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UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION CULTURE GAP

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UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION CULTURE GAP Layers of Diversity First layer Personality Personality is at the center of the diversity wheel. Personality is at the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION CULTURE GAP


1
UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATIONCULTURE GAP
2
The Four Layers of Diversity
Diversity the host of individual differences
that make people different from and similar to
each other.
Gender
Source L Gardenswartz and A Rowe, Diverse Teams
at Work Capitalizing on the Power of Diversity
(New York McGraw-Hill, 1994), p. 33
3
Layers of Diversity
  • First layer Personality
  • Personality is at the center of the diversity
    wheel. Personality is at the center because it
    represents a stable set of characteristics that
    is responsible for a persons identity.
  • Second layer Internal Dimensions
  • a set of internal dimensions as surface-level
    dimensions of diversity. These dimensions, for
    the most part, are not within our control, but
    they strongly influence our attitudes and
    expectations and assumptions about others, which
    in turn, influence our behavior.
  • Third layer External Dimensions
  • external influences as secondary dimensions of
    diversity. They represent individual differences
    that we have a greater ability to influence or
    control. These dimensions also exert a
    significant influence on our perceptions,
    behavior, and attitudes.
  • The final layer Organizational dimensions
  • such as seniority, job title and function, and
    work location.

4
Pros and Cons of Diversity
  • Social categorization theory
  • Similarity leads to liking and attraction
  • The more homogeneous a work group, the higher
    the member commitment and group cohesion, and the
    lower the amount of interpersonal conflicts
  • Homogeneity is better than heterogeneity in
    terms of affecting work-related attitudes,
    behavior, and performance.

5
Pros and Cons of Diversity
  • Information/Decision-Making Theory
  • Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes
    and decision-making
  • Diversity groups should outperform homogeneous
    groups .
  • The logic of this theory was described as
    follows
  • The idea is that diverse groups are more likely
    to possess a broader range of task-relevant
    knowledge, skills, and abilities that are
    distinct and nonredundant and to have different
    opinions and perspectives, on the task at hand.
    This not only gives diverse groups a larger pool
    of resources, but may also have other beneficial
    effects

6
A Process Model of Diversity
7
  • Analysis of the various dimensions of diversity
    helps the business communicator transmit messages
    that are more understandable and acceptable to
    the members of that dimension of diversity.

8
The Global Business Environment
  • As the world economy becomes globalize, more and
    more firms are conducting international
    operations.
  • MNC (Multinational Corporations) firms that
    conduct significant business activities outside
    their home countries and that view the world as
    their marketplace
  • For all businesspeople who travel internationally
    the ability to bridge cultural differences in
    written and oral communication is crucial.

9
Culture and Communication
  • Culture ?

Culture as mental programming (Hofstede, 1991)
  • Three levels of uniqueness in Human Mental
    Programming

Specific to individual
Inherited and learned
Personality
Specific to group or category
Learned
Culture
Universal
Inherited
Human nature
10
  • Culture
  • the shared customs, beliefs, and social
    structures of human society
  • Many components of culture
  • Languages
  • Rules
  • Myths
  • Family patterns
  • Political systems
  • - determine the way people communicate

11
Cultural Influences on OB
Organizational culture
  • Economic/technological
  • setting
  • Political/legal
  • setting
  • Ethnic
  • background
  • Religion
  • Personal
  • values/ethics
  • Attitudes
  • Assumptions
  • Expectations
  • Societal Culture
  • Customs
  • Language

Organizational behavior
12
Your Experience
  • I have worked with people of other cultures at
    work or school.
  • AYes, BNo
  • I have experienced a conflict or been frustrated
    when working with people of other cultures.
  • A Yes, BNo

13
Your Experience
  • The conflict I experienced was due to cultural
    differences.
  • AYes, BNo, C I dont know
  • Learning about different cultures is interesting
    to me.
  • 1Strongly Disagree, 3 Neutral, 5 Strongly Agree

14
Ethnocentrism A Cultural Roadblock
  • Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones native
    country, culture, language, and modes of behavior
    are superior to all others
  • How do you overcome this?

