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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Essentials of Fire Fighting, 5th Edition Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II Chapter 8 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 8 Rescue and Extrication Firefighter II
2
Chapter 8 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to operate various kinds of rescue
    equipment and practice correct extrication
    procedures at an accident scene following the
    policies and procedures set forth by the
    jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Discuss maintaining emergency power and
    lighting equipment.
  • 2. Describe characteristics of hydraulic rescue
    tools.
  • 3. Describe characteristics of nonhydraulic
    rescue tools.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Discuss cribbing for rescue operations.
  • 5. Describe the characteristics of pneumatic
    tools.
  • 6. Discuss lifting/pulling tools used in rescue
    operations.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Explain the size-up process for a vehicle
    incident.
  • 8. Describe items to look for when assessing the
    need for extrication activities.
  • 9. Discuss stabilizing vehicles involved in a
    vehicle incident.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 10. List the three methods of gaining access to
    victims in vehicles.
  • 11. List the most common hazards associated with
    wrecked passenger vehicles.

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 12. Explain the dangers associated with
    Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS) and
    Side-Impact Protection Systems (SIPS).
  • 13. Describe basic actions taken for patient
    management.

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 14. Describe patient removal.
  • 15. Describe laminated safety glass and tempered
    glass.
  • 16. Discuss removing glass from vehicles.
  • 17. Explain considerations when removing vehicle
    roof and doors.

(Continued)
9
Specific Objectives
  • 18. Describe common patterns of structural
    collapse.
  • 19. Describe the most common means of locating
    hidden victims in a structural collapse.
  • 20. Describe structural collapse hazards.

(Continued)
10
Specific Objectives
  • 21. Describe shoring.
  • 22. Discuss technical rescue incidents.
  • 23. Service and maintain portable power plants
    and lighting equipment. (Skill Sheet 8-II-1)

(Continued)
11
Specific Objectives
  • 24. Extricate a victim trapped in a motor
    vehicle. (Skill Sheet 8-II-2)
  • 25. Assist rescue teams. (Skill Sheet 8-II-3)

12
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • Review manufacturers service manual
  • Inspect spark plugs, plug wires
  • If spark plug damaged or service manual
    recommends, replace
  • Check equipment carburetor
  • Check fuel level, fill if necessary

(Continued)
13
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • If fuel old, replace with fresh
  • Check oil level, replenish as needed
  • Start generator run any tests identified in
    Operator Manual
  • Inspect all electrical cords

(Continued)
14
Maintaining Emergency Power/Lighting Equipment
  • Test operation of lighting equipment
  • Replace light bulbs as necessary
  • Clean work area
  • Document maintenance on appropriate forms/records

15
Powered Hydraulic Tools
  • Operated by hydraulic fluid pumped through
    special high-pressure hoses
  • Most powered by electric motors or two- or
    four-cycle gasoline engines
  • May be portable
  • May be mounted on vehicle

16
Spreaders
  • First tool available to fire/rescue service
  • Capable of pushing, pulling
  • Can produce tons of force at tips
  • May spread as much as 32 inches (800 mm)

17
Shears
  • Capable of cutting almost any metal object
  • May be used to cut other materials
  • Capable of producing tons of force
  • Opening spread of approximately 7 inches (175 mm)

18
Combination Spreader/Shears
  • Two arms with spreader tips
  • Inside edges of arms equipped with cutting
    shears
  • Excellent for small rapid-intervention vehicles,
    departments with limited resources
  • Capabilities less than individual units

19
Extension Rams
  • Straight pushing operations
  • May be used for pulling
  • Useful when pushing farther than shears
    maximum opening distance

(Continued)
20
Extension Rams
  • Extend from closed length of 3 feet (1 m) to
    around 5 feet (1.5 m)
  • Open with tons of pushing force close with ½
    opening force

21
Manual Hydraulic Tools
22
Porta-Power Tool System
  • Operated by transmitting pressure from manual
    hydraulic pump through high-pressure hose to tool
    assembly
  • Advantage Operates in narrow places
  • Disadvantage Assembly/operation time-consuming

23
Hydraulic Jacks
  • Designed for heavy lifting applications
  • Excellent compression device for shoring,
    stabilizing operations
  • Lifting capabilities up to 20 tons (18 tonnes t)

24
Nonhydraulic Jacks
  • Screw jacks
  • Extended/retracted by turning threaded shaft
  • Check for wear after each use
  • Keep clean, lightly lubricated
  • Bar screw jacks
  • Trench screw jacks

