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TMT Project Status


TMT Project Status C. Steidel, for the TMT Project GSMT SWG Meeting Los Angeles October 20, 2005 Contents Current Design Baseline Instruments and adaptive optics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TMT Project Status

TMT Project Status
  • C. Steidel, for the TMT Project
  • GSMT SWG Meeting
  • Los Angeles
  • October 20, 2005

  • Current Design Baseline
  • Instruments and adaptive optics systems
  • Capabilities and their connection to the GSMT-SWG
  • Operations models and US community access
  • Schedule

The TMT Partnership
  • TMT follows the NAS Decadal Survey recommendation
    that a public-private partnership is the best way
    to build operate a US-led 30-m telescope
  • Current partners (for Design and Development
    Phase) are
  • University of California
  • Caltech
  • ACURA (Canada)
  • AURA (NSF)
  • Although partners are currently equal, ultimate
    shares (e.g. of observing time) will be based on
    contributions to capital operations.

TMT Precursor Studies
  • TMT follows from a careful consideration of
    three, independently-conceived
    independently-reviewed, point designs
    representing ?6M total effort
  • CELT (UCCaltech)
  • VLOT (Canada)
  • GSMT (NOAO/Gemini)
  • Broad exploration of technical options
  • Positive reviews by outside reviewers
  • TMT consolidates the best aspects of these
  • Single reference design now established by the

TMT Overall Structure
  • TMT governance established in June 2003
  • Agreements between the partners
  • Formation of Science Advisory Committee
  • equal membership/representation from each of the
    4 partners
  • Formation of Board of Directors
  • Appointment of Project Manager, Gary Sanders (Apr
  • Development Phases
  • Design Development Phase (2004-2008)
  • 35M secured from GB Moore Foundation
  • 17.5M from each of Canada and AURA (NSF)
  • Construction phase (2009 2014)
  • Science Operations (2015 - )
  • (Assuming timely delivery of capital
    operational resources)

Distributed Project Effort
  • TMT Project Headquarters- Pasadena 32 FTE
  • ACURA/AURA/UC/Caltech 35 FTE
  • Instrument teams, industry design teams
    additional 50 participants
  • major industry design teams include AMEC, SAGEM,
    ITT, Zygo, Cilas, tOSC, Hytec, Night Sky

The Project Ahead, First Light and the First
Decade of TMT Science
  • The TMT Science Advisory Committee (SAC) has
    provided a Science Requirements Document (SRD)
  • It presents a vision of the first decade of TMT
  • Most of the effort will be to realize the
    foundation for this decade, reaching first light
    era science
  • Design and Development Phase (DDP) (2004
  • Construction Phase (2009 2014)
  • Early Operations Phase (2012 2016)
  • Operations Phase (2016 2024)

The Project, The Science, The Systems
  • Design Development Phase (DDP) budget and
    schedule defined
  • Project office established in Pasadena
  • Project organization in place for DDP
  • Partnership teams
  • Instrument partners
  • Industrial partners
  • Science Requirements Document (SRD) delivered and
    guiding DDP
  • Detailed Science Case under continuing
    development (currently a 90-page document)
  • Science Advisory Committee (SAC) in intimate
    dialog with project DDP activities
  • Systems studies mounting
  • Systems engineering processes developing
  • Operational scenarios discussion is started

TMT Reference Design
  • 30m filled aperture, highly segmented
  • Aplanatic Gregorian (AG) two mirror telescope
  • f/1 primary
  • f/15 final focus
  • Field of view 20 arcmin
  • Elevation axis in front of the primary
  • Wavelength coverage 0.31 28 µm
  • Operational zenith angle range 1 thru 65
  • Instruments (and their associated AO systems) are
    located on large Nasmyth platforms, addressed by
    an articulated tertiary mirror.
  • Both seeing-limited and adaptive optics observing
  • AO system requirements and architecture defined
  • First generation instrument requirements defined

30m Primary Mirror Concept
TMT Reference Design
M2 System Overview
  • M2 system
  • Two interchangeable assemblies CM2 AM2
  • CM2 - Conventional M2
  • Seeing limited performance
  • Used for commissioning
  • Initial operations
  • Will be replaced by AM2
  • Kept as maintenance spare
  • AM2 - Adaptive M2
  • Full AO capability
  • Developed under separate study (SAGEM)

