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Title: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition


1
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE A Global Concern, 5th
edition
  • William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota
  • Barbara Woodworth Saigo
  • Saiwood Biology Resources

2
CHAPTER 1ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL
PRINCIPLES
3
What is Environmental Science?
  • Environment
  • Environmental Science
  • History of Environmental Science
  • utilitarian conservation
  • altruistic preservation

4
CURRENT CONDITIONS
  • Planet Earth
  • Environmental Dilemmas
  • population
  • food shortages
  • energy
  • pollution

5
A DIVIDED WORLD
  • Rich vs. Poor
  • North vs. South
  • Developed countries vs. undeveloped countries
  • First, Second, Third and Fourth World Countries

6
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • Human Development Index
  • Developmental Discrepancies
  • basic social services
  • education
  • health care
  • agrarian reform
  • employment
  • civil rights
  • sustainable resource use
  • Sustainable Development

7
ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES
  • Neo-Malthusian
  • Technological optimists/Promethean
    environmentalism
  • Cornucopian Fallacy
  • Lessons from the Past

8
CHAPTER 2TOOLS FOR BUILDING A BETTER WORLD
9
Environmental Ethics and Philosophy
  • Universal Ethical Principles
  • Relativists
  • Nihilists
  • Utilitarians
  • Modernism Postmodernism

10
Values, Rights Obligations
  • Morals
  • Animal Rights
  • Inherent Value
  • Instrumental Value

11
Worldviews and Ethical Perspectives
  • Domination
  • Stewardship
  • Biocentrism
  • Ecofeminism

12
Environmental Justice
  • Environmental racism
  • Toxic colonialism
  • Is Nature fragile or resilient?

13
Science as a Way of Knowing
  • Scientific Method
  • Hypotheses Testing
  • Indirect Scientific Evidence
  • Technology and Progress
  • Appropriate Technology

14
CHAPTER 3MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE
15
From Atoms to Cells
  • Atoms
  • ions
  • atomic number
  • Molecules
  • compound
  • Organic Compounds
  • carbon
  • Cells

16
Energy Types and Qualities
  • Kinetic Energy
  • heat
  • temperature
  • Potential Energy
  • Chemical Energy
  • Conservation of Matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • 1st law
  • 2nd law

17
Energy for Life
  • Solar Energy
  • Photosynthesis
  • Chlorophyll
  • cellular respiration

18
From Species to Ecosystems
  • Population
  • Communities
  • biological community
  • Ecosystems

19
Food Chains
  • Productivity/biomass
  • Food chain/food web
  • Trophic level
  • producers
  • consumers
  • Organisms
  • herbivores
  • carnivores
  • omnivores

20
Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Nitrogen Cycle
  • Phosphorus Cycle
  • Sulfur Cycle

21
CHAPTER 4BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND SPECIES
INTERACTION
22
Critical Factors, Who Lives Where?
  • Temperature
  • Moisture levels
  • Nutrient supply
  • Soil chemistry
  • Water chemistry

23
  • Natural Selection
  • Adaptation
  • Evolution
  • HABITAT

24
SPECIES INTERACTIONS AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS
25
Predation
  • Predators
  • parasites
  • Pathogens
  • Prey

26
Competition
  • Intraspecific competition
  • Interspecific competition
  • Territoriality

27
Symbiosis
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism

28
Community Properties
  • Productivity
  • Abundance and Diversity
  • Complexity and Connectedness
  • Resilience and Stability
  • Structure
  • Edges and Boundaries

29
Ecological Succession
  • Primary Succession
  • Secondary Succession
  • Pioneer Species
  • Ecological Development
  • Climax Community
  • Introduced Species and Community Change

30
CHAPTER 5BIOMES, LANDSCAPES, RESOTRATION AND
MANAGEMENT
31
Terrestrial Biomes
  • Deserts
  • Grasslands
  • Prairies
  • Savannas
  • Tundra
  • Conifer Forests
  • Evergreen Forests
  • Tropical Forests
  • Tropical Seasonal Forests

