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Title: culture of milk fish


1
A seminar on CULTURE OF MILK FISH
2
Contents
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. TAXONOMIC POSITION
  3. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
  4. DESCRIBTION, HABIT HABITAT
  5. FRY COLLECTION
  6. REARING OF FRY
  7. TYPES OF CULTURE
  8. GROW-OUT CULTURE
  9. HARVESTING
  10. SUMMERY
  11. CONCLUSION
  12. REFERENCES.

3
Introduction
  • Milkfish aquaculture first occurred around 800
    years ago in the Philippines and spread in
    Indonesia, Taiwan and into the Pacific.
    Traditional milkfish aquaculture relied upon
    restocking ponds by collecting wild fry. The
    milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the sole living
    species in the family Chanidae.
  • Milkfish, being a euryhaline fish, can grow in
    any clean water environment salinity is not a
    requirement when growing this fish. However,
    transferring from saline water to freshwater
    should be done gradually in a process of
    acclimatization.

4
TAXONOMIC POSITION
  • Phylum - Chordata
  • Subphylum - Vertebrata
  • Class - Osteicthyes
  • Order - Gonorhynchiformes
  • Family - Chanidae
  • Genus - Chanos
  • Species - Chanos chanos

5
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
  • Milkfish, Chanos chanos, is one of the two most
    important species being cultured in Asia, the
    other being carp.
  • It is distributed throughout the entire tropical
    Indo-Pacific Ocean, from 40 E to about 100 W
    and 30 to 40 N to 30 to 40 S.
  • It can tolerate wide ranges of salinity and
    temperature fluctuations.
  • The Philippines, Indonesia and Taiwan are the
    center of geographic distribution.
  • Their distribution coincides with coral reef
    areas where the water is warm (more than 20C),
    clear and shallow.

6
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7
Description
  • Milkfish have a generally symmetrical and
    streamlined appearance, with a sizable forked
    caudal fin.
  • They can grow to 1.70 metres but are most often
    about 1 metre in length.
  • They have no teeth and generally feed on algae
    and invertebrates.

Habit Habitat
Milkfish is a large, long-live species
, and its habitat, behaviour, and food habits
changes with size and stage in the life cycle.
Essentially marine fish of the Indian and
across the Pacific Ocean , tending to school
around coasts and islands with reefs.
8
Contd.
  • Adult spawn at sea , the young fry live at sea
    for two to three weeks and then migrate to
    mangrove swamps, estuaries, and sometimes lakes
    and return to sea to mature sexually and
    reproduce.
  • Highly euryhaline and can live in fresh to
    hyper-saline waters and can tolerate low oxygen
    level.
  • They become sluggish lt 20C and mortality occurs
    at 12C.

9
Culture system
  • Common culture system Brackish water coastal
    pond farms.
  • Farm may include Nurseries, rearing and
    wintering ( where fingerlings have to be
    over-wintered).
  • Mono culture Fresh water ponds and reservoirs,
    Pen culture in fresh water lakes in Philippines.
  • Poly culture Brackish water ponds ( tidal),
    farming with grey mullets, shrimps and sea bass.

10
FRY COLLECTION
  • Wild fry was the major source for milkfish
    culture until recent success in natural spawning
    and mass larval rearing in several milkfish
    farms.
  • Milk fish dont mature and spawn naturally in
    confined waters. They seem to spawn in the sea
    near the coast and the small larvae (12-15 mm)
    occur periodically along the sandy coasts and
    in the estuaries.
  • The instability of wild-fry supplies is an
    obvious problem for the culture of any aquatic
    species and milkfish is no exception.
  • So farmers produce millions of hatchery fry for
    culture every year.

11
METHOD OF FRY COLLECTION
  • Fry collection methods of Southeast Asia carried
    out using fishing gear, such as fry barriers in
    Indonesia and the Philippines, filter bag nets in
    most of the fry-producing countries, seine nets
    in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The selection
    of fishing gear is based on the topography of
    fishing ground and ocean currents.
  • It is important to realize that driving the fry
    into the net, rather than filtering them through
    it, results in higher survival.

