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Illinois College and Work Readiness Partnership

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Title: Illinois College and Work Readiness Partnership


1
Illinois College and Work Readiness Partnership
Presentation on Alignment and Data Illinois
Board of Higher Education August 14, 2007
Elliot Regenstein Jonathan Furr
Holland Knight LLP Michael Cohen
Achieve, Inc.
2
Introduction
  • Purpose of Presentation
  • Process to Date
  • Background on State Policy
  • Summary of Findings
  • Discussion of Alignment in Illinois
  • Discussion of Creating a High Quality State
    Education Data System in Illinois
  • Recommendations for Next Steps

3
Purpose
  • Our goal at this time is to provide a preliminary
    review of the extent to which Illinois policies
    are aligned with college and work expectations,
    particularly with regard to standards, data
    systems, and interventions in underperforming
    schools and districts, and to provide the state
    with options for discussion and action.
  • In this presentation, we will focus on the (1)
    alignment of standards, curriculum
    implementation, assessments, and accountability
    to ensure college and workforce readiness, and
    (2) effective state education data systems. In
    both instances, we will focus on the implications
    of these issue areas for higher education.

4
Process
  • As part of our initial review, we have reviewed
    national and Illinois resources, coordinated with
    national experts, and met with many leaders in
    Illinois government and advocacy, including
    representatives of
  • Office of Governor Rod R. Blagojevich
  • Office of Senate President Emil Jones, Jr.
  • Office of Senate Minority Leader Frank C.
    Watson
  • Office of Speaker Michael J. Madigan
  • Office of House Minority Leader Tom Cross
  • Illinois State Board of Education (State
    Superintendent Dr. Christopher Koch, Assistant
    Superintendent Ginger Reynolds, General Counsel
    Darren Reisberg, Chief Financial Officer Linda
    Mitchell, Division Administrators Connie
  • Wise and Terry Chamberlain)
  • Coalition for Illinois High Schools
  • Illinois Association of School Boards
  • Illinois Association of School Administrators
  • Illinois Education Association
  • Illinois Federation of Teachers
  • Ed-Red
  • SCOPE
  • LEND
  • Illinois Business Roundtable
  • ACT
  • Data Quality Campaign and Managing Partners

5
Background
The Vital Role of State Policy
  • Building the education systems states need for
    the 21st century will require fundamental change,
    including significant policy change with the
    goal of ensuring that all students graduate from
    high school ready for college and work.
  • Based on pressure from above (federal law) and
    below (standards-based reform), the role of
    states in education policy has changed
    dramatically across the country.
  • The good news is that we know a fair amount of
    what policies are most important to achieve our
    education goals from alignment to assessment to
    accountability to resources to human capital to
    student supports to school interventions and
    more.
  • In many cases, the challenge is moving from what
    to how mapping a process of state policy change
    to identify core goals, audit current state
    policies, leverage federal requirements, identify
    national resources and promising practices, build
    public will, determine points of authority, move
    state policy, and then evaluate and review (as
    policies need to constantly evolve and improve).

6
Background
The Objectives of our Process
  • Help the state define its goals, and then define
    what it will take to achieve those goals the
    process steps, and the real cost in time and
    money.
  • Help frame some of the critical policy choices to
    be made, and present options that build on
    nationally emerging consensus areas and best
    practices.
  • Once a basic direction has been set, the process
    will evolve, to help all of the interested
    parties come together to craft solutions that
    really work.
  • Over the next few months, we hope to help the
    state develop a vision of what is possible and
    then continue to work with the state as its
    efforts move from what to how.

7
Background
The Meaning of Alignment
  • Alignment is about expectations What do we
    expect students to know when they graduate from
    12th grade, so that we can reasonably expect them
    to succeed in college and/or the workforce? What
    policies need to be in place to give them the
    greatest chance of meeting those expectations?
  • A strong consensus is emerging regarding the need
    to align high school standards, curriculum,
    assessments, accountability and professional
    development with college and work expectations,
    and the knowledge and skills necessary for
    success in the 21st century. If state systems
    are not aligned in this way, then there is no
    promise that even successful high school students
    will be prepared to succeed beyond high school.
  • An aligned system emphasizes connections between
    all levels of education birth-to-three,
    preschool, elementary school, middle school, high
    school, college, graduate school, and the
    workforce. Today we will focus on the connection
    between high school and what comes after it.
  • We hope to help start an informed discussion of
    what strategies states have used to align their
    systems, where Illinois stands on these issues,
    and what issues and options the state should
    consider.

8
Summary
What Weve Heard -- Alignment
  • People are ready to discuss the kind of systemic
    changes youll hear about today.
  • People recognize that these are important policy
    areas where action may be needed, and are
    interested in helping to shape how it will occur
    both how the process of change will be managed,
    and how local educators will be expected to
    implement state-level changes.
  • Local control remains a deeply held value, and
    will play a critical role in discussions of
    systemic change but it is not the only deeply
    held value, and many people understand that the
    state may need to take an expanded role in
    certain areas to ensure student success
    state-wide.
  • 44 of students in Illinois higher education are
    enrolled in community colleges, which will accept
    graduates of any Illinois high school, and those
    students and their community colleges would
    benefit from increased rigor at the high school
    level.
  • People understand that if state government
    provides significant additional funding to the
    education system, it will expect more from that
    system.