32
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems
  • Estuaries and Wetlands
  • Shorelines and Barrier Islands
  • Coral reefs

33
Landscape Ecology
  • Patchiness Heterogeneity
  • Landscape Dynamics

34
Restoration Ecology
  • Rehabilitation
  • Remediation
  • Reclamation
  • Re-creation
  • Nature, self-healing

35
CHAPTER 6POPULATION DYNAMICS
36
Population Growth
  • Exponential Growth
  • Geometric Growth
  • Arithmetic Growth
  • J Curve

37
Population Oscillations and Irruptive Growth
  • Dieback
  • Overshoot
  • Irruptive or Malthusian growth

38
Growth to a Stable Population
  • Logistic growth
  • Environmental resistance

39
Strategies of Population Growth
  • Malthusian Strategies
  • Logistic Strategies

40
Factors affecting Population
  • Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility
  • Immigration
  • Mortality and survivorship
  • Age Structure
  • Emigration
  • Education

41
  • Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates
  • Education/affluence
  • Importance of children to family labor force
  • Urbanization
  • Cost - raising and educating children
  • Education Employment opportunity - women
  • Infant mortality rate
  • Average marriage age
  • Availability - pension
  • Birth control
  • Religious beliefs, tradition and culture

42
Factors Affecting Death Rate
  • Nutrition
  • Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity
  • Health and technology

43
  • Teen Pregnancy in the USA
  • Migration
  • Immigration

44
Population Age Structure
  • Ways of classifying
  • Pre-reproductive age
  • Reproductive age
  • Post-reproductive age

45
  • Solutions Influencing Population
  • Controlling Migration
  • Reducing Birth Rates
  • Economic development
  • Family planning
  • Economic rewards
  • Empowering women
  • Population Control Studies
  • India
  • China

46
  • Population Distribution
  • Urbanization and Growth
  • The future is urban
  • Hyper-urbanization - LDCs
  • The United States and other MDCs
  • Spatial patterns of development

47
CHAPTER 7HUMAN POPULATIONS
48
Population Growth
  • Birth Rates
  • Over-population
  • Technology and Ingenuity

49
Limits to Population Growth
  • Malthusian checks
  • Karl Marx
  • Neo-Malthusian
  • Technology solutions?
  • Can More people be Beneficial?

50
Human Demography
  • Fertility
  • Birthrate
  • Zero population growth
  • Mortality and death rates
  • Population growth rates
  • Life span and life expectancy
  • dependency ratio
  • Emigration and Immigration

51
Population Growth Opposition
  • Pronatalist/Social Pressures
  • Birth Reduction Pressures
  • Education
  • Birth control
  • Economics

52
Demographic Transition
  • Improved living conditions
  • Development and Population
  • Optimistic View
  • Pessimistic View
  • Social Justice View
  • Ecojustice View
  • Infant Mortality
  • Womens Rights

53
Family Planning Fertility Control
  • Birth Control
  • Celibacy
  • Mechanical barriers
  • Surgery
  • Chemicals
  • Implantation of physical controls
  • Abortion

54
CHAPTER 8ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS
55
Classical Economics
  • Diminished Returns
  • Demand
  • Supply
  • Market Equilibrium
  • Marginal Costs
  • Price Elasticity

56
  • Neoclassical Economics
  • Karl Marx
  • E. F. Schumacher
  • Ecological Economics
  • steady-state economy

57
Resources, Capital and Reserves
  • Resource Types
  • Capital
  • Resource
  • Nonrenewable resources
  • Renewable resources
  • Intangible resources

58
Economic Resource Categories
  • Proven resources
  • Known resources
  • Undiscovered resources
  • Recoverable resources

59
Population, Technology, and Scarcity
  • Market Efficiencies
  • Increasing Environmental Carrying Capacity
  • Economic Models
  • Why Not Conserve Resources?

