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Overview and Creativity

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Title: Overview and Creativity


1
Overview and Creativity
  • MFG 202
  • History of Creativity in the Arts, Sciences and
    Technology

2
What is creativity?
  • A way of thinking and doing that brings
    unexpected and original ideas to fruition.

3
Elements of Creativity
  • Unique (usually thinking)
  • Value (usually doing)
  • Intent (usually doing)
  • Implementation Excellence/Continuation (doing)

4
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5
Thinking in new ways
  • Linear and lateral

6
How the Mind Works
  • Information is placed in zones (files)
  • Logical links are automatically created (index)
  • Information from all the senses can be converted
    and stored as regular data

7
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8
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9
ValueOrdinary Creativity (small c)
  • Everyone does it
  • Doing something you have never done before
  • Developing a skill (which many others have also
    mastered)

10
  • The average person thinks he isnt.
  • --Father Larry Lorenzon

11
ValueExtraordinary Creativity (big C)
  • You must impress those who judge your work
  • You must make a contribution to the domain

12
Value
  • Perhaps what differentiates highly creative
    ideas from ordinary ones is some combined sense
    of beauty, simplicity, and harmony.
  • Douglas R. Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach

13
Intent Preparation
  • Chance favors the prepared mind.
  • Louis Pasteur
  • Diligence is the mother of good luck.
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • It takes a lot of work to get to the point where
    one can be lucky.
  • Robert Woodward, Nobel laureate in
    chemistry
  • Serendipity

14
Continuance and Implementation Excellence
  • Skill level (performance creativity)
  • Prodigies not as surprising in skills as in
    understanding (which usually takes experience)

15
How the class helps you in thinking and doing
more creatively
  • Lectures and readings
  • Linear in details and sequences
  • Lateral in relating one period or person to
    another
  • Renaissance versus Baroque
  • Bacon versus Descartes
  • Lateral in comparing themes between readings
  • Quizzes test doing ability

16
How the class helps you in thinking and doing
more creatively
  • Exams
  • Linear in identifications
  • Lateral in take home
  • Linear and lateral in essays (lateral for
    comparisons and linear for support)
  • Timed nature of exam forces implementation
    excellence
  • Creative project/paper
  • Linear in execution
  • Lateral in relationship to history and creativity
  • The difference between an A project and a B
    project is big C

17
  • Creativity is like cooking a great meal. The
    first essentials are the basic ingredients (such
    as the meat and the potatoes) which must be of
    the finest quality. This is the depth and for
    creativity it is the experience and study within
    the domain. The second important part involves
    the spices. These lift the taste to new areas.
    These are like the lateral thoughts and creative
    thinking skills. They excite the mind to new
    things. Finally, the chef must have passion for
    the meal. This is not easily explained but is
    clearly understood when it is present. It is the
    presentation, the choices, the verve when
    everything is put together. In creativity, it is
    the desire, persistence, and implementation.
  • from Goleman, Daniel et al., The Creative
    Spirit, Plume, 1992, p.29-30.

18
Creativity
  • Creativity in art, science and humor are
    different aspects of the same things

19
Creativity throughout History
  • Affected by the environment or situation of the
    times
  • Affected by personal influence
  • Vitality of creativity

20
  • "After civilizations have reached a peak of
    vitality, they tend to lose their cultural steam
    and decline. An essential element in this
    cultural breakdown is a loss of
    flexibility...Whereas growing civilizations
    display endless variety and versatility, those in
    the process of disintegration show uniformity and
    lack of inventiveness. The loss of flexibility
    in a disintegrating society is accompanied by a
    general loss of harmony among its elements, which
    inevitably leads to the outbreak of social
    discord and disruption.
  • The Turning Point, Fritjof Capra

21
First Semester Review
  • River societies
  • Mesopotamia
  • Egypt
  • Indus River Valley
  • Yellow River Valley

22
First Semester Review
  • Greek culture became dominant
  • Trade and interaction with other societies
  • Humanism
  • Philosophy
  • Art and science

23
First Semester Review
  • Romans applied other cultures and learning
  • Greece provided the blueprint
  • Practical application
  • Government
  • Technology
  • Art
  • Thieves or innovators?