9
Summary
What Youll Hear Today -- Alignment
  • It is time for Illinois to come to a statewide
    consensus about what it means to be college and
    work ready. If Illinois standards do not
    reflect that consensus and they very likely
    will not those standards need to change.
  • Illinois needs to think about alignment of
    curriculum implementation, assessments, and
    accountability system through the same prism
    What does it take to get students ready for
    college and the workforce?
  • Right now, Illinois has some good pieces in
    place, and some progress to build on and has a
    chance to move toward the kind of system it needs
    for all of Illinois students to succeed.
  • Illinois must craft its own solutions that are
    sensitive to Illinois unique context, but should
    do so cognizant of what other states and national
    experts have learned in the decade since Illinois
    last had a comprehensive discussion about
    standards.
  • There are some critical policy choices facing
    Illinois education in the near future, and making
    the right choices can lead to increased student
    success.
  • Systems should be designed to evolve and grow as
    needs change and lessons emerge.

10
Background
State Data Systems
  • Sound data collection, reporting, and analysis
    are critical to building a state education system
    capable of ensuring all students graduate from
    high school ready for college and work.
  • Our goal in this presentation is to
  • Frame the discussion of the State of Illinois
    data efforts within the national conversation
    around the elements of a highly effective state
    education data system
  • Analyze elements that could be added to the
    Illinois data system to improve its effectiveness
    for analysis, accountability, and improvement
    activities and
  • Provide recommendations for enhancing data use by
    the State, districts, educators, and students.

11
Summary
What Weve Heard -- Data
  • People acknowledge the need for and value of a
    high quality state education data system, but
    have concerns about implementation of certain
    elements and the use of other elements.
  • Concerns over adhering to privacy protection laws
    are serving as a major roadblock for the
    establishment of a state policy framework.
  • People are excited about the ways in which the
    state has begun to unlock data for use by
    educators, and seek to continue this trend.
    Concerns exist over the time, tools, and training
    available to educators to enable them to
    effectively use data to improve instruction and
    increase student achievement.

12
Summary
What Youll Hear Today -- Data
  • National consensus has emerged around the
    elements of a highly effective state education
    system, and resources are available to states to
    help build such a system.
  • Illinois has established a foundation for an
    effective longitudinal data system, and has
    demonstrated the commitment to build upon this
    foundation. Through its work in recent years,
    Illinois is moving out of the lowest tier of
    states but still has room for considerable
    improvement.
  • While privacy protection must be addressed, the
    state can develop strategies based upon national
    best practices that adhere to state and federal
    law.
  • Illinois can establish a roadmap to build a
    world-class data system that helps the state to
    achieve its educational objectives. The state
    needs to commit to the elements it seeks to
    include, and then develop priorities and action
    steps for each of the elements.
  • While building a quality data system is critical,
    the state must also continually focus on how it
    can support effective data use. Illinois can
    enhance the effectiveness of its existing tools,
    and further enable data-driven decision-making
    as elements are added to the state longitudinal
    data system.

13
I. Alignment in Illinois
Michael Cohen Achieve, Inc.
14
College and Work Readiness Expectations
Nationally, Many High School Graduates Are
Unprepared for College and Work
  • 30 of first year students in postsecondary
    education are required to take remedial courses.
  • 40 - 45 of recent high school graduates report
    significant gaps in their skills, both in college
    and the workplace.
  • Faculty estimate 42 of first year students in
    credit-bearing courses are academically
    unprepared.
  • Employers estimate 45 of recent high school
    graduates lack skills to advance.
  • ACT estimates only half of college-bound students
    are ready for college-level reading.

15
College and Work Readiness Expectations
A high school diploma is not the last educational
stop required
  • Jobs that require at least some postsecondary
    education will make up more than two-thirds of
    new jobs.

Source Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M.
Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic
Roots of K16 Reform, Educational Testing
Service, 2003.
16
College and Work Readiness Expectations
Jobs in todays workforce require more education
training
Source Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M.
Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic
Roots of K16 Reform, Educational Testing
Service, 2003.
17
College and Work Readiness Expectations
The Costs of Remediation Are High in Illinois
  • In FY 2006, Illinois community colleges provided
    more than 117 million worth of developmental
    education 8.8 of their fiscal year 2006 net
    instructional costs.
  • Of the students taking developmental courses,
    82.2 are taking developmental math and 58.9
    are taking math as their only developmental
    course.

Source Illinois Community College Board
18
Critical Alignment Areas
  • Standards
  • Curriculum Implementation
  • 3. Assessments
  • Accountability

19
1. Standards
20
ADP Research Identifies College and Work -
Readiness Skills
  • Initial ADP research study conducted in Indiana,
    Kentucky, Massachusetts, Nevada and Texas.
  • Involved wide variety of K-12, higher education
    and business representatives.
  • Examined the work high school graduates do in the
    college classroom and on the job, and the
    preparation they needed to do the work.
  • Identified must-have knowledge and skills
    graduates will need to be successful in college
    and the workplace.

21
College Ready Work Ready
  • ADP research found a common core of knowledge
    skills in math and English that are necessary for
    success in postsecondary education and in good
    jobs.
  • ACT Study Ready for College Ready for Work Same
    or Different?
  • Whether planning to enter college or
    workforce training programs after graduation,
    high school students need to be educated to a
    comparable level of readiness in reading and
    mathematics.