60
Natural Resource Accounting
  • Gross National Product (GNP)
  • Human Development Index (HDI)
  • Non-market Values
  • Cost/Benefit Ratios
  • Green Business
  • Jobs and the Environment

61
SustainabilitySustainable Development
62
CHAPTER 9ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY
63
Health Hazards
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Respiratory diseases
  • pneumonia
  • tuberculosis
  • influenza
  • whooping cough

64
  • Malaria
  • Parasitic Mematodes
  • Schistosomiasis
  • Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
  • Trachoma
  • STDs

65
Toxic Chemicals
  • Irritants
  • Respiratory fibrotic agents
  • Asphyxiants
  • Allergens
  • Neurotoxins
  • Mutagens
  • Teratogens
  • Carcinogens

66
  • Natural and Synthetic Toxin
  • Physical Agents
  • radiation
  • Trauma
  • stress
  • Diet

67
  • Chemical Hazards and Toxicology
  • Dose and response
  • LD5O factor
  • Acute effect
  • Chronic effect
  • Types
  • toxic substances
  • hazardous
  • carcinogens
  • mutagens
  • teratogens

68
Movement, Distribution and Fate of Toxins
  • Solubility
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Biomagnification
  • Persistence
  • Chemical Interactions

69
Minimizing Toxic Effects
  • Metabolic Degradation
  • Excretion
  • Repair Mechanisms

70
Measuring Toxicity
  • Animal Testing
  • Toxicity Ratings
  • Acute vs. Chronic Doses and Effects
  • Detection Limits

71
Assessment
  • Risks
  • Acceptable risks??

72
  • Risk Analysis
  • Identifying Risks
  • The Greatest Risks
  • Problems - Risk Assessment
  • Risk-Benefit Analysis
  • Managing Risks

73
CHAPTER 10FOOD, HUNGER AND NUTRITION
74
Human Nutrition
  • Energy Needs
  • undernourishment
  • over-nourishment
  • Nutritional Needs
  • proteins
  • carbohydrates
  • lipids and oils
  • minerals
  • vitamins

75
World Food Resoureces
  • Major Crops
  • wheat
  • rice
  • corn
  • potatoes
  • Meat and Milk
  • Croplands

76
  • Increasing Food Production
  • Green Revolution
  • Technology
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Increased Farm Output
  • New Food Sources
  • Blue Revolution
  • Aqua-culture

77
Agricultural Economics
  • Food Supplies
  • Food Subsidies
  • Agricultural Aid
  • International Food Trade
  • Cash Crops

78
  • World Hunger
  • Famines
  • Food Shortages

79
CHAPTER 11SOIL RESOURECES AND SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE
80
What is soil?
  • Soil, a renewable resource
  • Soil composition
  • humus
  • Soil organisms
  • Soil profiles
  • top soil
  • sub-soil
  • parent material
  • bedrock

81
Use and Abuse of Soil
  • Land Resources
  • Land Degradation

82
Erosion
  • Types of erosion
  • sheet erosion
  • rill erosion
  • gully erosion
  • streambank erosion
  • Erosion in the United States
  • Erosion in other countries

83
Agricultural Resources
  • Water
  • Fertilizer
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Crop Diversity

84
Soil Conservation
  • Managing Topography
  • contour plowing
  • strip-farming
  • tied ridges
  • terracing
  • Providing Ground Cover
  • cover crops
  • mulch
  • Reduced Tillage Systems

85
CHAPTER 12 PEST CONTROL
86
What are Pest and Pesticides?
  • Biological Pests
  • Insects
  • Large animals
  • Botanical Pests
  • Weeds
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Herbicides
  • Fungicides

87
Pest Controls
  • Early Controls
  • Botanical
  • Chemical
  • Modern Controls
  • Synthetic chemicals
  • DDT

88
Pesticide Types
  • Inorganic pesticides
  • Natural organic pesticides
  • botanicals
  • Fumigants
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates
  • Microbial agents

