
action, active voice.
Fëmina clämäns eum vidit
The shouting woman saw him. Shouting, the woman
saw him. While she was shouting, the woman saw
him.
13
Chapter 23 - Participles
Perfect passive participle prior action, passive
voice.
Fëmina territa clämävit.
The having-been-frightened woman shouted. The
woman, having been frightened, shouted. The
frightened woman shouted. When she had been
frightened, the woman shouted.
14
Chapter 23 - Participles
Future active participle subsequent action,
active voice.
Fëmina dictüra virum vïdit.
The about-to-speak woman saw her husband. The
woman, about to speak, saw her husband. About to
speak, the woman saw her husband. When the woman
was about to speak, she saw her husband.
15
Chapter 23 - Participles
Future passive participle (gerundive) subsequent
action, passive voice.
Librös legendös in mënsä posuit.
He placed having-to-be-read books on the
table. He placed books to be read on the table He
placed books which should be read on the table.
16
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)
  • Languebam

17
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)
  • Languebam sed tu comitatus protinus ad me

18
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)
  • Languebam sed tu comitatus protinus ad me
    venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis.

19
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)
  • Languebam sed tu comitatus protinus ad me
    venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis. Centum me
    tetigere manus aquilone gelatae

20
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)
  • Languebam sed tu comitatus protinus ad me
    venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis. Centum me
    tetigere manus aquilone gelatae non habui
    febrem, Symmache, nunc habeo!

21
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.

22
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.
  • Ubi tyrannus est,

23
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.
  • Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res publica.

24
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.
  • Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res
    publica.
  • Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum
    civium alitur.

25
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.
  • Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res
    publica.
  • Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum
    civium alitur.
  • Stoicus noster, Vitium, inquit,

26
Homework
  • Dum vita est, spes est.
  • Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res
    publica.
  • Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum
    civium alitur.
  • Stoicus noster, Vitium, inquit, non est in
    rebus sed in animo ipso.
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