M3 System Overview
  • M3 system
  • Mirror
  • 4.11 x 2.91m flat to cover 20 arcmin fov
  • Meniscus glass or glass ceramic substrate
  • M3 cell
  • High stability active/passive supports
  • Positioner
  • Rotates to switch beam to Nasmyth instruments
  • Active tracking to steer beam onto instrument

SRD Science Instruments
  • Adaptive Optic systems defined
  • NFIRAOS (Narrow Field facility AO system) for
    first light
  • MOAO (Multi-Object Adaptive Optics 20
    positionable, 5 compensated patches in 5
    adressable field)
  • MIRAO (MidIR AO)
  • MCAO (wide field AO, optimized for photometric
    and astrometric goals)
  • Eight Instruments identified
  • IRIS, a NIR imager and integral field
    spectrograph working at the diffraction limit,
    0.8-2.5 microns fed by NFIRAOS
  • WFOS, a wide field, seeing-limited optical
    spectrograph (possibly GLAO-compensated)
  • IRMOS, a NIR multi-object integral field
    spectrograph fed by MOAO
  • MIRES, a mid-IR high resolution echelle
    spectrograph fed by MIRAO
  • PFI, a planet formation instrument, which
    combines a high contrast AO system and an imaging
  • NIRES, a NIR echelle spectrograph, also fed by
  • HROS, a high spectral resolution optical echelle
  • WIRC, a wide field NIR camera fed by
    multi-conjugate AO

IRIS Infrared Imaging Spectrograph
  • Integral Field Spectrograph and Imager working at
    the diffraction limit
  • Wavelength range 0.8-2.5µm goal 0.6-5µm
  • Field of view lt 2 arcsec for IFU, up to 10 for
    imaging mode
  • Spatial sampling 0.004 arcsec per pixel (Nyquist
    sampled (?/2D)) over 4096 pixels for IFU) over
    10x10 arcsec for imaging
  • Plate scale adjustable 0.004, 0.009, 0.022, 0.050
  • 128x128 spatial pixels with small (???? 0.05)
    wavelength coverage
  • Spectral resolution
  • R4000 over entire Y,J, H, K,( L) bands, one band
    at a time
  • R2-50 for imaging mode
  • Low background (increase inter-OH sky tel by no
    more than 15)
  • Detector Dark current and read noise 5 of
    background for t2000s
  • Throughput as high as practical
  • Parallel imaging goal

WFOS Wide Field Optical Spectrograph
  • Multi-object spectroscopy over as much of 20
    field as possible
  • Wavelength range 0.31-1.1µm (0.31-1.6µm goal).
    ADC required
  • Field of view 75 arcmin2 goal 300 arcmin2
  • Total slit length 500 arcsec
  • Image quality 0.2 arcsec FWHM over any 0.1µm
  • Spatial sampling 0.15 arcsec per pixel, goal
    0.10 arcsec
  • Spectral resolution R5-5000 for 0.75 slit
    goal 150-6000
  • Throughput 30
  • Sensitivity photon noise limited for all
    exposures gt 60s
  • Background subtraction systematics must be
    negligible compared to photon noise for total
    exposure times as long as 100 Ks
  • Stability Flexure lt 0.1 pixel at the detector is
  • Desired cross dispersed mode, IFU option,
    narrow band imaging, enhanced image quality using
    adaptive optics (GLA0)
  • GLA0 trade study completed

IRMOS Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph
  • MOAO/Deployable IFU spectrometer
  • 0.8-2.5µm
  • FoV IFU heads deployable over 5 arcmin field
  • Wavefront quality preserve that delivered by AO
  • Image quality diffraction-limited images,
    tip-tilt 0.015 arcsec rms
  • Spatial sampling
  • 0.05x0.05 arcsec pixels, IFU head 2.0 arcsec,
    10 IF units
  • Spectral resolution
  • R2000-10000 over entire J, H, K bands, one band
    at a time
  • R2-50 for imaging mode
  • Low background (increase inter-OH sky tel by no
    more than 15)
  • Detector
  • Dark current and read noise 5 of background
    for t2000s
  • Throughput as high as practical