89
Pesticide Benefits
  • Disease control
  • Crop protection
  • Increased crop production

90
Pesticide Problems
  • Effects on Nontarget Species
  • Pesticide Resistance/Pest resurgence
  • Creation of New Pests
  • Persistence and Mobility in the Environment
  • Human Health Problems

91
Alternative Pesticide Uses
  • Crop rotation
  • Biological controls
  • predatory insects
  • pathogens
  • Herbivorous insects
  • Genetic and bioengineering

92
Reducing Pesticide Exposure
  • Regulation
  • EPA
  • USDA
  • Personal Safety

93
CHAPTER 13BIODIVERSITY
94
Biodiversity and Species Concept
  • What is Biodiversity?
  • What are species?
  • Number of species

95
Benefits of Biodiversity
  • Food
  • Drugs
  • Medicine
  • Ecological Benefits
  • Aesthetic and Cultural Benefits

96
Threats to Biodiversity
  • Extinction
  • Natural Causes
  • Mass Extinction

97
Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Hunting and Fishing
  • Commercial products and Live Specimens
  • Predator and Pest Control
  • Exotic Species Introductions
  • Disease
  • Pollution
  • Genetic Assimilation

98
Biodiversity Protection
  • Hunting and Fishing Laws
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Recovery Plans
  • Private Land and Critical Habitat
  • Minimum Viable Populations
  • Habitat Protection
  • International Wildlife Treaties
  • Zoos
  • Botanical Gardens
  • Captive Breeding Programs

99
CHAPTER 14LAND USE FORESTS AND RANGELANDS
100
World Land Use
  • Forest, 30
  • Range and pasture, 26
  • Cropland, 1
  • Other, 33
  • tundra
  • desert
  • wetlands
  • urban areas

101
World Forests
  • Forest Distribution
  • Closed canopy
  • Open canopy
  • Woodland

102
Forest Products
  • Industrial Timber
  • Fuelwood

103
Tropical Forests
  • Diminishing Forests
  • Swidden Agriculture
  • Logging and Land Invasions
  • Forest Protection
  • Reforestation
  • Debt-for-Nature Swaps

104
Temperate Forests
  • Ancient forest/old growth forests
  • Wilderness Protection
  • Wildlife Protection
  • Harvesting old growth forests
  • clear-cutting
  • strip-cutting
  • selective-cutting
  • Fire Management

105
Rangelands
  • Range Management
  • Overgrazing and Land Degradation
  • desertification
  • Forage Conversion
  • Harvesting Wild Animals

106
Rangelands in the U.S.
  • Bureau of Land Management
  • State of the Range
  • feral animals
  • Grazing Fees

107
Land Ownership
  • Who owns what?
  • Land Reform
  • Indigenous Lands

108
CHAPTER 15PRESERVING NATURE
109
Parks and Nature Preserves
  • Origins and History
  • Natural Landscaping

110
  • North American Parks
  • Existing Systems
  • U.S. National Park System
  • Park Problems
  • Over crowding
  • Roads
  • Commercialism
  • Pollution
  • Wildlife
  • New Directions
  • New Parks

111
World Parks and Preserves
  • Biosphere Reserves
  • Protecting Natural Heritage
  • Size and Design of Nature Preserves
  • recreation areas
  • historic areas
  • conservation areas
  • pristine research areas
  • Conservation and Economic Development
  • Indigenous Communities

112
Wilderness Areas
  • Wildlife Refuges
  • Refuge Management
  • International Wildlife Preserves
  • poaching

113
Wetlands, Floodplains, Coastal Regions
  • Wetland Values
  • Wetland Destruction
  • Floods and Flood Control
  • Floodplains
  • Beaches, barrier Islands, and Estuaries

114
CHAPTER 16EARTH AND ITS CRUSTAL RESOURCES
115
Earth, A Dynamic Sphere
  • Earths Layers
  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Outer Core
  • Inner Core
  • Tectonic Processes
  • Tectonic Plates
  • Magma
  • Shifting Continents