22
ADP Has Developed Benchmarks in English and Math
  • In English, the benchmarks cover
  • Language
  • Communication
  • Writing
  • Research
  • Logic
  • Informational text
  • Media
  • Literature
  • Cross-cutting college/workplace tasks
  • In math, the benchmarks cover
  • Number sense and numerical operations
  • Algebra
  • Geometry
  • Data interpretations, statistics and probability
  • Math reasoning skills
  • Cross-cutting college/workplace tasks

23
To be college and work ready, students need to
complete a rigorous sequence of courses
To cover the content in the ADP benchmarks, high
school graduates need
  • In math
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry,
    and a fourth course such as Statistics or
    Precalculus
  • In English
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to four years of grade-level
    English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English)

24
Blue-collar jobs require high level skills
  • Requirements for draftsmen
  • Recommended high school courses include Geometry
    and Trigonometry.
  • Draftsmen may wish to seek additional study in
    mathematics and computer-aided design to keep up
    with technological progress within the industry.
  • Requirements for electricians
  • Recommended high school courses include Algebra,
    Geometry, Trigonometry and Physics.

25
ADP Research Documents an Expectations Gap
  • Nationally, we havent expected all students to
    graduate from high school college- and
    work-ready.
  • State standards reflect consensus about what is
    desirable, not what is essential.
  • In 2004 only two states required algebra II for
    graduation.
  • State high school graduation tests measure 8th
    and 9th grade knowledge and skills.
  • High school accountability rarely focuses on
    graduation rates or on college- and
    work-readiness.

26
Nationwide, Colleges and High Schools Disagree
About Whether Standards Are Rigorous Enough
Percentage of respondents answering that
standards prepared students well or very
well. Source ACT, Aligning Postsecondary
Expectations and High School Practice The Gap
Defined
27
Knowing What They Know Today, High School
Graduates Would Have Worked Harder
ADP Research
Source Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public
Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge Are
High School Graduates Prepared for College and
Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
28
If High School Had Demanded More, Graduates Would
Have Worked Harder
ADP Research
  • Would have worked harder
  • Strongly feel I would have worked harder
  • Wouldnt have worked harder

High school graduates who went to college
High school graduates who did not go to college
Source Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public
Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge Are
High School Graduates Prepared for College and
Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
29
The Majority of High School Graduates Would Have
Taken Harder Courses
ADP Research
Knowing what you know today about the
expectations of college/work
Would have taken more challenging courses in at
least one area Math Science English
Source Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public
Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge Are
High School Graduates Prepared for College and
Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., 2005.
30
Closing the Expectations Gap ADP Policies
  • Align high school standards and assessments with
    the knowledge and skills required for success in
    postsecondary education and work.
  • Administer a college- and work-ready assessment,
    aligned to state standards, to high school
    students so they get clear and timely information
    and are able to address critical skill
    deficiencies while still in high school.
  • Require all students to take a college- and
    work-ready curriculum to earn a high school
    diploma.
  • Hold high schools accountable for graduating
    students who are college ready, and hold
    postsecondary institutions accountable for their
    success once enrolled.

31
Aligning Standards
  • Align high school standards and assessments with
    the knowledge and skills required for success in
    postsecondary education and work.
  • College-ready standards developed jointly by K-12
    and postsecondary education, with employer
    participation.
  • Adopted by K-12 and higher education governing
    bodies.
  • Incorporated in high school curriculum,
    graduation requirements and assessments.
  • Incorporated in postsecondary assessments and
    practices used for placing students in
    entry-level coursework.
  • Support implementation of standards in the
    classroom with tools and professional
    development.

32
Aligning High School Standards with the Demands
of College and Work Achieves Status Report
33
Where Do Illinois Standards Stand?
  • In 1999, at the request of the State Board of
    Education, Achieve, Inc. benchmarked Illinois
    standards. Achieve found that
  • The standards could be more clear, specific, and
    detailed.
  • There is important content missing from the
    standards.
  • In some cases, the standards are repeated
    throughout the grades, making progression of
    learning and mastery of skills difficult to
    determine.
  • The standards underestimate what students as
    capable of at certain grade levels, and
    lower-level skills sometimes are emphasized at
    the expense of higher level thinking skills.
  • Since 1999, the state of the art in standards
    has improved nationwide. But Illinois standards
    have not been comprehensively updated.

34
2. Curriculum Implementation
35
How is Illinois Implementing Standards?
  • It is essential that Illinois have high-quality
    standards reflecting what its high school
    graduates need to know for college and the
    workforce. But to be meaningful, those standards
    must be used.
  • The fact that standards are written in the
    Illinois regulations means nothing unless
  • Educators are trained to use them effectively,
    and are given the conditions to do so.
  • Those well-trained educators actually implement
    the standards.
  • Assessments fairly measure the content required
    by the standards.

