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Archaeology

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Archaeology Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park. What do archaeologists do? What archaeologists don t do: Study dinosaurs. Spend all their time just ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Archaeology


1
Archaeology
Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
2
What do archaeologists do?
  • What archaeologists dont do
  • Study dinosaurs.
  • Spend all their time just digging.
  • Just look for pretty or valuable objects.
  • Just pick up artifacts.
  • Buy or sell artifacts.
  • Just study prehistoric people.


Photos from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
3
What Is Archaeology?
  • Archaeology is one of four sub-disciplines of
    Anthropology.
  • Anthropology is the study of people and their
    culture.
  • Anthropology Disciplines
  • Archeology
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Linguistic Anthropology
  • Biological or Physical Anthropology
  • Archaeology is the systematic, scientific
    recovery and analysis of artifacts in order to
    answer questions about past human culture and
    behavior.

Archaeolology
Culture
Speech Language
Biology of Man
4
Archaeology Terms
  • Systematic A consistent way of studying
    anything.
  • Science Methods and knowledge of studying
    anything.
  • Recovery/ Analysis To collect and study
    artifacts.
  • Artifact Any item resulting from human activity.

5
Archaeology Terms
  • Question-based Archaeologists study artifacts
    in order to answer questions about how humans
    lived.
  • Past Archaeologists study human cultures that
    are no longer living.
  • Culture Any learned behavior that is shared
    with others.

6
History of Archaeology
  • The first archaeologists
  • Antiquarians or wealthy collector of artifacts
  • Early Archeology
  • It was a combination of several other sciences
    concerned with the evolution of man.
  • 1817
  • Danish archaeologist Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
    opened the National Museum Of Antiquities in
    Copenhagen to the public.
  • 1859 Origin of Species.
  • Darwin publishes his book.
  • 1920s
  • Archaeology became a fully fledged scientific
    discipline.

Christian Jurgensen Thomsen
Charles Darwin
7
Early American Archaeology
  • Earliest American settlers
  • They debate the origin of American Indians.
  • 1880s
  • Archaeologists and anthropologists study Pueblo
    Indians as direct descendants of the first people
    in America.
  • 1890s
  • Cyrus Thomas of the Bureau of American Ethnology
    proves the Moundbuilders were indeed Native
    Americans.

Indian burial mound in Georgia.
8
Modern Scientific Archaeology
  • 1960s
  • The invention of modern scientific excavation
    techniques
  • Using a multidisciplinary approach to study
    people.
  • Increasing impact of science on archaeology
  • Refinement of archaeological theory.

DNA
Botany
Dendrochronology
9
Academic Goals of Archeology
  • Culture History
  • Sequence of events
  • How artifacts change over time
  • Explain why events happened.
  • Lifeways Reconstruction
  • Technology, subsistence, exchange, settlement,
    social organization, ideology, etc.
  • Culture Process
  • Theoretical models on lifeways.

Photo from my work at Mammoth Cave National Park.
10
Applied Goals of Archaeology
  • Conveying the past through archaeology.
  • The proper way to do archeology.
  • Archaeology is a profession.
  • Public Education
  • Museum exhibits
  • Television shows
  • Documentary films
  • Public lectures, digs, or workshops.

11
Types of Archaeology
  • Prehistoric Archaeology
  • Before writing.
  • Historical Archaeology
  • Document/writing assisted
  • Classical Archaeology
  • Greek and Roman
  • Biblical Archaeology
  • Underwater Archaeology
  • Shipwrecks or anything else under water.
  • Industrial Archaeology
  • Industrial Revolution and other modern structures
  • Egyptologists, Mayanists, Assyriologists
  • Study of specific civilizations or time periods.
  • Cultural Resource Management
  • Management and assesment of significant cultural
    resources.

12
Professional Archaeology Groups
  • United States National Associations
  • American Anthropological Association (AAA)
  • Archaeological Institute of America
  • Association of Historical Archaeologists of the
    Pacific Northwest
  • Classical Association of the Middle West and
    South
  • Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest
  • Eastern States Archaeological Federation
  • Southeastern Archaeological Conference
  • Society for American Archeology
  • Source http//archaeologic.com/associations.htm

13
References
  • Applegate, Darlene. Anth 130 In-class notes.
    Western Kentucky University, Spring 2004.
  • Fagan, Brian M. Archeology A Brief
    Introduction. New Jersey Lindbriar Corp., 2003.
  • Society for American Archeology. 19 September
    2005. lthttp//www.saa.org/gt.
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