116
Rock Types How They Formed
  • Igneous Rock
  • Weathering
  • Sedimentation
  • Sedimentary Rock
  • Biogenic Sedimentation
  • Metamorphic Rock

117
Mineralogy
  • Metals
  • Nonmetal Minerals
  • Strategic Minerals

118
Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction
  • Mining
  • tunneling
  • water leakage
  • strip mining
  • Processing
  • water pollution
  • chemical emissions

119
Conserving Mineral Resources
  • Recycling
  • Aluminum Platinum
  • Steel Iron
  • Substituting New Materials for Old Ones

120
Geologic Hazards
  • Earthquakes
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanoes
  • Floods

121
CHAPTER 17AIR, CLIMATE, AND WEATHER
122
The Atmosphere,Composition Structure
  • Gas Mixture
  • Layered Envelope
  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Ionosphere

123
Weather Engine
  • Solar Radiation/ Heat
  • Albedo (reflectivity)
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Convection Currents
  • Water vapor

124
Weather
  • Energy Balance in the Atmosphere
  • Convection Cells
  • Prevailing Winds
  • Jet Streams
  • Frontal Weather
  • cold and warm fronts
  • Cyclonic Storms
  • hurricanes and tornadoes
  • Seasonal Winds
  • monsoon
  • Weather Modification

125
Climate
  • Climatic Catastrophes
  • Ice Ages
  • Driving Forces Patterns in Climatic Changes
  • Milankovitch Cycles
  • El Niño

126
Human-caused Global Climate Change
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Aerosols
  • Sources
  • Burning Fossil Fuels
  • Industrial Processes
  • Deforestation
  • Agriculture

127
Effects of Climate Change
  • Temperature Changes
  • Impact on Plants and Animals
  • Rising Sea Levels impacting Coastlines
  • Melting Ice Packs
  • Possible Increase of Disease

128
Cutting Emissions
  • United Nations Earth Summit
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Developed Nations
  • Developing Nations

129
CHAPTER 18AIR POLLUTION
130
Natural Sources of Air Pollution
  • Volcanoes
  • Emissions from vegetation

131
Human-Caused Air Pollution
  • Primary pollutants
  • Secondary pollutants
  • Fugitive emissions

132
Conventional or Criteria Pollutants
  • Sulfur compounds
  • Nitrogen Compounds
  • Carbon Oxides
  • Metals and Halogens
  • Particulate Materials
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Photochemical Oxidants

133
Unconventional Pollutants
  • Emissions emissions standards
  • Unconventional or noncriteria pollutants
  • Aesthetic degradation
  • Indoor air Pollution
  • smoke

134
Climate, Topography, Atmospheric Processes
  • Inversions
  • Dust Domes and Heat Islands
  • Long Range Transport
  • Stratospheric Ozone
  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

135
Effects of Air Pollution
  • Human Health
  • bronchitis
  • emphysema
  • Plant Pathology
  • Acid Deposition
  • pH and atmospheric acidity
  • aquatic effects
  • forest damage
  • buildings and monuments
  • visibility reduction

136
Air Pollution Control
  • Moving Pollution to Remote Areas
  • Particulate Removal
  • filters
  • Sulfur Removal
  • fuel switching and fuel cleaning
  • limestone injection/fluidized bed combustion
  • flue gas desulfurization
  • sulfur recovery processes
  • Nitrogen Oxide Control
  • Hydrocarbon Controls

137
Clean Air Legislation
  • Clean Air Act of 1963
  • Amendments of 1970
  • Amendments of 1990
  • Acid rain
  • Urban smog
  • Toxic air pollutants
  • Ozone protection
  • Marketing pollution rights
  • Toxic organic compounds
  • EPA