(Continued)
25
Nonhydraulic Jacks
  • Ratchet-lever jacks
  • Rigid I-beam with perforations in web and a
    jacking carriage with two ratchets on geared side
    fitting around I-beam
  • Least stable can be dangerous
  • Can fail under heavy load

26
Cribbing
  • Essential in many rescue operations
  • Most commonly used to stabilize objects
  • Wood
  • Plastic
  • Storage

27
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Air chisels
  • Pneumatic nailers

(Continued)
28
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Impact tools
  • Air knifes

(Continued)
Courtesy of Supersonic Air Knife, Inc.
29
Pneumatic (Air-Powered) Tools
  • Air vacuums
  • Whizzer saws

30
Tripods
  • Create anchor points above manholes, other
    openings
  • Allow rescuers to be safely lowered into confined
    spaces and rescuers/victims to be hoisted out

31
Winches
  • Excellent pulling tools
  • Usually deployed faster, greater travel/pulling
    distances, stronger than other lifting/pulling
    devices
  • Usually behind front bumper of vehicles

(Continued)
32
Winches
  • Most common drives
  • Electric
  • Hydraulic
  • Power take-off
  • Pull by using chains/cables

(Continued)
33
Winches
  • Should be equipped with handheld, remote-control
    devices
  • Should be positioned as close to objects being
    pulled as possible

34
Come-Alongs
  • Portable cable winches operated by manual
    ratchet levers
  • Attached to secure anchor points
  • Lever rewinds cable
  • Common sizes 1-10 tonnes (0.9-9.1 t)

35
Chains
  • Used with winches and come-alongs
  • Only alloy steel chains should be used in rescue
    work
  • Special alloys available for corrosive/hazardous
    atmospheres
  • Proof coil chain not suitable for rescue

36
Pneumatic Lifting Bags
  • Give rescuers ability to lift/displace objects
  • High-pressure bags
  • Low- and medium-pressure bags
  • Lifting bag safety rules

37
Block and Tackle Systems
  • Convert given amount of pull to working force
    greater than the pull
  • Useful for lifting/pulling heavy loads

(Continued)
38
Block and Tackle Systems
  • Block Wooden or metal frame containing one or
    more pulleys called sheaves
  • Tackle Assembly of ropes used to multiply
    pulling force

39
Scene Size-Up
  • Begins as soon as first emergency vehicle
    approaches accident scene
  • Importance
  • Prevent injury to rescuers
  • Prevents further injury to victims
  • Clarifies required tasks
  • Identifies needed resources

40
Positioning Apparatus
  • Officer in charge should position according to
    SOP/situation at hand
  • Position close enough for equipment, supplies to
    be readily available
  • Should not be so close that it might interfere
    with other on-scene activities

(Continued)
41
Positioning Apparatus
  • First-arriving engine should be positioned to
    provide protective barrier
  • U.S. DOT recommends headlights be turned off,
    unless needed for scene illumination
  • At least one traffic lane should be closed to
    nonemergency traffic

(Continued)
42
Positioning Apparatus
43
Considerations When Arriving On Scene
  • What are traffic hazards what types of control
    devices needed?
  • How many/what types of vehicles involved?
  • Where/how are vehicles positioned?
  • How many victims/what is their status?

(Continued)
44
Considerations When Arriving On Scene
  • Is there fire or potential?
  • Any hazardous materials involved?
  • Any utilities that may be damaged if so is this
    hazardous?
  • Need for additional resources?

45
Assess Immediate Area Around Vehicle
  • Number of victims in/around
  • Severity of injuries
  • Condition of vehicle
  • Extrication tasks that may be required
  • Hazardous condition

46
Assess Entire Area Around Scene
  • Other vehicles not readily apparent
  • Victims thrown from vehicle
  • Damage to structures/utilities that present hazard

47
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Is vital to prevent further injury
  • Uses cribbing/shoring devices
  • Prevents sudden/unexpected movement of vehicle
  • NEVER test stability by pushing/pulling

(Continued)
48
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Prevent horizontal motion
  • Chock vehicles wheels
  • Do not rely on mechanical systems
  • Prevent vertical motion
  • Jacks
  • Pneumatic lifting bags
  • Cribbing

(Continued)
49
Stabilizing the Vehicle
  • Rescuers should avoid placing parts of their
    bodies under vehicle
  • Vehicles upside down, on side, or on slope should
    be stabilized using whatever means available
  • Shut down electrical power in vehicle

50
Methods for Gaining Access to Victims in Vehicles
  • Through normally operating door
  • Through window
  • By cutting away parts of vehicle body

51
Potential Hazards of Wrecked Passenger Vehicles
  • Oil- and air-filled struts
  • Fuel, other flammable liquids
  • High pressure tires
  • Contents of trunk or vehicle interior