12
Collection of milkfish fry using a push net
13
Seed production (induced breeding)
  • Attempts have been made to develop milk fish
    hatchery to meet the increasing demands.
  • Sexes can be distinguished by external
    characteristics. Three openings in the
    urinogenital (anal) region of mature female
    milkfish.
  • Sexually mature males possess only two openings.
  • Mature female collected from sea can be induced
    to spawn using gonadotropin-releasing hormone
    analogue (GnRH-A).
  • Fecundity estimates of 0.3 to 1 million eggs per
    kg body weight.
  • Survival rates under experimental condition
    varies between 9-47.
  • A newly-hatched milkfish larvae measures 3.5 mm
    total length.

14
Rearing of fry
  • Fry can be introduced into rearing ponds after a
    brief period of acclimatization in small nursery
    ponds of about 1000 to 4000 sq mt.
  • Many farmers have adopted the practice of raising
    mainly planktonic organisms as food for milkfish
    fry.
  • Deep ponds are used for better growth of
    phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms.
  • Pond-reared milkfish feed mainly on either lablab
    (a complex mat of bluegreen algae, diatoms and
    associated invertebrates) or lumut (mainly
    filamentous green algae).

Lablab
Lumut
15
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16
PEN CULTURE
  • This system was introduced in the Philippines in
    1979 in the Laguna Lake. At that time, the lake
    had a very high primary productivity, which met
    the nutritional needs of milkfish , because of
    the low rate of input and the high rate of
    return.
  • As the primary production of the lake could not
    meet this sudden expansion of aquaculture, and
    feeding became necessary to meet the nutritional
    requirements of the cultured fish, the pen
    culture practices developed in lakes later
    introduced into inter-tidal areas in the
    Philippines river, estuaries as well.
  • Pen operators stock fingerlings at
    30,000-35,000/ha and provide supplemental
    commercial diets. However, disease spreads among
    culture pens and causes mass mortality.

17
CAGE CULTURE
  • Fish cages are smaller and more restricted
    enclosures that can be staked in shallow waters
    or set-up in deep water with appropriate floats
    and anchors.
  • Cage farming of milkfish is commonly carried out
    in marine waters along coastal bays.
  • Stocking rates are quite high, from 5 up to 30/m³

18
Pond culture
  • Culture of milkfish in ponds may be in shallow or
    deep water systems
  • SHALLOW WATER CULTURE
  • Shallow water culture is practiced mainly in
    Indonesia and Philippines.
  • Milkfish are traditionally cultured in shallow
    water.
  • Brackish water ponds in which the growth of
    benthic algae is encouraged through inorganic or
    organic fertilization.

19
DEEP WATER CULTURE
  • Deep water culture was developed in the mid 1970s
    in response to the decline of profitability of
    shallow water culture, and the limited and
    increasing value of land and manpower resources.
  • Most deep-water milkfish ponds have been created
    by converting either shallow water ponds or
    freshwater ponds, with a depth of 2-3 m.
  • They so far have shown less susceptibility to
    disease than shallow ponds.
  • Production from these systems has sharply
    increased.

20
PREPARATION OF THE PONDS
  • The preparation of the ponds starts about two
    months before the fry are introduced.
  • Construction and setting up of the inner wooden
    gates in the catching ponds.
  • Repairing of the dikes facing the main canal.
  • Poisoning of the ponds in order to avoid unwanted
    species.
  • The pond bottom is leveled in such a way that it
    slopes gradually towards the deepest portion of
    the pond at the sluice gate.

21
Contd.
  • The pond is then dried and exposed to the sun for
    2 or 3 days.
  • Pests and predators that reduce milkfish
    production, are eliminated or controlled either
    by-
  • a) mechanical or b) chemical methods.
  • Lime is applied to ponds to make the soil pH
    neutral or alkaline.

22
PREPARATION OF POND
23
Natural food production
  • Three types of natural food are produced in
    brackish water ponds, namely lablab, lumut and
    plankton.
  • Lablab production
  • Lablab is a complex of minute plants and animals
    occurring initially on the pond bottom as a
    brownish, greenish or yellowish film.
  • It grows well during the dry months in ponds with
    hard bottoms and salinities ranging from 25 to 35
    ppt.

24
Contd.
  • In order to produce lablab, chicken manure is
    scattered, at a rate of 2 tonnes per ha, over
    previously dried ponds from one to four years old
    .
  • Sufficient water is then admitted to barely cover
    the pond bottom.
  • Fish production in ponds with lablab ranges from
    1.5 to 3 tonnes per ha per year.