138
CHAPTER 19WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT
139
Water Resources
  • Hydrologic Cycle
  • Evaporation/Sublimation
  • Saturation Point
  • Relative humidity
  • Condensation
  • Dew Point
  • Rainfall Topography
  • Rain Shadow
  • Desert Belts
  • Balancing the Water Budget

140
Major Water Compartments
  • Oceans
  • Glaciers, Ice, Snow
  • Ground Water
  • infiltration
  • water table
  • aquifers
  • Rivers and Streams
  • Lakes and Ponds
  • Wetlands
  • The Atmosphere

141
Water Availability and Use
  • Water Supplies
  • Drought Cycles
  • Types of Water Use
  • Withdrawal
  • Consumption
  • Degradation
  • Quantities of Water Use
  • Use by Sector

142
Freshwater Shortages
  • A Scarce Resource
  • Depleting Groundwater
  • subsidence
  • sinkholes

143
Increasing Water Supplies
  • Seeding Clouds Towing Icebergs
  • Desalination
  • Dams, Reservoirs, Canals, Aqueducts
  • Environmental Costs
  • Evaporation, Leakage, and Siltation
  • Loss of Free-Flowing Rivers

144
Water Management Conservation
  • Watershed Management
  • Domestic Conservation
  • Industrial and Agricultural Conservation
  • Price Mechanisms

145
CHAPTER 20WATER POLLUTION
146
Water Pollution
  • Point Sources
  • Non-point Sources
  • Atmospheric Deposition

147
Types and Effects of Water Pollution
  • Infectious Agents
  • Oxygen-Demanding Wastes
  • Plant Nutrients Cultural Eutrophication
  • Toxic Inorganic Materials
  • Heavy Metals
  • Nonmetallic Salts
  • Acids and Bases
  • Organic Chemicals
  • Sediments
  • Thermal Pollution

148
Water Quality Today
  • Surface Water in the U.S. Canada
  • Surface Water in other Countries
  • Groundwater and Drinking Water Supplies
  • Ocean Pollution

149
Water Pollution Control
  • Source Reduction
  • Non-point Sources and Land Management
  • Agriculture
  • Urban runoff
  • Construction sites
  • Land disposal

150
  • Human Waste Disposal
  • Natural Processes
  • Municipal Sewage Treatment
  • Primary treatment
  • Secondary treatment
  • Tertiary treatment
  • Low-Cost Waste Treatment
  • effluent sewerage

151
Water Legislation
  • Clean Water Act
  • Clean Water Act Reauthorization
  • Other Important Water Legislation
  • Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Superfund
  • Great lakes Water Quality Agreement

152
CHAPTER 21 CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
153
Energy
  • A Brief History
  • Current Energy Sources
  • Fossil fuels
  • Nuclear power
  • Hydroelectric
  • Solar
  • Per Capita Consumption
  • Energy Use

154
Coal
  • Coal Resources and Reserves
  • Mining
  • Air Pollution

155
Oil
  • Oil Resources and Reserves
  • Oil Imports and Domestic Supplies
  • Oil Shales and Tar Sands

156
Natural Gas
  • Natural Gas Resources and Reserves
  • Unconventional Gas Sources
  • Methane hydrate

157
Nuclear Power
  • Nuclear Reactors How They Work?
  • Types of Reactors
  • Alternative Reactor Designs
  • Breeder Reactors

158
Radioactive Waste Management
  • Ocean Dumping
  • Land Disposal
  • high-level waste repository
  • monitored, retrievable storage
  • Decommissioning Old Nuclear Plants

159
Changing Fortunes of Nuclear Power
  • Changing Public Opinion
  • Nuclear Fusion
  • Magnetic confinement
  • Inertial confinement

160
CHAPTER 22SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
161
Conservation
  • Utilization Efficiencies
  • Energy Conversion Efficiencies
  • net energy yield
  • Negawatt programs
  • Co-generation

