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Manure Storage System Safety

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Manure Storage System Safety 2007 Livestock Manure Management Conference Series Safety issues Pits and other confined spaces Lagoons, holding ponds, and other outdoor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Manure Storage System Safety


1
Manure Storage System Safety
  • 2007
  • Livestock Manure Management Conference Series

2
Safety issues
  • Pits and other confined spaces
  • Lagoons, holding ponds, and other outdoor storages

3
What kinds of events
  • Would make you (or your family) say if only.
  • Would make people of your community shake their
    heads in horror
  • Would leave you with no one to blame but yourself

4
Session goals
  • Assess farm for manure storage safety hazards
  • Become familiar with confined space entry
    procedures
  • Learn about ongoing research that may make it
    easier and less expensive to manage entry hazard

5
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6
Calls Extension Gets
  • Some slats over a pit broke. I need to
  • inspect the rest of the slats
  • Retrieve carcasses from the pit
  • Retrieve equipment from the pit
  • There is excessive foam on the pit. What can I
    do?
  • At issue safety due to engulfment of animals
    above the slats and fire/explosion from methane.

7
Livestock Waste StorageConfined Space Entry
Procedures
8
The Hazards
9
(No Transcript)
10
The hazard seriousness level is usually dictated
by...
  • Type of material stored in the confined space.
  • The activity carried out in the confined space
    (i.e. agitation of manure resulting in release of
    gases).
  • The external environment (a tank located near
    rising waters).

11
Confined Space Hazards
  • Chemical Hazards
  • Physical Hazards (agitators etc.)
  • Biological Hazards (manure)
  • Ergonomic Hazards (no quick exit means)

12
Confined Space Defined
  • Large enough and configured such that an employee
    can enter and perform assigned work
  • Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit
    (e.g., tanks, vessels, silos, storage bins,
    hoppers, vaults, pits)

13
Confined Space Defined
  • Is not designated for continuous occupancy
  • Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous
    atmosphere (toxic, low levels of oxygen etc.)

14
Confined Space Defined
  • Contains a material that has the potential for
    engulfment (i.e. liquid manure)
  • Internal configuration of inwardly converging
    walls or sloping and tapering floor (i.e. many
    pits)
  • Contains any other recognized serious safety or
    health hazard (i.e. fine dust particles,)

15
Engulfment Characteristics
  • Surrounding and capture of a person
  • Liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid
  • Can cause filling or plugging of respiratory
    system by aspiration
  • Can exert enough force on body to cause death by
    strangulation, constriction, or crushing

16
Confined Space Environment Potential
  • Immediate or delayed threat to life
  • Causes irreversible adverse health effects
  • Interferes with the ability to escape from a
    space (toxic gases, low oxygen levels etc.)

17
Immediate Danger to Life or Health (IDLH)
Conditions
  • Flammable Gas, Vapor, or Mist gt10 of LFL (LEL)
  • Airborne Combustible Dust gt LFL
  • Dust obscures vision at a distance of 5 ft., or
    less
  • Oxygen lt 19.5 or gt 23.5
  • Exposures of gases, dust levels toxicity levels
    in excess of Personal Exposure Limits (Recognized
    by OSHA NIOSH)

18
Primary Constituents of Normal Air(Permanent
Gases)
Molecular Weight
Percent by Volume
Chemical Formula
Constituent
Nitrogen
N2
28
78.1
Oxygen
O2
32
20.9
Argon
Ar
40
0.9
Water vapor content varies, but is usually the
third largest constituent by volume in air.
19
Oxygen
Oxygen Enriched
23.5
Oxygen Deficient
19.5
Minimum for Safe Entry
Impaired Judgment Breathing
16.0
14.0
Faulty Judgment Rapid Fatigue
6.0
Difficulty in Breathing Death in Minutes
20
Explosive Limits
Too Rich
UEL
Combustible
LEL
10 of LEL
Too Lean
21
Methane (CH4)
  • Natural, marsh, swamp gas
  • Colorless, odorless flammable gas
  • Lighter than air
  • Toxic?
  • LEL 5
  • UEL 15

22
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Colorless, odorless noncombustible gas
  • Heavier than air
  • Organic decay (grain elevators, livestock waste,
    storage bins, wells)
  • Fermentation (digesters, molasses pits, beer and
    wine vats)