36
How is Illinois Implementing Standards?
  • Eight years after Illinois standards were first
    adopted, most high schools were still in the
    process of transitioning them in.
  • The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    will release a report next month, Evaluation of
    the Implementation of the Illinois Learning
    Standards, showing that the standards are not
    fully implemented.
  • The UIUC study, funded by ISBE, identifies five
    levels of standards implementation
  • 1. Maintenance of a Non-Standards-Led System
  • 2. Awareness and Exploration of a Standards-Led
    System
  • 3. Transition to a Standards-Led System
  • 4. Emerging New Infrastructure to Support a
    Standards- Led System
  • 5. Predominance of a Standards-Led System

37
How are Illinois High Schools Implementing
Standards?
  • According to the survey, in 2006 no high schools
    are beyond level 3. By contrast, 16 of
    elementary schools are already at level 4.
  • Elementary Schools High Schools
  • Middle Schools

Source UIUC Illinois Learning Standards study.
38
What Happens When Standards are Implemented?
  • The good news Where standards are being
    implemented, theyre making a difference.
  • According to the UIUC study, the dimensions of
    ILS implementation . . . that correlated with the
    percentages of fifth and eighth graders who met
    or exceeded standards on ISAT reading and math
    were significant predictors. Regression analyses
    showed that these dimensions n accounted for a
    significant portion of variance beyond that
    explained by attendance rate and the percentage
    of low-income students. (emphasis added)
  • This makes sense, given that the assessments are
    based on the current standards.

39
Educators and Curriculum Implementation
  • Standards implementation requires two levels of
    support at the school level. The first level is
    building-level support to create a culture
    supportive of standards-based education, and that
    teachers have the time needed to implement the
    standards collaboratively. The second level is
    teacher-level supports to ensure that teachers of
    individual courses have the content depth
    necessary to teach the standards.
  • Teacher preparation and professional development
    must focus on ensuring that students are learning
    the material in the standards.
  • Implementing standards also requires Illinois to
    think about the quality of teachers teaching the
    standards. High quality teachers are distributed
    unequally in Illinois, a systemic problem the
    state has worked to overcome. And we know that
    when disadvantaged students have access to
    quality teachers, it makes a difference.

40
In Illinois, Teacher Quality Significantly
Affects Outcomes for Low Income Students
Distribution of College Readiness by High School
TQI (Low Income Students Only)
Source Illinois Education Research Council
41
Implementing Standards Requires the Right Courses
  • In addition to ensuring that educators are
    equipped to implement the standards, the state
    must look at how the material in the standards
    are delivered to students through courses.
  • ADP research has shown that in math and English,
    certain courses are necessary to ensure that
    students are ready for college and the workforce.

42
College- and Work-Ready Graduation Requirements
  • ADP Recommendation Require all students to take
    a college- and work-ready curriculum aligned with
    standards to graduate from high school.
  • In math
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to Algebra I, Geometry,
    Algebra II, and a fourth course such as
    Statistics or Precalculus
  • In English
  • Four courses
  • Content equivalent to four years of grade-level
    English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English)

43
College- and Work-Ready Graduation Requirements
  • A strong high school curriculum improves college
    completion and narrows gaps.

Completing at least Algebra II plus other
courses. Source Adapted from Adelman, Clifford,
U.S. Department of Education, Answers in the
Toolbox, 1999.
44
College- and Work-Ready Graduation Requirements
  • Low achieving students learn more in rigorous
    courses.

Grades 812 test score gains based on 8th grade
achievement.
Source U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics, Vocational
Education in the United States Toward the Year
2000, in Issue Brief Students Who Prepare for
College and Vocation.
45
States with College- Work-Ready Graduation
Requirements Achieve Status Report
46
States with College- Work-Ready Graduation
Requirements
  • Eight states have made core curriculum the
    default option.
  • 9th graders are automatically placed into
    college- and work-prep course of study, but can
    opt out into less rigorous course of study with
    parental and school permission.
  • Five states require all students to complete
    college- and work-ready course of study.

47
Illinois Universities Require More Courses For
Admission Than Illinois High Schools Are Required
to Provide (Even Post-PA 94-676)
Note The University of Illinois at Urbana
Champaign and Illinois State University both have
higher requirements in the other category.
Some programs at UIUC also require 3.5 years of
math.
48
Illinois Students Get Mixed Messages About What
Math Courses Are Necessary And None of the
Messages Are Strong Enough
Math requirements
49
3. Assessments
50
College- and Work-Ready Assessments
  • California State University System augmented
    state high school assessment.
  • Texas and New York uses higher-than-passing cut
    score on high school graduation exam.
  • Illinois, Colorado, Kentucky, Michigan and others
    use the ACT as part of high school assessment
    system.
  • Nine states are preparing to use an end-of-course
    exam in Algebra II.

51
College- and Work-Ready Assessments
Illinois Administers ACT and WorkKeys
  • How are the tests used to tell students if they
    are college- and work-ready?
  • Do high schools use the results to trigger extra
    help where indicated?
  • Do postsecondary institutions use the ACT to make
    placement decisions?
  • Do employers use WorkKeys for employment
    purposes?
  • Does ISBE use the results to hold schools
    accountable for college- and work-readiness?

52
4. Accountability
53
Accountability
  • Achieve recommends holding high schools
    accountable for graduating students who are
    college ready, and holding postsecondary
    institutions accountable for their success once
    enrolled.
  • P-16 longitudinal data system with unit student
    records.
  • NGA graduation rate used for high school
    accountability.
  • Postsecondary feedback reports to high schools on
    success of their graduates in postsecondary.
  • Public reporting of and high school
    accountability for remediation rates, first year
    success, time to degree and college graduation.

54
Accountability
  • College Ready Indicators
  • of students completing college- and work prep
    curriculum.
  • of students taking AP and IB courses.
  • of students earning college credits.
  • of students meeting college-ready score on ACT.
  • Graduation Rate Indicators
  • On-time promotion rates.
  • of students entering 9th grade off track who
    earn enough credits by end of 9th grade who are
    promoted to 10th grade.
  • Early warning indicators of students at greatest
    risk of dropping out.