162
Tapping Solar Energy
  • A Vast Resource
  • Passive Solar Heat
  • Active Solar Heat
  • Eutectic Chemicals

163
High-Temperature Solar Energy
  • Solar Cookers
  • Promoting Renewable Energy
  • Photovaltaic Solar Energy
  • Photovoltaic Cells
  • Storing Electrical Energy

164
Energy from Biomass
  • Burning Biomass
  • Fuelwood crisis in LDCs
  • Dung and Methane as Fuels
  • Alcohol from Biomass
  • gasohol
  • Crop Residues, Energy Crops and Peat

165
Energy from the Earths Forces
  • Hydropower
  • Dams and Hydro Generators
  • Wind Energy
  • Wind Farms
  • Geothermal Energy
  • Tidal and Wave Energy
  • Tidal Stations
  • Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion

166
CHAPTER 23SOLID, TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
167
Solid Waste
  • Waste Stream
  • Paper, 38
  • Yard waste, 17
  • Metals, 8
  • Plastics, 8
  • Glass, 7
  • Food, 7
  • Miscellaneous, 14

168
Waste Disposal Methods
  • Open Dumps
  • Ocean Dumpings
  • Landfills
  • Export Waste
  • Incineration and Resource Recovery
  • Types of incinerators
  • refuse-derived fuel
  • mass burn
  • Incinerator Cost and Safety

169
Reducing the Waste Stream
  • Recycling
  • Composting
  • Energy from Waste
  • Reuse
  • Producing Less Waste
  • Photodegradable plastics
  • Biodegradable plastics

170
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
  • Hazardous Waste Disposal
  • Superfund
  • Hazardous Waste Management
  • Produce Less Waste
  • Convert to Less Hazardous Substances
  • Physical treatments
  • Chemical treatments
  • Bioremediation
  • Store Permanently
  • Retrievable Storage
  • Secure Landfills

171
CHAPTER 24URBANIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES
172
Urbanization
  • What is a city?
  • Rural area
  • Urban area
  • Village
  • City
  • Megacity
  • Core region
  • World Urbanization

173
Causes of Urban Growth
  • Immigration Push Factors
  • Immigration Pull Factors
  • Government Policies

174
Urban Problems
  • The Developing World
  • Traffic and Congestion
  • Air Pollution
  • Sewer Systems and Water Pollution
  • Housing
  • Slums
  • Shantytowns
  • Squatter Towns

175
  • The Developed World
  • Urban Problems
  • Urban Renewal
  • Noise

176
Transportation and City Growth
  • Transportation methods
  • horse buggy
  • automobiles
  • Roads/freeways

177
City Planning
  • History
  • Garden Cities and New Towns
  • Cities of the Future
  • technopolis
  • Urban Redesign
  • Design for Open space
  • conservation

178
  • Urban Redesign
  • Limit size
  • Development areas
  • Shopping malls into city centers
  • Convenience for shopping and services
  • Job location
  • Exercise areas
  • Diverse housing
  • Superblocks
  • Self-sustainable food and waste centers
  • Public participation

179
CHAPTER 25WHAT THEN SHALL WE DO?
180
Environmental Education
  • Environmental Literacy
  • Environmental Careers

181
Individual Accountability
  • Shopping for Green Products
  • precycling
  • Non toxic products
  • recyclable products
  • natural products
  • Environmentally friendly products
  • Blue Angels and Green Seals
  • Limits of Green Consumerism
  • Paying Attention to Whats Important

182
Collective Actions
  • Student Environmental Groups
  • Mainline Environmental Organizations
  • Broadening the Environmental Agenda
  • Deep or Shallow Environmentalism
  • Radical Environmental Groups
  • Anti-environmental Backlash

183
Global Issues
  • Public Opinions and Environmental Protection
  • Post materialist values
  • Sustainable Development
  • International Nongovernmental Organizations

184
Green Government and Politics
  • Green Politics
  • Green Parties
  • Green Plans
  • National Legislation
  • Courts
  • Executive Branch
  • Environmental Impact Statements
  • International Environmental Treaties and
    Conventions
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