52
Dangers Associated with SRS, SIPS
  • Accidental activation of SRS or SIPS
  • Reserve energy supply causes systems to deploy
    even after battery disconnected
  • Activities can activate systems
  • Prevention
  • Some systems in SIPS design do not require power
    from vehicles electrical system

53
Actions for Patient Management
  • Choose easiest route to gain access
  • Rescuer with emergency medical training should
    enter vehicle to stabilize/protect patient

(Continued)
54
Actions for Patient Management
  • Rescuers inside vehicle should wear PPE
  • Treatment can be simultaneous with preparation
    for removal from vehicle
  • Vehicle must be removed from around patient

55
Patient Removal
  • Package patient properly
  • Cover sharp edges
  • Widen openings
  • Pad edges

56
Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
  • Manufactured from two sheets bonded to sheet of
    plastic between
  • Most commonly used for windshields, rear windows

(Continued)
57
Laminated Safety Glass Characteristics
  • Produces long, pointed shards with sharp edges
  • Stays attached to laminate and moves as unit when
    broken
  • Keeps shards of glass from flying about

58
Tempered Glass Characteristics
  • Most commonly used in side windows, rear windows
  • Designed so small lines of fracture spread
    throughout and glass separates into many small
    pieces
  • Eliminates long, pointed pieces can still cause
    lacerations

59
Removing Laminated Glass
  • Can seriously weaken vehicle body leave intact
    if possible
  • More complicated, time-consuming than removing
    tempered glass
  • Best method is with saw
  • Hand tools can be used

(Continued)
60
Removing Laminated Glass
  • In older vehicles, total windshield removal
    should be performed before roof laid back or
    removed
  • Requires several rescuers
  • Passengers inside should be covered with a tarp

61
Removing Tempered Glass
  • Methods
  • Strike window with sharp, pointed object in lower
    corner
  • Use spring-loaded center punch
  • Use standard center punch or Phillips screwdriver
  • With pick-head axe or Halligan tool

(Continued)
62
Removing Tempered Glass
  • Controlling broken glass
  • Apply sheet of self-adhesive contact paper
  • Apply aerosol spray adhesive

63
Removing the Roof
  • Designations A, B, C assigned to vehicle door
    posts from front to back
  • A-post is front post area
  • B-post is between front and rear doors on
    four-door nearest handle on two-door
  • C-post is post nearest handle on rear door of
    four-door rear roof post on two-door

(Continued)
64
Removing the Roof
  • Removal methods
  • Cut all roof posts remove roof entirely
  • Cut front posts, cut relief notches in roof at
    top of rear door openings, fold roof back
  • Plastics do not bend remove entire roof
  • Unibody vehicles are prone to collapse

65
Removing Doors
  • Can be opened from handle side
  • May be removed by inserting spreader in crack on
    hinge side
  • May be removed by cutting hinges, breaking latch
    mechanism, compromising door locks

(Continued)
66
Removing Doors
  • Plastic door panels may have to be removed to
    gain access to metal frame
  • Interior plastic molding may need to be removed

67
Displacing Dashboard
  • May be necessary to free patients pinned under
    steering wheel and/or wedged under dashboard
  • Steps

68
Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
  • Difficulty in reaching victim in structural
    collapse depends upon conditions
  • In some cases, uninjured/slightly injured
    occupants can make their way to surface of rubble
  • These should be helped first

(Continued)
69
Rescue From Collapsed Buildings
  • Next, rescue those lightly trapped by debris
  • Rescuing the heavily trapped/seriously injured
    requires the services of technical rescue team

70
Pancake Collapse
  • Possible in any building where failure of
    exterior walls results in upper floors and roof
    collapsing on top of each other
  • Least likely to contain voids in which live
    victims can be found

71
V-Shaped Collapse
  • Occurs when outer walls remain intact and upper
    floors/roof structure fail in middle
  • Offers good chance of habitable void spaces
    along both outer walls

72
Lean-To Collapse
  • Occurs when one outer wall fails while opposite
    wall intact
  • Side of floor or roof assembly supported by
    failed wall drops to floor, forming triangular
    void

73
A-Frame Collapse
  • Occurs when floor/roof assemblies on both sides
    of center wall collapse
  • Offers good chance of habitable void spaces on
    both sides of center wall

74
Cantilever Collapse
  • When one or more walls of a multistory
    building collapse leaving floors attached
    to/supported by remaining walls

(Continued)
75
Cantilever Collapse
  • Offers good chance of habitable voids forming
    above/below supported ends of floors
  • Least stable of all patterns most vulnerable to
    secondary/subsequent collapse