23
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • PEL 5,000 ppm - TWA
  • TLV/REL 5,000 ppm - TWA 30,000 ppm - STEL
  • IDLH 50,000 ppm
  • LEL none

24
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Colorless, odorless gas
  • Slightly lighter than air
  • Chemical asphyxiant
  • Primary source incomplete decomposition of
    organic material
  • Gasoline-fueled combustion engine
  • Unvented heaters

25
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • PEL 50 ppm - TWA
  • TLV 25 ppm - TWA
  • IDLH 1500 ppm
  • LEL 12.5 UEL 74.2

26
Cleaning Up a Mess
27
Confined Space Entry
28
Confined Space Management Procedures
  • Prevent unauthorized entry
  • Identify and evaluate the hazards prior to entry
  • Develop safe entry procedures
  • Acceptable entry conditions
  • Purging or ventilating
  • Barriers to protect from external hazards

29
Confined Space Entry Procedures
  • Test atmosphere before and during work
  • Provide at least one Attendant outside for the
    duration of entry operations
  • Rescue and Emergency Response procedures
    established

30
Confined SpaceEquipment
  • Atmosphere Testing and Monitoring Equipment
  • Ventilating Equipment
  • Communications Equipment
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Body Harness and Lanyard (Safety rope)

31
Authorized Entrant Duties
  • Knows hazards, symptoms, and consequences
  • Proper use of equipment
  • Communicate with attendant
  • Exit promptly when necessary

32
Attendant Duties
  • Trained in CPR and basic First Aid
  • Remains outside of the Confined Space
  • Communicates with Entrants
  • Monitors Entrant surrounding activity

33
Attendant Duties
  • Summons rescue if needed
  • Keeps unauthorized persons away
  • Performs non-entry rescues
  • Performs only attendant duties

34
Pit Entry Equipment
Lanyard
Full Body Harness
35
Tripod with Winch
  • One attendant can usually operate

36
Is Reach an issue with lanyard?
37
Air Supplied Respirator
  • Compressed air tank on back of user or
  • Mask hose connected to a large compressed air
    tank or
  • Mask hose connected to an electric air pump
    located in fresh air
  • Must fit test respirator for users

38
Personal Toxic Atmosphere Monitor
  • Provides emergency warning to user if toxic
    atmosphere develops suddenly
  • Should be able to detect hydrogen sulfide
    oxygen levels

39
Entry Procedures
  • Air supplied respirator must be worn unless
  • Continuous forced air is sufficient to maintain
    the space as safe and,

40
Entry Procedures
  • Atmosphere is tested prior to entry
    continuously during entry by outside attendant
    and/or with a personal monitor on the entrant
  • Atmospheric Testing for
  • Oxygen
  • Flammability
  • Toxic Contaminants

41
Minimum Requirements for Farm Pit Entry
  • A portable, electronic gas monitor for hydrogen
    sulfide, methane other combustible gases, plus
    oxygen

42
Minimum Requirements for Farm Pit Entry
  • An electrically-powered (AC) ventilation blower,
    900 to 1200 cfm, designed for ventilating
    confined spaces

43
Minimum Requirements for Farm Pit Entry
  • A rescue harness, tripod, cable and hand-operated
    winch system capable of raising and lowering an
    entrant in an emergency.

44
Equipment Costs to Maintain Pit Entry Safety
Equipment
About 700 ann. cost, median set, 10 yr life, 6
int.
J. M. Shutske, M. A. Purschwitz, L. D. Jacobson,
K. A. Janni, 1995. Costs and Issues Associated
With Implementing Industrial Confined Space
Standards in Manure Storage Facilities, J. Ag.
Safety Health, 1(2)83-91.
45
Research on Smart ventilation strategies
46
Zhao et al., 2005. Ventilating Confined Manure
Storages Progress Report, ASABE Paper No. 055019.
47
Summary Pit Entry
  • Test atmosphere and provide continuous
    ventilation
  • Entrant should be provided with proper PPE
    trained on its use
  • Attendant should be prepared for emergencies
    able to quickly extricate entrant
  • Train workers on safe entry procedures initially,
    at time of entry annually Document training

48
Outdoor Storages
  • Fencing
  • Embankments and tractor overturns

49
Summary Manure Storage Safety
50
References
  • ASAE EP470 JAN1992 (R2005) Manure Storage Safety
  • National Ag Safety Database http//www.cdc.gov/nas
    d/
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