55
Issues and Options For Consideration

56
Standards
  • The central question Do Illinois current
    standards reflect what Illinois collectively
    believes students should know and be able to do
    when they graduate from high school, in order to
    succeed in college and the workplace?
  • Options include
  • 1) Having Achieve do further work to determine
    how Illinois standards compare to benchmarks,
    and/or
  • 2) Start the process of determining what
    Illinois collectively believes students should
    know and be able to do when they graduate from
    high school.
  • Ultimately, Illinois standards must be developed
    by Illinois educators to reflect Illinois values,
    and must be tailored to Illinois context but
    must be sensitive to the fact that part of
    Illinois context is as a competitor in a global
    economy. Accordingly, the conversation about our
    standards should include P-12 education, higher
    education, the business community, national
    experts, and other interested groups, and should
    build on conversations ISBE is already having
    about Illinois standards.

57
Curriculum Implementation
  • The central question If and when Illinois
    standards represent its collective judgment about
    what high school graduates should know and be
    able to do when they graduate from high school,
    what policies can and must be put in place to
    make sure that students have access to those
    standards?
  • In answering this question, issues to consider
    include
  • The recommendations of the UIUC report, including
    additional supports for districts to implement
    standards.
  • The opportunity to leverage existing ISBE
    initiatives, such as the Standards Aligned
    Classroom and the Survey of Enacted Curriculum.
  • The possibility of developing a model curriculum.
  • Recommendations from Achieve about what courses
    are necessary components of graduation
    requirements.
  • Whether colleges and universities are demanding
    the right courses from students.
  • The varying needs of the workforce around the
    state, as identified by businesses and the
    Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity.
  • The appropriateness of carrot and stick
    approaches in different situations.
  • The varying needs and resources of teachers,
    schools, and districts around the state.

58
Assessments and Accountability
  • The central question How can Illinois use
    assessments, and develop an accountability system
    (with appropriate targeted interventions) to help
    ensure student success in college and the
    workforce?
  • In answering this question, issues to consider
    include
  • How ACT and WorkKeys can inform teachers,
    students, colleges, and employers about college
    and work readiness.
  • What can be done to make the second day of the
    PSAE more meaningful, possibly including
    scholarships, aligning with community college
    placement exams, and/or aligning with ACTs
    National Career Readiness Certificate.
  • Whether PLAN and EXPLORE can be made more useful
    to the state and to individual schools and
    students, including as a possible trigger for
    remediation leading up to the PSAE.
  • Whether end-of-course assessments could be
    developed in high school core subjects.
  • The ability to provide remediation in a K-12
    setting based on assessment scores.
  • What factors appropriately measure college and
    workforce readiness.
  • How best to target the right interventions to the
    right schools.
  • We will be back before the State Board of
    Education at its September meeting for a fuller
    discussion of accountability, particularly
    targeted interventions.

59
Next Steps
  • All of these issues should be viewed as part of a
    comprehensive whole.
  • The first critical decision is what Illinois
    intends to do about its standards. The answer to
    that question will inform the discussion of every
    other issue discussed in this report.
  • The state should continue to engage key
    advocates, including higher education and
    business, in its discussions of college and work
    readiness.

60
II. Creating a High Quality State Education Data
System

61
The Importance of a High Quality State System
  • More than just a one-time annual snapshot of
    student performance.
  • Quality longitudinal state education data systems
    make it possible to
  • Follow students academic progress as they move
    from grade to grade
  • Determine the value-add and effectiveness of
    specific schools and programs
  • Identify consistently higher-performing schools
    so that educators and the public can learn from
    best practices
  • Accurately target under-performing schools and
    students for support and interventions
  • Evaluate the effect of teacher preparation and
    training programs on student achievement
  • Focus school systems on preparing a higher
    percentage of students to succeed in rigorous
    high school courses, college, and challenging
    jobs and
  • Provide the means for quick and accurate
    predictive analysis and trending.
  • Necessary to meet federal requirements, leverage
    federal flexibility, and position the state for
    national funding opportunities.

62
The Importance of a High Quality State System
Emergence of National Collaborative Efforts
  • NCLB reporting requirements created a heightened
    focus on the need for national consensus around
    data quality, definitions, and use.
  • In 2004-05, the Council of Chief State School
    Officers (CCSSO) formed the National Education
    Data Partnership to provide technical assistance
    to states, and launched a free, comprehensive
    public web site SchoolMatters.com that
    normalized state education data nationally and
    shed light on all 50 states performance.
  • The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) was formed in
    2005 to encourage and support state policymakers
    to
  • Improve the collection, availability, and use of
    high quality education data and
  • Implement state longitudinal data systems to
    improve student achievement.