15
Cultural Intelligence
  • Cultural intelligence The ability to interpret
    ambiguous cross-cultural situations accurately.
  • Involves
  • Recognizing different values and practices
  • Understanding the meaning of others actions
  • Perspective on ones own ways

16
Test Your Knowledge
  • A high performing manager was chosen for a
    foreign assignment. She tells a colleague I
    plan on just doing business the way I always do.
    Why change what works? People in the new
    culture may perceive her to be.
  • Ethnocentric
  • Culturally intelligent

17
The Challenge of International and Cross-Cultural
Business Communication
  • Language Differences
  • Nonverbal Communication Differences
  • Facial expressions, body movements, and gestures
  • Other Cultural Differences
  • The most important differences are in the ways
    people in other cultures think and feel values,
    attitudes, religions, political systems, and
    social orders.

18
Two common barriers to successful cross cultural
communication
  • Ethnocentrism
  • the tendency to judge other cultures by the
    standards of ones own culture
  • In order to counter ethnocentric tendencies, you
    must adapt and be willing to accommodate
    communication differences that exist in other
    cultures.
  • Successful communication accommodates the
    customs, behaviors, and discussion topic of your
    foreign audience.
  • Language limitation

19
e.g. Cross Cultural Communication
20
e.g. Cross Cultural Communication (cont.)
21
the ways people in other cultures think and feel
  • VALUES a societys ideas about what is good or
    bad, right or wrong
  • Values determine how individuals will probably
    respond in any given circumstances.
  • Hofstedes Value Dimensions
  • framework for understanding how basic values
    underlie organizational behavior
  • based on his research on more than 116,000 people
    in 50 countries
  • sample - IBM

22
Four value dimensions
  • Power distance
  • Penerimaan masyarakat terhadap
    ketidak-sederajadan.
  • Individualism vs Collectivism
  • Masyarakat individualis memiliki hubungan yang
    renggang, setiap orang diharapkan untuk mengurus
    diri sendiri dan anggota keluarga inti.
    Masyarakat kolektivis memiliki hubungan yang
    erat, saling melindungi dan saling loyal.
  • Masculinity vs Femininity
  • Pada masyarakat maskulin peran jenis dibedakan
    secara tegas, sedang pada masyarakat feminin
    perbedaan peran jenis kabur dan overlap.
  • Uncertainty avoidance
  • Sejauh mana anggota masyarakat merasa terancam
    oleh situasi yang tidak pasti dan belum pernah
    mengalami

23
Four value dimensions
HIGH
LOW
24
Power distance di tempat kerja
25
Individualisme vs Kolektivisme di tempat kerja
26
Maskulinitas vs Femininitas di tempat kerja
27
Uncertainty Avoidance di tempat kerja
28
High vs. Low Context Cultures
  • Low context cultures
  • Communication in low context cultures depends on
    explicit written and verbal message.
  • Germany, Switzerland, the Scandinavian
    countries, USA
  • High context cultures
  • communication in high context cultures depends
    not only on the message itself but also on
    everything that surrounds the explicit message,
    including nonverbal message
  • China, Korea, Japan, the Arab countries

29
High vs. Low Context Cultures
  • High-Context
  • Establish social trust first
  • Value personal relations and goodwill
  • Negotiations slow and ritualistic
  • Chinese
  • Korean
  • Japanese
  • Vietnamese
  • Low-Context
  • Get down to business first
  • Value expertise and performance
  • Agreement by specific, legalistic contract
  • Negotiations as efficient as possible
  • German
  • Swiss
  • Scandinavian
  • North American

30
Adding Context to International Communication
  • Communication context directly influences
    communication style.
  • Several factors affect communication in context
    cultures
  • Personal Relationship
  • Timing
  • Level of Formality
  • Body language
  • Eye contact
  • Personal space
  • Clothing

