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Sudan

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Sudan Sudan: Land of the blacks ~ arabic Ancient History Prehistoric tools along the Nile date from 65,000 BC (Early Khartoum) Region of Nubia Northern Sudan ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sudan


1
Sudan
2
Sudan Land of the blacks arabic
3
Ancient History
  • Prehistoric tools along the Nile date from 65,000
    BC (Early Khartoum)
  • Region of Nubia
  • Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt
  • Along the banks of the Nile
  • Homeland of Africa's earliest black culture.
  • Trading route between Mediterranean tropical
    Africa.

4
Nubia
  • Nubian Civilization dates from 3,100 BC.
  • Artifacts
  • Monuments
  • Written accounts from Egypt and Rome
  • Land of the bowmen
  • Archaeology (much of Nubian land was submerged
    under the Aswan Dam and other large projects
    1960s- emergency excavation.

5
Key Periods in Sudan's History
  • 1750 BC rise of the Kerma from scattered kingdoms
    one of the oldest urban areas in Africa.
  • 1500 BC conquered by Eygptians
  • 1000 BC Egyptian empire shattered rise of Kush
    Empire
  • 200 BC Meroe capitol Kushites turned towards
    south rather than north to Eygpt.

6
Sudan's History
  • 500 AD Christians in Sudan
  • Mid 14th Century became Islamic and adopted
    arabic lanuage.
  • 1821 Mohamed Ali Pasha, Ottoman Turkish ruler of
    Egypt, conquered Sudan
  • 1881 Mahdi overthrew colonial Egyptian goverment
  • 1898 British Lord Kitchener overthrew Mahdi
  • Anglo-Egyptian colonial rule
  • 1956 Independence

7
Kerma
  • Ta-Sety (the Land of the Archers Bow)
  • most ancient urban civilization outside Egypt
  • hub of trading network -sub-Saharan Africa, Red
    Sea and Mediterranean
  • Gold, Ivory and ebony

8
Excavating the city of Kerma
9
Grave studies Kerma sites
  • round or oval pits
  • 4 to 5 ft deep
  • food offerings belongings
  • bodies always flexed, on R sides,hands in front
    of faces, feet to the W, heads to the E, looking
    N.
  • Source C.Bonnet, Tomb of archer, Kerma 2200 BC

10
Burials
  • Excavations in Kerma reveal the beginnings of a
    custom of human sacrifice (in some cases several
    100s).
  • The belief in an afterlife in which servants
    would be necessary for the noble wealthy.

11
Kerma
  • 1700-1550 BC Inlay from funeral furniture
  • Source Boston Museum of Fine Arts

12
Artifacts Pottery
  • Kerma pottery
  • Tulip beaker
  • Source Digital Egypt

13
Jebel Barkal
  • Historical city of Nepata southern most limit
    of Egyptian Empire (1500-1080 BC).
  • Later center of independent kingdom of Kush (8thC
    BC) Source Timothy Kendall

14
Jebel Barkal World Heritage Site
  • Ancients and Egyptians were intrigued by the
    unusual rock formations.
  • Egptians thought it was the birthplace home of
    their supreme diety, Amun built a large temple
    here.
  • Nubians' primary religious and coronation site in
    the eighth century B.C.
  • At least 3 palaces, 17 temples and 9 pyramids

15
World Heritage Site 1905 Breasted Expedition
Temple of Amun
16
Nubian Ram at Temple of Amun
17
Nubian Pyramid Photo Ben Lory, DISCOVER Vol. 26
No. 12 December 2005 Anthropology
  • One of 9 at Jebel Barkal.
  • 45ft high
  • Ist Century B.C.
  • Nubians made 180 pyramids (2 x number Egyptians
    constructed)

18
Gold artifacts
  • Many of the artifacts were looted from the site
  • Hinged bracelet of gold with enamel decoration
    showing a seated figure of the goddess Hathor and
    geometrical pattern two hinges loop on each end.

19
Nubian Royal Cemetary at Meroe (250 BC -350
AD) source Dr. Stuart Tyson Smith (UCSB).
20
Meroe Artifacts
  • Nubians moved their capitol south to Meroe.
  • Many treasures like this Museum of Fine Arts,
    Boston
  • Amulet of feline-headed goddess
  • Nubian, Napatan Period, 435431 B.C.

21
  • Pharaonic tradition - stelae pyramids
  • centralized political system - employed artisans'
    skills, large work force.
  • Good irrigation - high population density
  • Ist C BC - hieroglyphs gave way to Meroitic
    script that adapted the Egyptian writing system
    to an indigenous, Nubian-related language.
  • Succession - matriarchal royal family member
    deemed most worthy often became king. The queen
    mother's role was crucial . The crown appears to
    have passed from brother to brother (or sister)
    and only when no siblings remained from father to
    son.

22
Christians In Sudan 500 AD to 1400AD
  • 1960s excavation turned into a sensation at
    Faras- Nubian center
  • Found cathedral with over 120 wall-paintings, 8th
    to 12th century
  • Influence Byzantine art, Egyptian Coptic art.
    Palestinian

23
Faras Cathedral Frescos
24
14th C. Arabs taken over from Christianity Mosque
at Dongolo (converted palace)
25
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26
Five pillars of Islam
  • Shahada or profession of faith is the
    affirmation "There is no god but God (Allah) and
    Muhammad is his prophet."
  • Salat prayer at five specified times of the day.
  • Sawm fasting. Ramadam
  • Zakat almsgiving (helping poor)
  • Haii pilgrimage to Mecca

27
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