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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 20 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * I ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 20
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
EditionVolume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Decade of prosperity
  • Prevalence of business values
  • Industrial boom
  • Surging productivity and output
  • Emergence of new industries
  • Central role of automobile
  • Consumer society
  • Consumer goods
  • Proliferation
  • Marketing
  • Impact on daily life
  • Telephone
  • Household appliances

3
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Consumer society
  • Leisure activities
  • Vacations
  • Movies
  • Popularity of
  • Hollywoods rising dominance of global film
    industry
  • Sporting events
  • Radio and phonograph
  • Celebrity culture
  • New values
  • Growing acceptance of consumer debt
  • Shifting ideas of purpose and value of work

4
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Limits of prosperity
  • Unequal distribution of wealth, income
  • Ongoing concentration of industry
  • Scale of poverty, unemployment
  • Deindustrialization in the North
  • Rural depression
  • Passing of wartime golden age for agriculture
  • Drop in farm incomes, rise in foreclosures
  • Decline in number of farms and farmers
  • Rural outmigration

5
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Celebration of business
  • Themes
  • American way of life
  • Permanent prosperity
  • Christ as business prototype
  • Promoters
  • Hollywood
  • Photographers and painters
  • Writers
  • Corporate public relationship departments
  • Signs of impact
  • Idolization of business figures
  • Growing trust for business, stock market

6
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Decline of labor
  • Postwar business campaign against unions
  • Appropriation of Americanism, industrial
    freedom
  • Welfare capitalism
  • American Plan
  • Open shop
  • Rejection of collective bargaining
  • Depiction of unionism and socialism as sinister,
    alien
  • Use of strikebreakers, spies, blacklists

7
Decade of Prosperity (contd)
  • Decline of labor
  • Ebbing of labor movement
  • Decline in numbers organized
  • Union concessions to employers
  • Fading of union strongholds
  • Diminishing prospects of labor strikes
  • Fragmentation of feminism
  • Aftermath of suffrage amendment
  • Social and ideological fault lines

8
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Fragmentation of feminism
  • Debate over Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
  • Terms of ERA
  • Feminist support
  • Alice Paul, National Womens Party
  • Commitment to individual autonomy, equal
    opportunity
  • Feminist opposition
  • Other leading womens organizations
  • Commitment to motherhood, protective legislation
    for women
  • Defeat of ERA

9
Decade of prosperity (contd)
  • Womens freedom in the Twenties
  • Mixed legacy of prewar feminism
  • Fading of links to political and economic
    radicalism, social reform
  • Survival and recasting of call for personal
    freedom
  • Themes and images
  • Consumer lifestyle
  • Sexual freedom as individual autonomy, rebellion
  • Youthful flapper Clara Bow
  • Modernizing Mothers
  • Continued stress on marriage, homemaking as
    ultimate goals

10
II. Business and government
  • Decline of Progressive-era faith in mass
    democracy
  • Themes of disillusionment
  • Popular ignorance, irrationality, disengagement
  • Shift from public concerns to private (leisure,
    consumption)
  • Voices of disillusionment
  • Walter Lippman (Public Opinion, The Phantom
    Public)
  • Robert and Helen Lynd (Middletown)

11
II. Business and government
  • Republican era
  • Pro-business agenda
  • Content of
  • Low income and business taxes
  • High tariffs
  • Support for employer antiunionism
  • Business-friendly appointees to regulatory
    agencies
  • Support for in Washington
  • Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge
  • Supreme Court
  • Harding administration
  • Hardins indifference, lack of dignity
  • Rampant corruption Teapot Dome

12
II. Business and government (contd)
  • Republican era
  • Election of 1924
  • Coolidge victory over divided Democrats
  • Robert La Follettes third-party Progressive
    campaign
  • Economic diplomacy
  • Retreat from Wilsons foreign policy principles
  • Internationalism
  • Free trade
  • Close interlinking of business interests and
    foreign policy
  • Government initiatives
  • Diplomatic pressure for access to foreign markets
  • Increased tariffs Fordney-McCumber Act
  • Military interventions to protect U.S. business
    interests

13
II. Business and government (contd)
  • Economic diplomacy
  • Close interlinking of business interests and
    foreign policy
  • b. Private initiatives
  • Loans to foreign governments
  • Expansion of industrial production overseas
  • Acquisition of raw materials overseas

14
III. Birth of civil liberties
  • Persistence of WWI-era repression, censorship
    into 1920s
  • Targets of
  • Political dissent
  • Sexual themes in the arts
  • Agents of
  • Mob violence
  • Government agencies
  • Local crusades
  • Self-censorship Hollywood's Hays code
  • Disaffection of Lost Generation

15
III. Birth of civil liberties (contd)
  • B. Wartime formation of Civil Liberties Bureau
  • Reaction to Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • Predecessor to American Civil Liberties Union
  • C. Evolving position of Supreme Court
  • Initial blows to civil liberties
  • Upholding of Espionage Act (Schneck case) Oliver
    Wendell Holmess clear and present danger
    doctrine
  • Upholding of Eugene V. Debs conviction
  • Further cases
  • Signs of a shift
  • Defenses of free speech by individual justices
  • Holmes marketplace of ideas doctrine
  • Louis Brandeis democratic citizenship doctrine
  • Pro-civil liberties rulings