63
The Importance of a High Quality State System
Resources for State Implementation
  • CCSSO and the National Education Data
    Partnership
  • CCSSO Education Information Advisory Committee
    (EIMAC) Where decisions about data elements and
    consensus are driven among state education
    agencies and coordinated with DQC and EdFacts.
  • DSACII (Decision Support Architecture Consortium
    II) Monitored by EIMAC membership, select states
    (with expert guidance) develop a model for
    enterprise architecture for use by states and
    districts to better coordinate their
    organizational structures and use of technology
    and data.
  • States have the opportunity to participate fully
    with CCSSO in shaping and feeding data to the
    State Education Data Center (SEDC). SEDC will be
    rebranding SchoolMatters.com as a free, navigable
    website presenting data at the school, district,
    and state levels.
  • DQC resources (www.dataqualitycampaign.org)
    Provides issue briefs webinars, toolkits, 10
    Essential Elements survey, and state case
    studies.
  • Coordinated Data Ask (CDA) An effort by various
    national organizations and the U.S. Department of
    Education to limit the data reporting burden on
    states.
  • U.S. Department of Education Through the
    Institute of Education Sciences (IES) grant
    program, has provided 50M to date for state
    longitudinal data system development (funding
    recipients include AK, AR, CA, CT, FL, KY, MD,
    MI, MN, OH, PA, SC, TN, and WI). Other federal
    funding streams may be applied toward state data
    investments.

64
The Importance of a High Quality State System
Gates Foundation 2004-2007 Data Investment Focus
  • Awareness, transparency, access, and use of data
    transforming the conversation from compliance
    reporting to analysis and action guided by
    undisputable, nationally-normalized information

65
National Benchmark The Data Quality Campaign
10 Essential Elements
  • Unique statewide student identifier
  • Student-level enrollment, demographic, and
    program participation information
  • Ability to match individual students test
    records from year to year to measure growth
  • Information on untested students
  • Teacher identifier system with ability to match
    teachers to students
  • Student-level transcript information, including
    information on courses completed and grades
    earned
  • Student-level college readiness test scores
  • Student-level graduation and dropout data
  • Ability to match student records between the
    Pre-K-12 and post-secondary systems
  • State data audit system assessing data quality,
    validity, and reliability

Source Data Quality Campaign/National Center
for Education Accountability 2006 Survey of State
P-12 Data Collection Issues.
66
National Benchmark The Data Quality Campaign
Other DQC Fundamentals
  • Privacy protection Student privacy must be
    considered with the development of each element
    and the exploration of each report.
  • Data architecture States need to clearly define
    how data is coded, stored, managed, and used.
  • Data warehousing States need a data system that
    not only links student records over time and
    across databases but also makes it easy to query
    those databases and produce standard or
    customized reports.
  • Interoperability Data interoperability entails
    the ability of different software systems to
    share information without the need for customized
    programming or data manipulation by the end user.
  • Portability Data portability is the ability to
    exchange student transcript information
    electronically across districts and between P-12
    and postsecondary institutions within a state and
    across states.
  • Professional development around data processes
    and use Building a longitudinal data system
    requires ongoing professional development of the
    people charged with collecting, storing,
    analyzing, and using the data produced through
    the data system.
  • Researcher access States should develop ways to
    make student-level data available to researchers
    while protecting the privacy of student records.

67
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis

68
General Status of the Illinois Data System
  • Illinois has established a foundation for an
    effective state longitudinal data system
  • Statewide implementation of the unique student
    identifier and
  • Leadership commitment to the importance of a high
    quality data system.
  • Illinois is actively seeking to improve upon its
    current system
  • Feasibility study for data warehouse
  • Conversations around P-12 and higher education
    linkages and
  • Concerted efforts to obtain state and federal
    funding.
  • As Illinois contemplates significant improvements
    to its system, it has a window of opportunity to
    also analyze how its overall data objectives
    build off of the national knowledge base and best
    practice approaches from other states.

69
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Overview
  • In place
  • Unique student identifier
  • Student-level enrollment, demographic, and
    program participation data
  • Ability to match students test records from year
    to year
  • Information on untested students
  • Student-level behavioral data
  • In place, with caution
  • Student-level graduation and dropout data
  • State data audit system assessing data quality,
    validity, and reliability
  • Not in place
  • X Student-level transcript information
  • X Student-level college readiness test scores
  • X The ability to match teachers to students
  • X The ability to match student records between
    P-12 and higher education

70
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
In Place, With Caution
  • Student-level graduation and dropout data
  • NGA Longitudinal Graduation Rate
  • students graduating within four years with a
    regular or advanced diploma/
  • (first time entering ninth graders four years
    earlier) (transfers in) (transfers out)
  • Every state has signed the NGA Graduation Rate
    compact, but many states (including IL) are
    struggling with its implementation.
  • State data audit system assessing data quality,
    validity, and reliability
  • Ensuring data quality, validity, and reliability
    is a continuous process, relating to every
    element.
  • Data collection and use is a professional
    expertise, requiring staffing capacity and
    sufficient resources at the state and local
    levels.

71
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing Student-level Transcript Information
  • Why is this element important?
  • Grades can be a better indicator for dropping out
    than state assessment data (the off-track
    indicator).
  • Transcript information from middle and high
    school students is needed to determine (a) how
    students success in college relates to their
    high school courses, test scores, and grades and
    (b) whether districts are offering students a
    college- and work-ready curriculum.
  • Timely access to transcript information is
    critical for an increasingly mobile student
    population.