31
Guidelines for Successful Cross-Cultural
Communication
  • Basic Guidelines
  • Review the Foundations and Principles of Business
    Communication
  • receiver understanding, necessary receiver
    response, a favorable relationship, goodwill for
    organization
  • Analyze Your Own Culture
  • Develop the Ability to Be Open to and Accepting
    of Other Cultures
  • Learn All You Can About the Other Culture and
    Apply What You
  • Keep Your Message Short and Simple When Using
    With Members of Another Culture

32
Guidelines for Successful Cross-Cultural
Communication Cont
  • Basic Guidelines Cont
  • Use Short, Simple Phrases and Sentences When
    Using an Interpreter
  • Practice With Your Interpreter
  • Select Only Translators Who Are Qualified to
    Translate the Type of Written Message You Are
    Sending
  • Provide for Back Translation of Your Written
    Messages

33
MENGELOLA BERANEKA MACAM TENAGA KERJA PRAKTEK
SAAT INI
  • Apakah perusahaan peduli dengan perbedaan?
  • Apakah perbedaan merupakan agenda perusahaan pada
    saat ini?
  • Mengapa perusahaan ikut serta dalam upaya
    mengelola perbedaan (diversity management
    efforts)
  • karena tekanan pemerintah (29)
  • kesadaran dari para manajer senior tentang
    pentingnya program manajemen perbedaan (diversity
    management programs) (95)
  • diakui adanya kebutuhan untuk menarik dan
    mempertahankan tenaga kerja trampil (90)

34
  • Apa yang dilakukan perusahaan saat ini dengan
    adanya berbagai macam perbedaan?
  • Affirmative action plans (laws) legislation
    designed to give employment opportunities to
    groups that have been underrepresented in the
    workforce (e.g. women, minorities)
  • Diversity management programs programs in which
    employees are thought to celebrate the
    differences between people and in which
    organizations create supportive work environments
    for women and minorities

35
  • Apa yang dilakukan perusahaan untuk memelihara
    perbedaan tenaga kerja?
  • promoting policies that discourage sexual
    harassment (93)
  • providing physical access for employees with
    physical disabilities (76)
  • offering flexible work schedules (66)
  • allowing days for religious holidays (58)
  • offering parental leaves (57)

36
  • Berbagai macam program manajemen perbedaan
    (diversity management programs)
  • Awareness-Based Diversity Training
  • a type of diversity management program to make
    people more aware of diversity issues in the
    workplace and get them to recognize the
    underlying assumptions they make about people
  • increase knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity
  • challenge existing assumptions
  • eliminate stereotypes
  • Skills-Based Diversity Training
  • an approach to diversity management that develop
    peoples skills in managing diversity
  • Cross cultural understanding, intercultural
    communication, facilitation skills, flexibility
    and adaptability
  • ? Kedua pendekatan pelatihan tersebut memiliki
    tujuan jangka panjang yang sama berusaha keras
    untuk membuat interaksi antara kelompok yang
    berbeda-beda menjadi lebih mudah dan lebih efektif

37
Diversity Management Two Major Approaches to
Training
Awareness-Based Diversity Training
Skills-Based Diversity Training
  • increase knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity
  • challenge existing assumptions
  • eliminate stereotypes
  • develop new diversity skills
  • strengthen current diversity skills

Improved quality of interaction with people from
diverse groups
Organizations competitive position is enhanced
Levels of morale, productivity, and creativity
are raised
38
  • Diversity management pada umumnya efektif
  • Fakta Diversity is good business
  • Pedoman untuk sukses
  • Actively pursue the best people
  • Make sure that people accepted and fit in
  • Educate everyone
  • Assess how youre doing
  • Pay attention to details
  • Plan for the future

39
Menghindari kesulitan dalam mengelola perbedaan
(diversity management)
  • Focus on a range of differences between people
    not stereotypes
  • Managers should not treat someone as special
    because s/he is a member of a certain group
  • Managing diversity requires total management
    support
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