16
IV. Culture wars
  • Fundamentalist reaction against modern urban
    culture
  • Sources of alarm
  • Religious and ethnic pluralism
  • Urban vice
  • Mass entertainment
  • Alcohol
  • New sexual mores
  • Entry of modernist outlook into Protestant
    mainstream
  • Manifestations
  • Billy Sunday
  • Nationwide presence
  • Prohibition

17
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Scopes trial
  • Clash of traditional and modern perspectives
  • Fundamentalism vs. secularism
  • Darwinian science vs. scripture
  • Moral liberty vs. freedom of thought
  • Face-off of Clarence Darrow and William Jennings
    Bryan
  • Outcome and aftermath

18
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Resurgence of Ku Klux Klan
  • Roots in wartime Americanism obsession
  • Profile and influence
  • Rapid growth
  • Wide following among white, native-born
    Protestants
  • Nationwide presence
  • Diverse range of targets

19
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Immigration restriction
  • Earlier legislative precedents
  • 1921 temporary restriction measure
  • 1924 permanent restriction measure
  • National quotas for Europeans
  • Exclusion of Asians (exception for
    Filipinos)Admittance and curtailing of Mexicans
  • Emergence of illegal alien classification
  • Ideological underpinnings
  • Conservative nativism
  • Progressive assumptions about race

20
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Pluralism
  • Scholarly challenges to prevailing racial thought
  • Pioneering voices
  • Horace Kallen cultural pluralism
  • Anthropologists Franz Boas, Alfred Kroeber, Ruth
    Benedict
  • Minimal immediate impact

21
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Pluralism
  • New immigrants and the pluralist impulse
  • Urban ethnic enclaves, community institutions
  • Self-reinvention as ethnic Americans
  • Resentment of cultural hostility and coercion
  • Claims to equal rights, mainstream acceptance,
    cultural autonomy.
  • Antidiscriminatory campaigns
  • Antidiscriminatory rulings by Supreme Court,
    federal courts

22
IV. Culture Wars (contd)
  • Black urban life and Harlem Renaissance
  • Ongoing migration from South, West Indies
  • Emergence of Harlem capital of black America
  • Exotic Harlem vs. real Harlem
  • Harlem Renaissance
  • Poets, novelists
  • Actors, dancers, musicians
  • New Negro
  • In poltics
  • In art Claude McKays If We Must Die, page
    748
  • New black assertiveness Henry O. Sweet case

23
IV. Culture wars (contd)
  • Election of 1928
  • Republican candidate Herbert Hoover
  • Background and career
  • Embodiment of new era of American capitalism
  • Democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith
  • Background and career
  • Embodiment of urban, Catholic, Progressive
    outlook
  • Outcome and significance
  • Hoover victory
  • Reflection of culture wars
  • Preview of new Democratic coalition

24
Map 83
25
V. The Great Depression
  • Stock market crash of 1929
  • Black Thursday
  • Onset of Great Depression
  • Precursors of Depression
  • Frenzied real estate speculation
  • Undeveloped land
  • Unequal distribution of income, wealth
  • Failing banks, mortgage foreclosures
  • Rural depression
  • Stagnating demand for consumer goods
  • Auto, home, household, etc.

26
V. The Great Depression (contd)
  • Repercussions of crash
  • Magnitude
  • Scope of devastation
  • Business and consumer confidence
  • Solvency of investment companies, businesses,
    banks
  • 26,000 business failed in 1930
  • US Steel 262/22 (1929-1932)
  • US Steel 225,000 f/t /0 f/t (1929-1932)
  • GM 73/8 (1929-1932)
  • Gross national product
  • Life savings
  • Employment
  • Wages
  • Persistence of downward slide

27
V. The Great Depression (contd)
  • Americans and the Depression
  • Material hardship
  • Hunger breadlines
  • Homelessness Hoovervilles
  • Meagerness of public relief
  • Reversal of movement from farm to city

28
V. The Great Depression (contd)
  • Americans and the Depression
  • Patterns of popular response
  • Collapse of faith in big business
  • Personal resignation, self-blame
  • Stirrings of protest
  • Spontaneous incidents
  • Bonus March
  • Rallies for jobs and relief, against eviction
  • Farmers Holiday campaign
  • Communist party

29
V. The Great Depression (contd)
  • Hoover and the Depression
  • Hoovers approach
  • Acceptance of business cycle
  • Aversion to government relief
  • Preference for voluntary, associational
    initiatives
  • Regular forecasts of recovery
  • Perception of Hoover as indifferent, out of touch
  • Ill-fated remedies
  • Hawley-Smoot tariff
  • Tax increase
  • Federal Home Loan Bank System Reconstruction
    Finance Corporation
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