72
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing Student-level Transcript Information
(contd)
  • Implementation issues
  • ACT currently collects self-reported transcript
    information from students, which can be a
    starting point.
  • To put in place a more comprehensive transcript
    collection process, the state will need to define
    state data codes to ensure consistent reporting
    school districts. In doing this, the state could
    use the School Codes for Exchange of Data (SCED)
    course classification system developed by the
    National Center for Education Statistics (NCES).
  • - The SCED coding structure has five basic
    elements (1) schooling level (2) course
    description (3) course level (4) available
    credit and (5) sequence.
  • - The intent of the SCED course description
    system is to generally describe, not dictate, the
    information covered by a particular course.
  • - The state can map a districts transcript
    information to the SCED it does not require
    districts to redefine their course descriptions.
  • The state will need to work closely with
    districts to ensure seamless integration with
    existing district data systems to avoid double
    entry.
  • Adding transcript information to the state data
    system can be coupled with an effort to
    facilitate the submission of electronic
    transcripts by students.

73
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing Student-level Transcript Information
(contd)
  • Other state approaches
  • Florida The Florida Academic Counseling and
    Tracking for Students (FACTS) system uses
    transcript information provided by schools for
    comprehensive college/career planning and
    scholarship information.
  • Texas Texas is launching its Records Exchange
    System this fall. The system will fully automate
    and exchange transcript records across the Texas
    education system, saving 7.71 for each paper
    transcript and enabling students and schools to
    quickly receive, review, and utilize the
    information.
  • Midwest Higher Education Compact (MHEC) MHEC
    allows 10 midwestern states (including Illinois)
    to facilitate the transfer of student information
    among the Midwests public and private high
    schools and colleges and universities in a
    consistent format. Indiana has utilized MHEC to
    create a comprehensive e-Transcript Initiative.
  • Chicago Chicago uses transcript information and
    other data elements to monitor high school
    student progress and signal when students may be
    at risk for dropping out and need intensive
    catch-up support.

74
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing Student-level College Readiness Test
Scores
  • Why is this element important?
  • Inclusion of EXPLORE, PLAN, and ACT scores can
    allow the state to calculate student growth and
    perform analyses in relation to ACTs national
    college-readiness benchmarks.
  • The state can use AP/IB scores to analyze impact
    of state policies and funding, and determine how
    participation rates in AP and IB exams change
    over time, particularly for low-income and
    minority students.
  • Implementation issues
  • ACT (including EXPLORE, PLAN, and WorkKeys) and
    AP/IB scores can be added to SIS, provided ISBE
    obtains the scores in a useful file from ACT and
    the College Board.
  • ACT currently provides ISBE with a data file that
    contains most of the information collected
    through the ACT registration form.
  • Other state approaches
  • ACT is actively collaborating with a number of
    other states to share data and perform analyses
    that support state policy-making.

75
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing The Ability to Match Teachers to
Students
  • Why is this element important?
  • Data collection and subsequent analyses can be
    used in formative ways to recognize high quality
    instruction and to focus on improving student
    achievement.
  • Data can be used as a tool for teacher
    preparation programs and state policymakers to
    better understand the link between teacher
    training and qualifications and student academic
    growth.
  • Implementation issues
  • Addressing fears relating to data use.
    Policymakers need to acknowledge that student
    assessment scores are only one piece of the
    puzzle. Many states have directly addressed
    concerns over data use prior to implementation of
    a teacher/student match.
  • Matching students to the teachers that taught
    them.
  • More complicated linkage at the middle/high
    school level.

76
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing The Ability to Match Teachers to
Students (contd)
  • Other state approaches
  • Delaware Limits use for school improvement and
    federal reporting.
  • Ohio Value-added analysis that measures impacts
    of schools and teachers impact on student
    growth. In Ohio, the teacher unions have
    supported efforts to study the use of value-added
    data to ascertain its validity, effectiveness,
    and limitations as a diagnostic tool for school
    improvement.
  • Virginia System created in partnership with
    teacher preparation programs to focus on program
    improvement. Links student and teacher databases
    (including quality teacher survey data) to help
    programs determine how their graduates fare and
    improve educator preparation and support.
  • Louisiana Uses a value-added approach as one of
    four levels of effectiveness to demonstrate the
    quality of all public and private teacher
    preparation programs in the state. Louisianas
    approach is focused on creating highly effective
    teacher preparation programs, and does not
    identify individual teachers.

77
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing P-12 and Higher Education Linkage
  • Why is this element important?
  • The state can provide postsecondary feedback
    reports to high schools on the success of their
    graduates in college.
  • College-readiness indicators, such as remediation
    or persistence rates, can be used for public
    reporting and/or state accountability purposes.
  • A common data set can facilitate college
    placement and scholarship decisions.
  • Colleges can know incoming students remediation
    needs prior to their arrival on campus.
  • The state can undertake analysis and public
    reporting on the percentage of a districts or
    high schools graduates who enroll in college
    after graduation, and how students success
    relates to their high school courses, test
    scores, and grades.
  • Implementation issues
  • Institutional participation and coordination.
  • The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
    (FERPA).

78
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing P-12 and Higher Education Linkage
(contd)
Shared Enrollment File 48 Public Community
Colleges 12 Public Universities DePaul and
Bradley
PreK System (under development)
Other Private Higher Ed Institutions
ISBE Systems SIS, ECS, others
Illinois Student Assistance Commission
  • Institutional Participation and Coordination
  • Establishing administrative/governance systems
    for data system linkages,
  • coordination, analysis, and reporting.
  • Establishing common data definitions and
    student identification numbers.
  • Creating the technical data bridges.