24
First Semester Review
  • Byzantium
  • Continued the Roman Empire but lost direction
    and, therefore, creativity

25
First Semester Review
  • Islam
  • Highly creative
  • Religion
  • Art
  • Architecture
  • Science
  • Literature

26
First Semester Review
  • Middle ages creativity lost
  • Absence of rule of law
  • Absence of leisure time
  • Absence of learning
  • Corruption in the Catholic church
  • Minor revival in days of Charlemagne

27
First Semester Review
  • Late Middle ages creativity revival (slowly)
  • Positives
  • Nations
  • Scholasticism
  • Gothic
  • Dante
  • Chaucer
  • Discovery
  • Negatives
  • Great schism in Catholic church

28
Second SemesterCreative Periods
  • The Renaissance
  • The Reformation
  • The Scientific Awakening
  • The Baroque
  • The Enlightenment
  • The Classical
  • The Romantic
  • The Impressionistic
  • The Modern and Post-modern

29
Second SemesterSocietal changes
  • 1500 to 1648 Dominated by the issue of what to
    believe in religion (Redefinition of the First
    Estate)
  • 1649 to 1789 Dominated by the issue of the mode
    of government (Redefinition of the Second Estate)
  • 1790 to present Dominated by the issue of
    social and economic equality (Redefinition of the
    Third Estate)

30
Second Semester
  • National Prominence
  • 15th CenturyItaly
  • 16th CenturySpain
  • 17th CenturyFrance
  • 18th CenturyEngland
  • 19th CenturyGermany
  • 20th CenturyAmerica
  • 21st Century?

31
  • "The illiterate of the twenty-first century will
    not be those who cannot read and write, but those
    who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn."
  • Toffler, Alvin (author of Future Shock), quoted
    in Thorpe, Scott, How to Think Like Einstein,
    Barnes Noble Books, Inc., 2000, p. 26.

32
What will you learn?
  • Hopefully To put it all together!
  • Example Invention of Kevlar (fiber used to make
    bullet-proof vests)

33
  • "To invent, I draw upon my knowledge, intuition,
    creativity, experience, common sense,
    perseverance, flexibility, and hard work. I try
    to visualize that desired product, its
    properties, and means of achieving it. I look
    for unusual developments that can affect the
    process, the polymer, and its properties. Some
    inventions result from unexpected events and the
    ability to recognize these and use them to
    advantage."
  • Stephanie Louise Kwolek (inventor of Kevlar),
    quoted in Invention and Technology, Winter 2003,
    p. 62.

34
Thank You
35
Enhancing personal creativity as a consequence of
this class
  • Problem
  • Encouraging personal creativity
  • Giving a grade

36
  • It takes a lot of work to get to the point
    where one can be lucky.
  • Robert Woodward, Nobel laureate in chemistry

37
  • Question What advice would you give to teachers
    to encourage creativity in young people? "I
    think you have to inspire young people to believe
    in themselves and not to fear thinking
    differently. Also, young people should be
    exposed to books about creative people and should
    be able to meet and talk with creative people.
    And I believe the creative process can be taught
    to a certain extent."
  • Stephanie Louise Kwolek (inventor of Kevlar),
    quoted in Invention and Technology, Winter 2003,
    p. 62.

38
  • "I have no special gift. I am only passionately
    curious."
  • Einstein, quoted in Thorpe, Scott, How to Think
    Like Einstein, Barnes Noble Books, Inc., 2000,
    p. 115.

39
  • "First, the occurrence of an insight indicates a
    certain degree of mastery of a domain, something
    comparable to being able to speak a language with
    spontaneity. Everyone would agree that skillful
    speaking is controlled by processes that are in
    some sense unconscious we don't know how we
    select the words in a sentence, or exactly how it
    will end. Every sentence is a surprise and a
    miracle. Second, insights often represent a
    moment of consolidation or confirmation, a sort
    of re-cognition of what one already almost knows.
    Third, when the insight occurs, it is
    affectively laden in a way that accentuates the
    experience... "
  • Wallace and Gruber, Creative People at Work,
    1989, 18.

40
  • I have alluded briefly to a prime motivation
    distinction between task-oriented and
    ego-oriented behavior. Ego-orientation, or
    extrinsic motivation, refers to an attitude
    toward work that is motivated by desire for
    rewards not inherent in the task itself, rewards
    such as recognition, prestige, prizes, money,
    privileges, and power. Task-orientation, or
    intrinsic motivation, refers to an attitude
    toward work that is motivated by the intrinsic
    nature or demand-character of the task
    itself....To these complexities I would add
    another...There is a third actor in the play of
    motives, the World. One is not always free to
    choose the most alluring task, as governed by
    task- and ego-orientations. Extrinsic motivation
    must be subdivided into two categories,
    ego-orientation and world-orientation. The world
    makes its claim on us. True, not everyone
    responds in the same way. Task-orientation,
    ego-orientation, and world-orientation each have
    their appeals. Every creative person must shape
    his or her own motivational profile.
    Historically, the task-ego distinction has been
    thought adequate for many purposes. Now our
    planetary situation is more desperate and the
    world makes more urgent claims on creative people
    everywhere.
  • Howard Gruber from Creative People at Work

