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Animal Biotechnology

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Animal Biotechnology * * * * * * Application of biotechnology Identify superior animals early Increase rate of genetic improvement Detect abnormalities Improve ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Biotechnology


1
Animal Biotechnology
2
Application of biotechnology
  • Identify superior animals early
  • Increase rate of genetic improvement
  • Detect abnormalities
  • Improve understanding of mechanisms of genetic
    control
  • Determine parentage

3
Applications in genetic improvement
  • Find easily detected genetic differences among
    animals
  • Develop SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism)
    panels to detect those differences
  • Relate SNP differences to productivity
    differences
  • Rank animals on their economic merit
  • Use best animals as parents of the next generation

4
What is genomics?
  • Study of how the genome (DNA) of any species is
    organized and expressed as traits
  • New technologies allow examination of an
    organisms genome as a whole rather than 1 gene
    at a time
  • Livestock and poultry genomes sequenced to
    understand how various genes function (functional
    genomics)

5
Bovine genome sequence
6
Federal support for genomics
  • Cattle
  • Sheep
  • Swine
  • Poultry
  • Horses
  • Aquaculture (fish and other water animals)

7
How do we use genomics?
  • Identify DNA sequences associated with disease
    resistance and production traits
  • Animals can be evaluated as soon as DNA can be
    obtained (even before birth)
  • Best animals to be parents can be determined
    earlier and more accurately

8
Dairy cattle selection before genomics
  • Slow!
  • Progeny testing for production traits takes 3 4
    years from insemination
  • Bull will be at least 5 years old before first
    evaluation is available
  • Expensive!
  • Progeny testing costs 25,000 50,000/bull
  • Only 1 in 8 10 bulls graduate from progeny test
  • At least 200,000 invested in each active bull

9
Background Genetic markers
  • Segment of DNA at a unique physical location in
    the genome that varies sufficiently between
    individuals that its inheritance can be tracked
    through families
  • Markers not required to be part of a gene

10
Genetic markers
  • Allow inheritance to be followed in a region
    across generations
  • SNPs are the markers of choice
  • Need lots 3 million in the genome!

11
Cattle SNP collaboration iBMAC
  • Develop 60,000-bead Illumina iSelect assay
  • Agricultural Research Service, USDA
  • Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
  • Bovine Functional Genomics Lab.
  • Animal Improvement Programs Lab.
  • Meat Animal Research Center
  • University of Missouri
  • University of Alberta
  • Starting 60,800 beads 54,000 usable SNPs

12
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13
Participants
iBMAC Consortium
Funding agencies
  • Illumina
  • Marylinn Munson
  • Cindy Lawley
  • Christian Haudenschild
  • BARC
  • Curt Van Tassell
  • Lakshmi Matukumalli
  • Tad Sonstegard
  • Missouri
  • Jerry Taylor
  • Bob Schnabel
  • Stephanie McKay
  • Alberta
  • Steve Moore
  • USMARC Clay Center
  • Tim Smith
  • Mark Allan
  • USDA/NRI/CSREES
  • 2006-35616-16697
  • 2006-35205-16888
  • 2006-35205-16701
  • USDA/ARS
  • 1265-31000-081D
  • 1265-31000-090D
  • 5438-31000-073D
  • Merial
  • Stewart Bauck
  • NAAB
  • Gordon Doak
  • ABS Global
  • Accelerated Genetics
  • Alta Genetics
  • CRI/Genex
  • Select Sires
  • Semex Alliance
  • Taurus Service

13
14
Genomic evaluation US dairy cattle
  • Cooperating organizations
  • Breed associations (Holstein, Jersey, Brown
    Swiss)
  • Artificial-insemination organizations
  • Own bulls
  • Collect and market semen
  • Full sharing of genotypes and research with
    Canada
  • Trading of genotypes with Switzerland, Germany
    and Austria expect to share with more countries
  • Over 60,000 animals genotyped starting in 2008

15
Getting DNA samples
  • Animals selected
  • Artificial-insemination organizations identify
    male and female calves to genotype
  • Farmers request breed association to arrange for
    genotyping
  • Animal nominated at Animal Improvement Programs
    Laboratory insures pedigree information is in
    database
  • Sample sent to genotyping laboratory
  • Hair follicles (most common)
  • Blood ? Nasal swab
  • Semen ? Ear punch

16
History of application for US dairy cattle
  • Dec. 2007 BovineSNP50 BeadChip available
  • Apr. 2008 First unofficial evaluation released
  • Jan. 2009 Genomic evaluations official for
  • Holstein and Jersey
  • Aug. 2009 Official for Brown Swiss
  • Sept. 2010 Unofficial evaluations from 3K chip
  • released
  • Dec. 2010 3K genomic evaluations become official

17
International implications
  • All major dairy countries investigating genomic
    selection
  • International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull)
    working on how genomic evaluations should be
    integrated
  • EuroGenomics European collaboration to share
    genotypes
  • Large number of predictor animals increases
    prediction accuracy
  • Importing countries changed rules to allow for
    genomically evaluated young bulls

18
Challenges of technology transfer
  • Developed countries
  • Developing countries
  • 100 years of records
  • Phenotypes
  • Pedigree
  • Progeny testing for 50 years
  • Plentiful crop systems
  • Animals developed for temperate climate
  • No records
  • No pedigree
  • Marginal production systems tropical
  • No national testing systems to evaluate germplasm
  • No cash for investing in value-added animals

19
Priorities from Gates Foundation
  • Develop tools and reagents that are applicable to
    underdeveloped areas
  • Collect DNA for breeds to understand current
    genetic distances and admixture
  • Identify critical populations for preservation
    and selection high density chip
  • Enhance local adapted breeds using combinations
    of crossbreeding and selection low density chip

20
PAKUS Water buffalo genomics
  • Identified a set of parentage
  • markers for testing at
  • University of Lahore
  • Sequenced a native breed
  • animal for SNP discovery
  • in water buffalo
  • Lead role in Water Buffalo Genome Project (Italy)
  • Great training opportunity

21
Summary
  • Genomics is revolutionizing animal breeding
  • Genomic selection used extensively in dairy
    cattle breeding
  • High quality genotypes support detection of
    parentage and other errors
  • International collaboration has been important
    for the success

22
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