79
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing P-12 and Higher Education Linkage
(contd)
  • The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
    (FERPA)
  • FERPA prohibits USED-funded educational agencies
    from disclosing students education records or
    personally identifiable information without
    parental consent.
  • FERPA does not apply to information that is not
    personally identifiable.
  • Statutory exceptions
  • - Evaluation/audit of state and local programs
    school district accountability
  • - Assessment, enrollment, and graduation data
    authorized by NCLB to be linked in a state
    longitudinal data system
  • - Organizations performing studies to improve
    instruction and
  • - Sharing student records with a school in which
    the student newly enrolls or intends to enroll
    (subject to notice to parents and right to
    contest the contents).
  • Prohibits re-disclosures of information
    unresolved as to whether the re-disclosure
    prohibition applies if an exception applies.
  • No private right of action. USED must first seek
    voluntary compliance.
  • FERPA concerns are legitimate and must be
    addressed, as they have been in other states that
    have established a P-12 and higher education data
    link.

80
The DQC 10 Essential Elements Illinois Analysis
Missing P-12 and Higher Education Linkage
(contd)
  • Other State Approaches
  • Texas
  • - Reports college-readiness indicators, including
    remediation rates, on high school report cards.
  • Florida
  • - Common course numbers across high school and
    postsecondary.
  • - Common data warehouse produces high school and
    community college feedback reports.
  • Louisiana
  • - The K-12 system collects all student transcript
    information for the states Board of Regents.
    The system calculates a core GPA based on a core
    set of courses for scholarship and admissions
    requirements, and determines remediation needs.
  • - The state produces a first-time freshman report
    that contains detailed findings pertaining to
    high school graduates who were enrolled full-time
    in one of 30 Louisiana higher education
    institutions in the Fall semester.

81
Effective Data Use
82
Effective Data Use
State-level Policy-making
  • The state needs to develop, through leadership at
    the highest levels, a culture of using objective
    data for policy-making.
  • Adhere to ISBEs Strategic Plan Goal of
    Expanding Data-Informed School Management and
    Support Practices.
  • Ensure a system for objective, timely, robust
    analysis associated with state-funded programs.
  • A Scientific Survey for education?
  • Data use and analysis should support state
    policy-making in a fluid manner, with close ties
    between the research and analysis, policy-making,
    and implementation functions.

83
Effective Data Use
Instructional Improvement
  • The state system must be built to serve as the
    primary data analysis system for some districts,
    and a strong foundation for others using their
    own data analysis systems. A state system
    generally will not allow a user to perform
    in-year, formative analysis.
  • Three methods by which the state can improve
    local data use
  • Build statewide platforms/systems directly
    accessible to local educators and students
  • Grants/technical assistance to improve district
    capacity to perform in-year, formative analysis
    in an integrated manner with the statewide
    system and
  • Use of the states corrective authority to focus
    underperforming schools and districts on improved
    data analysis and use directed towards improving
    teaching and learning for all students.

84
Effective Data Use
Instructional Improvement Specific
Recommendations
  • Build off of an existing strong foundation (IIRC,
    e-Plans, assessment frameworks, etc.)
  • Ensure a basic level of familiarity with existing
    state resources. Expand through innovative
    technical assistance methods (e.g., web-based
    tutorials).
  • Continue to improve upon IIRC/e-Plans
  • - Link assessment frameworks to IIRC/e-Plans
    analysis.
  • Build into IIRC/e-Plans 9th and 10th grade
    assessment information.
  • Ensure ACT resources/analysis tools are
    seamlessly linked to IIRC/e-Plans/other state
    resources.
  • Facilitate data co-ops for multiple districts
    to enable and drive data-driven decision-making.
  • Ensure/promote the availability of time during
    the school day/year for training and extracting
    analysis from data.
  • Link the state data system to career-planning
    resources and college enrollment.

85
Recommendations for Next Steps - Data
86
Elements of the State Data System
The Central Questions
  • Illinois has made a commitment and is taking
    active steps to build a strong longitudinal state
    education data system. What priority areas does
    the state need to identify from here, and what is
    the process? How can Illinois build a system
    that makes it a national leader and allows the
    state to achieve the full extent of its
    educational goals?

87
Elements of the State Data System
The DQC 10 Essential Elements - Specific
Recommendations
  • Student-level transcript information
  • Analyze the process and cost for establishing a
    common course classification/transcript entry
    system for middle and high schools that meets
    districts where they are.
  • Review benefits of adding transcript information
    for district paperwork reduction, student
    planning/college enrollment, and obtaining FERPA
    authorizations for P-12 and higher education
    linkages.
  • Consider how transcript information can help the
    state build an early warning system for dropout
    prevention.
  • Student-level college readiness test scores
  • Work with ACT and the College Board to determine
    process for inclusion in the state system.
  • Develop partnerships and strategies for use of
    college readiness test scores in state and local
    data analysis.
  • The ability to match teachers to students
  • Establish a broad-based working group to develop
    recommendations for a state approach to linking
    teacher and student information, focusing
    specifically on district/school and teacher
    preparation program improvement strategies.
  • The ability to match student records between P-12
    and higher education
  • Develop specific strategies for addressing FERPA.
  • Use the Shared Enrollment and Graduate File Work
    Group to define objectives for the use of linked
    P-12 and higher education data system (e.g.,
    enrollment/scholarships, advance
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