MIRES Mid-IR Echelle Spectrometer
  • Mid-IR Diffraction Limited Spectrometer
  • 8-18µm, 5-28µm goal
  • FoV 10 arcsec
  • Slit length 3 arcsec order separation, or IFU
  • Wavefront quality preserve that delivered by AO
  • Image quality diffraction-limited images,
    limited by AO
  • Spatial sampling
  • 0.017x0.017 arcsec pixels
  • Spectral resolution
  • 5000lt R lt100000 with diffraction-limited slit
  • R2-50 for imaging mode
  • Low background (increase natural sky tel by no
    more than 15)
  • Detector
  • 2k x 2k
  • Throughput as high as practical
  • Chopping and nodding as needed

PFI Planet Formation Imager
  • 1-2.5µm, goal 1-5µm
  • Field of view 0.03-1 arcsec radius
  • Image quality/contrast
  • Detect planet at 106 contrast or 107 goal for 1st
    generation system
  • Suitable coronagraph
  • Optical system should not preclude 108 contrast
    in H band for Rlt8 mag
  • Critically sampled at 1µm (0.0035 arcsec pixels)
  • Spectral resolution 100

NIRES Near IR Echelle Spectrometer
  • Wavelength range 1-5µm, simultaneous 1-2.4µm,
  • Field of view of acquisition camera 10 arcsec,
    0.0035 arcsec/pixel
  • Slit length 2 arcsec
  • Image quality diffraction limited
  • Spatial sampling Nyquist sampled (l/2D)
  • Spectral resolution 20,000ltRlt100,000
  • Low background (increase natural sky tel by no
    more than 15)
  • Detector Dark current and read noise 5 of
    background for t2000s
  • High throughput

HROS High Resolution Optical Spectrometer
  • Seeing limited optical spectrometer
  • Wavelength range 0.31-1µm (0.3-1.3µm goal)
  • Field of view 10 arcsec
  • Total slit length 5 arcsec, separation between
  • Image quality 0.15 arcsec rms
  • Spatial sampling 0.2 arcsec per pixel
  • Spectral resolution R50,000 for 1 arcsec slit,
    R90,000 with slicer
  • Throughput 30 telescope focal plane to
    detected photons

WIRC Wide-field Infrared Camera
  • Precision photometry and astrometry instrument
  • Wavelength range 0.8-5µm, goal 0.6-5µm
  • Field of view 30 arcsec, contiguous
  • Image quality diffraction limited as delivered
    by AO
  • Spatial sampling Nyquist sampled (l/2D)
  • Spectral resolution R5-100 with filters

AO Systems
  • TMT is designed for high-performance (120nm
    wavefront error) AO from the beginning
  • Adaptive Optic systems defined in SRD
  • NFIRAOS (Narrow Field facility AO system) for
    first light
  • 2 technical field, upgrades to wide field
  • MOAO (Multi-Object Adaptive Optics 20
    positionable, 5?? compensated patches in 5?
    technical field)
  • MIRAO (MidIR AO, optimized for low emissivity in
  • MCAO (wide field AO, optimized for photometric
    and astrometric goals)
  • Significant effort during DDP to define AO
    systems, component risks and global image quality
    error budget for telescope-AO-instrument systems.

First Light AO Capabilities
  • NFIRAOS (Narrow-Field IR AO System)
  • Facility AO system for IRIS (and eventually NIRES
    and WIRC)
  • 150-200 nm RMS WFE as initially implemented
  • 50 sky coverage at the galactic pole
  • 30 arc sec compensated FOV
  • cooled optical system to minimize background in K
  • Implied component and design parameters
  • Order 60x60 wavefront sensing and correction
  • 5-9 LGS WFS (with 17W of laser power per beacon)
  • MCAO system with 2 DMs conjugate to 0 and 10-12
  • Near IR NGS tip/tilt/focus sensing with 2
    diameter guide field
  • MIRAO (option)
  • 7-20 mm (goal 3-20 mm) spectral band, 10 field
    of view
  • 1 (3) LGS, 1 tip/tilt/focus near IR NGS WFS
  • Order 15x15 (30x30) DM (requires 3 additional
    warm surfaces)