Lablab
25
Lumut production
  • Filamentous green algae or lumut of the species
    Chaetomorpha linum, Cladophora sp. grow well
    during rainy seasons in ponds with soft bottoms.
    Since lumut is poorly digested by milkfish fry
    and fingerlings it is usually allowed to
    decompose or dry before it is fed to milkfish.
  • Lumut is produced in the same manner as lablab
    but the water depth ranges from 40 to 60 cm.
    Excessive growth of lumut is undesirable because
    it competes with milkfish for living space. Fish
    production in ponds with lumut ranges from 0.2 to
    0.5 tonnes per ha per year.

26
PLANKTON PRODUCTION
  • To produce plankton, 70 to 100 cm of water is
    admitted to a previously drained and well
    prepared pond.
  • Fertilizer is added while or after admitting
    water to the pond. Plankton blooms, characterized
    by the greening of pond water, occur within one
    or two weeks. When plankton blooms, the Secchi
    disc visibility is from 15 to 40 cm.
  • Fish production in ponds with plankton ranges
    from 1.5 to 3 tonnes per ha per year.

27
STOCKING PRACTICES
  • In the traditional pond system
  • a) Nursery ponds with abundant lablab are
    stocked _at_ 30 to 50 fry per m2
  • b) In transition ponds _at_ 10 to 15 fingerlings
    per m2.
  • c) Rearing ponds with lablab, fry stocked _at_
    1,500 to 3,000 fingerlings per ha and
  • d) Ponds with plankton, fingerlings are
    stocked _at_ 3,000 to 5,000 per ha.

28
GROW-OUT CULTURE
  • There are three cropping systems practiced in the
    Philippines the straight culture, the
    progression and the modular methods.
  • In the straight culture method, the fingerlings
    are stocked and reared to marketable size in one
    rearing pond for two to four months.
  • In the progression method, fingerlings are reared
    to marketable size in two different ponds
    fingerlings to post-fingerlings in one pond and
    post-fingerlings to marketable size in another.

29
Contd.
  • An improvement of the progression method is the
    modular method. The fish are reared successively
    in three different ponds connected to one another
    and with progressively increasing areas in a
    124 or 139 ratio.
  • The stock is reared for 45 days in the first pond
    and subsequently transferred to the second and
    third ponds. The vacated pond is immediately
    prepared for the next stock.

30
Production cycle
31
HARVEST
  • The most commonly used method for harvesting
    milkfish that have reached marketable size is the
    water current method.
  • This method takes advantage of the tendency of
    the fish to swim against the current.
  • The method is carried out by draining water in
    the pond to induce fish to swim through the gate.
  • The gate is then closed when all the fish have
    been compounded.
  • Harvesting can also be done by the use of seine
    nets and gill net.

32
Harvesting of milkfish using a seine
33
Milk Fish Culture flow chart
34
Global aquaculture production of Chanos chanos
  • Global annual aquaculture production of milkfish
    has increased every year since 1997 by 2005 it
    had risen to nearly 5,95000 tonnes. The most
    important producers at this time were the
    Philippines (289 000 tonnes), Indonesia (254 000
    tonnes) and Taiwan Province of China (50 000
    tonnes).

35
Summery
  • Milkfish (Chanos chanos) is one of the most
    important food fish species in the world. In
    Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines, more than
    a quarter of a million tonnes of milkfish are
    harvested annually in brackish water ponds
    contributing roughly 60 of the total fish
    production from aquaculture in South-East Asia.
  • Milk fish fry is collected from wild source until
    recent success in natural spawning and mass
    larval rearing in several milkfish farms. Milk
    fish culture is done in mainly three culture
    method pen culture , cage culture and pond
    culture. After becoming table size the fishes are
    harvested using water current method and also
    seine net , gill net.
  • The demand of milk fish is increased day by day
    due to its high market value and high production
    rate.

36
CONCLUSION
  • Milkfish farming in Indonesia, Taiwan and the
    Philippines started about 4-6 centuries ago.
    Culture methods in a variety of enclosures are
    constantly being improved upon.
  • But even in the present days the culture of milk
    fish in India is based on traditional extensive
    culture whereas in the other countries it is far
    advanced.
  • Fish farmers also faces the problems of disease
    and fry feeding.
  • In recent years the possibility of using
    milkfish juveniles as bait for tuna long lining
    has started to be investigated, opening up new
    markets for fry hatcheries.

37
References
  • www.fao.org
  • www.wikipedia.com
  • www.fishbase.org
  • Aquaculture principles and practices T.V.R
    Pillay M.N. Kutty

38
THANK YOU
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