41
  • There are two basic tools of synthetic
    creative activities the science of chemistry
    with its laws and principles, and the body of
    experimental, manipulative techniques. Beyond
    that, chemical synthesis is entirely a creative
    activity, in which art, design, imagination, and
    inspiration play a predominant role.
  • Robert Woodward from Art and Science in the
    Synthesis of Organic Compounds

42
  • Most people would sooner die than think, in
    fact, they do so.
  • -Bertrand Russell (1872-1970)

43
Improving your Creativity
  • Liberal education
  • Reading
  • Travel
  • General inquisitiveness
  • Be persistent
  • Think outside the lines
  • Be confident
  • Be perceptive
  • Move away from normal environment
  • Use creativity tools
  • Listen to this Spirit and intuition

44
  • "The wireless telegraph is not difficult to
    understand. The ordinary telegraph is like a
    very long cat. You pull the tail in New York and
    it meows in Los Angeles. The wireless is the
    same, only without the cat."
  • Einstein, Albert, quoted in Thorpe, Scott, How
    to Think Like Einstein, Barnes Noble Books,
    Inc., 2000, p. 61.

45
  • "Could the answers you've been seeking be on the
    other side of your head? Your brain is really
    two brains. You use one of them more, but the
    other brain is just as clever in a different way.
    It too has been diligently gathering information
    on your problem, and may have a solution for you.
    However, because of your dominant brain, the
    other brain has had trouble making its opinions
    known. Give your other brain an avenue to
    express its ideas. To divine a solution from
    your other brain, switch hands and techniques...
    If you use words to examine problems, switch to
    pictures. Use words if you think visually... If
    you have been trying to solve your problem
    objectively, you might have a completely
    different perspective if you become emotional
    about it instead."
  • Thorpe, Scott, How to Think Like Einstein,
    Barnes Noble Books, Inc., 2000, p. 104-105.

46
  • "My invention of Kevlar involved both
    intuition and the scientific process. It also
    involved some good luck and perseverance, when
    conditions looked most hopeless. An eye trained
    to observe small differences in progress and
    product helped too. And creativity made a
    difference."
  • Stephanie Louise Kwolek (inventor of Kevlar),
    quoted in Invention and Technology, Winter 2003,
    p. 62.

47
  • During the painful process of disintegration the
    society's creativity its ability to respond to
    challenges is not completely lost...Creative
    minorities will appear on the scene and carry on
    the process of challenge-and-response. The
    dominant social institutions will refuse to hand
    over their leading roles to these new cultural
    forces, but they will inevitably go on to decline
    and disintegrate, and the creative minorities may
    be able to transform some of the old elements
    into a new configuration. The process of
    cultural evolution will then continue, but in new
    circumstances and with new protagonists.
  • The Turning Point, Fritjof Capra

48
  • "Part of the ethos of this class the Spanish
    grandees was to despise work and practicality
    one could choose only between two careers
    soldier or priest, the red and the black or their
    variants explorer or civil servant, the one
    being a kind of soldier, the other a kind of
    'cleric', that is, able to read and write. This
    mighty aloofness from worldly goals offers the
    spectacle, unique in the west, of a society at
    least partly 'anti-materialistic.' Again like old
    Russia ('Muscovy' in the 16C), it lacked a
    bustling middle class and was thus bound to
    resist new ideas, since these often travel as
    by-products of trade and are put forward as
    advantageous. Denouncers of 'bourgeois values'
    should meditate on Spain and its long isolation
    from mainstream European developments. Not until
    the turn of the 19C, when the Spanish-American
    War put an end to the pride of empire, did Spain
    begin to prosper again and seek modernity."
  • Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence,
    Perennial, 2000, p106.

49
Creativity and doing
  • Creativity and doing can be expressed as a
    mathematical expression (a function, f)
  • Creativity f (attitude x knowledge x
    imagination x evaluation)
  • Noller, Ruth (quoted in Exploring the Nature
    of Creativity, Jon Michael Fox and Ronni Lea Fox,
    Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 2000, p.13.
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