Instrument Deployment Concept
Instrument Design Feasibility Studies
  • 9 instrument feasibility studies funded via open
  • - Feb 2006 completion
  • - Feedback to telescope, AO and operations
  • - Develop instrument concepts
  • - Extended Science Case via associated science
    teams -- wide community participation

(U. Colorado HROS concept)
  • major presence at upcoming SPIE expected from all
    of these studies

TMT AO Development Program
  • DDP program addresses TMT AO architecture, design
    and technology development
  • Key technologies and demonstrations
  • MEMS
  • Lasers
  • Infrared tip-tilt wavefront sensing
  • Open loop control
  • Tomography
  • Wavefront sensor
  • Adaptive secondary technology

TMT Experience with Adaptive Optics
UC Lick
Adaptive Optics has come of age!
Ghez (UCLA) collaborators
40 x 40 arcsecond mosaic, color-composite NIRC2
image (at 2.2 um) of the Galactic Center using
Keck Laser
Gemini Hokupaa/QUIRC image of Galactic Center.
Expanded view shows IRS 13E W in Kp
Keck AO Imaging of Uranus
Courtesy L. Sromovsky
NFIRAOS side view
Science Laser Natural
Optical Design of LGS WFS
Wavefront Error 1.4x spec
DM/WFS Distortion 3x spec (Map scale 100x)
Subsystem Decomposition
GSMT SWG Science Case
  • The goals/capabilities of TMT are very well
    aligned with those of the GSMT SWG

1 GSMT high-level goals from Frontier Science
Enabled by a GSMT SWG report 7.2.03
TMT Instrument Summary
Site Testing
  • An effort of the TMT Project Site team, CTIO,
    NIO, UNAM, UofH, Gemini, CFHT, HIA
  • Robotic data collection underway at 2 sites in
    Chile (Tolar, Armazones), San Pedro Martir
    (Mexico), and Mauna Kea two more Chilean sites
    in process.
  • high altitude sites (gt4000m) in both hemispheres
  • The most comprehensive (and ambitious)
    astronomical site survey work ever
  • Site Requirements Document has been authored and
    is under review
  • Includes data evaluation/figure of merit strategy

Site Testing Instruments Parameters
  • Weather stations
  • DIMM seeing monitors
  • MASS turbulence profilers
  • SODAR acoustic sounders
  • IRMA mid-infrared radiometers
  • ASCA Allsky cameras
  • Particle sensors
  • Sonic anemometers
  • Simulations, satellite analysis
  • Other considerations
  • Location, elevation, geology, access, cost of
    construction and operation, operation model, ...
  • temp, hum, wind, press, sol.rad, heat flux
  • seeing, coh. time, basic photometry
  • high-el. profiles, isopl. angle, coh. time
  • 20 800m turb/wind profiles, coh.time
  • PWV, atm. transparency
  • Cloud statistics (incl. cirrus), light pollution
  • Ground level dust particle count
  • 7m wind, temperature, turbulence
  • Turbulence, weather, long baseline

DDP Instrumentation Plan
Construction phase
Telescope Optics Status
  • An effort of TMT Project, UCSC, UCI, NIO,
    industrial partners SAGEM, Zygo, ITT/Tinsley,
  • Telescope requirements and error budget
    development is supporting optics design efforts
  • M1 segment polishing awards initiated (Zygo,
    SAGEM, ITT/Tinsley)
  • Segments must be produced at lowest possible cost
  • M1 Segment Assembly design underway with Hytec
    Inc. of Los Alamos
  • M2 (secondary), M3 (tertiary) designs well

Telescope Structure Status
  • An effort of TMT Project Office, HIA and AMEC
  • Reference Design studied and dissected by AMEC
  • Design strengths, weaknesses studied and points
    of departure for next design phase are identified
  • Methods and infrastructure for assessing
    structure performance (finite element analysis
    (FEA), merit function routines (MFR)) are being
  • Work on requirements and interfaces accelerating

Telescope Controls Status
  • Actuator and edge sensor studies underway
  • Studies of humidity sensitivity of Keck edge
    sensors by TMT underway at Keck
  • Edge sensor design study underway with LBL group
    that worked on Keck design
  • Alignment and Phasing System design underway with
    UCI group that designed Keck system

AO/Science Instruments Status
  • All feasibility studies underway for WFOS, IRIS,
  • NFIRAOS design well underway by TMT Project and
    HIA group
  • SAGEM adaptive secondary contract underway
  • CILAS piezo deformable mirror contract underway
  • Laser Guidestar Facility design underway with
    NOAO group
  • Laser development following Gemini/Keck program
  • Real Time Controller design study with tOSC
  • UVic woofer/tweeter experiment underway
  • Palomar Multiple Guidestar experiment underway
  • AOWG/IWG and weekly design coordination meetings
    are quite effective

Enclosure Status
  • An effort of HIA, AMEC, NIO, TMT Project Office
  • Successful 6 month design review conducted July 8
  • Enclosure Requirements Document under version
  • Design effort had been comparing 4 configurations
  • Downselect to 2 on July 8
  • Downselect to 1 at 9 month review
  • In fact, July 8 review resulted in tentative
    downselect to one configuration
  • Calotte selected due to lower mass, lower cost,
    though technically novel
  • Carousel carried for 3 months as conventional

Enclosure Structural Optimization
Co-Rotating (showing internal frame)
Summit/Support Facilities Status
  • Facilities requirements review August 9, 2005
  • Facilities Requirements and site dependence
    discussed extensively at Aspen (Sep 2005) TMT
    Week meeting
  • The arrangement of summit and support facilities
    is strongly dependent on sites
  • Goal is to transition to Architect/Engineer
    studies this year
  • Operations strategy impacts requirements
  • Site Selection requirements document provides
    initial discussion
  • Observatory Scientist David Silva will lead study
    of this area

Operations Development
  • Operations and development
  • Assume 40M/yr for operations
  • Assume 20M/yr for development
  • Possible sources of operational funds (40M/yr)
  • UCCaltech 25, Canada 25, NSF 50
  • Operations style
  • We will support traditional astronomer-led
  • We will support queue or service observing
  • Mix will be set by maximizing scientific
  • Data will be archived and available to all after
    proprietary period
  • Purpose of Development funds
  • New instruments
  • Instrument upgrades
  • AO upgrades and new AO capabilities
  • Facility upgrades including guiders, etc

Observing Time
  • If we use current projected partner
    contributions, we might expect observing time to
    be distributed very roughly as
  • Private 25-50
  • US Community through AURA 50-25
  • Canada 25
  • Actual distribution will depend on financial
    contributions of the partners.

Operations Planning
  • Lead role taken by Observatory Scientist
  • David Silva (ESO/VLT) is joining TMT to assume
    this role
  • Project Scientist and SAC will play a major role
  • Operations Advisory Group will be formed as soon
    as the Observatory Scientist is on board
  • Group will represent the 4 partners and the
    operational expertise of Keck, Gemini and VLT
  • Already can see operational questions arising in
    all design discussions

Key Dates in the DDP
  • TMT Week (Sept 26 30, 2005 Aspen Center for
  • Mid-point review of all subsystems
  • Conceptual Design Review (CoDR) (May 8 11,
  • Cost Review (Sept 25 29, 2006)
  • Update CoDR all subsystems
  • Cost review for project scope decisions by TMT
  • PDR/Construction Proposal Review (Sept 24 28,
  • Update CoDR to PDR for critical systems
  • Definitive cost/scope, reference schedule

Construction Phase
  • Approval to start ( available) Jan 2008
  • Primary mirror detail design review Apr 2008
  • Site Development FDR Apr 2008
  • Complete enclosure Feb 2012
  • Complete telescope installation Oct 2012
  • Begin segment installation Aug 2012
  • First light with 1/4 segments Jul 2013
  • All segments installed, phased Apr 2014
  • Begin TMT science Jan 2015

Major Construction Phase Milestones
  • Construction initiated Q1CY2009
  • Site Specific Designs/Site Mobilization Q4CY2008
  • Site facilities/enclosure accepted Q2CY2012
  • Initial instrument installed Q1CY2014
  • Additional First Light Instruments delivered
  • First Light, all segments phased Q2CY2014
  • First science, initial instrument Q1CY2015

A Vision of TMT AAS Calendar 2006
200 Inch and TMT