76
Locating Hidden Victims
  • Hailing Calling out to elicit response from
    hidden victims
  • Seismic/short-distance radar devices
  • Electronically enhanced acoustic listening devices

(Continued)
77
Locating Hidden Victims
  • Search cameras
  • Thermal imaging cameras
  • Search dogs

78
Environmental Hazards
  • Damaged utilities
  • Atmospheric contamination
  • Hazardous materials contamination
  • Darkness

(Continued)
79
Environmental Hazards
  • Noise
  • Fire
  • Temperature extremes
  • Adverse weather conditions

80
Physical Hazards
  • Unstable debris
  • Confined spaces
  • Exposed wiring/rebar
  • Heights

81
Shoring
  • Means by which unstable structures or parts of
    structures can be stabilized
  • Prevents sudden movement of objects too large to
    be moved in timely manner

(Continued)
82
Shoring
  • Not intended to move heavy objects
  • May involve air bags/jacks, cribbing, system of
    wooden braces

83
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Caused by trench construction
  • Sometimes would-be rescuers are killed
  • Knowing how to make structure safe for entrance
    and taking time to do so offer best chance of
    survival

(Continued)
84
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Rescue operations depend on making site as safe
    as possible
  • Rescuers should not be sent into trench unless
    trained/equipped

(Continued)
85
Rescue From Trench Cave-Ins
  • Rescue apparatus, nonessential personnel,
    equipment, spectators should be kept away
  • Safety precautions should be taken

86
Confined Space Rescues
  • Confined space
  • Large enough and configured so that employee can
    bodily enter/perform assigned work
  • Limited/restricted means of entry/exit
  • Not designed for continuous employee occupancy

(Continued)
87
Confined Space Rescues
  • Several common types
  • Should only be performed by firefighters with
    specific training
  • Atmospheric hazards
  • Physical hazards
  • Command post, staging area outside hot zone

(Continued)
88
Confined Space Rescues
  • Do not enter staging area until IAP
    developed/communicated
  • Attendant must track personnel, equipment
    entering/leaving space
  • Equipment
  • Lifeline

(Continued)
89
Confined Space Rescues
  • O-A-T-H Method
  • O One tug OK
  • A Two tugs Advance
  • T Three tugs Take-up
  • H Four tugs Help
  • Air monitoring devices
  • Accountability system

90
Rescue From Caves, Mines, Tunnels
  • Most firefighters not trained/equipped to perform
  • Must be done by those familiar with specific
    environment

91
Rescues Involving Electricity
  • Safety precautions
  • Electrical wires on ground can be dangerous
    without being touched
  • Ground gradient
  • Rescuers should stay away from downed wires
    distance equal to one span between poles

92
Water and Ice Rescue
  • Swimming pools, ponds, low-head dams
  • Rescues
  • Victim stranded, floundering, has been submerged
    for short time
  • Recoveries
  • Victim submerged for long period of time and
    likely deceased

(Continued)
93
Water and Ice Rescue
  • All appropriate PPE should be worn
  • Methods
  • REACH
  • THROW
  • ROW
  • GO

94
Ice Rescue Considerations
  • Because ice is thick, not necessarily strong
  • Victims almost certainly suffering hypothermia
  • Victims may not be able to help
  • Victims chances of survival depend on how
    quickly out of water/into warmth

95
Ice Rescue Protocols
  • Instruct victim NOT to try to get out of water
    until rescuer says so
  • REACH
  • THROW
  • GO

96
Industrial Extrication
  • Can be among most challenging rescue situations
  • Once mechanism stabilized, power should be shut
    off
  • If problem outside capability of team, outside
    expertise required

97
Elevator Rescue
  • Usually not a true emergency
  • Usually involves elevators stalled between floors
  • Firefighters should reassure passengers and wait
    for a mechanic

(Continued)
98
Elevator Rescue
  • Only an elevator mechanic should perform
    adjustments to mechanical system
  • Elevator rescue may be necessary should only be
    performed by trained personnel
  • Communication with passengers essential

99
Escalator Rescue
  • Stop switches usually on nearby wall, at base of
    escalator, at point close to handrail in newel
    base
  • Activating switch stops stairs
  • Should be stopped during rescues
  • Escalator mechanic should be requested when
    removing victims

100
Summary
  • Firefighters must be capable of performing basic
    rescue and extrication operations as a member of
    a team.

(Continued)
101
Summary
  • Firefighters must be willing to pursue
    specialized training in each of the rescue areas,
    including fireground search and rescue
    operations, vehicle extrication operations, and a
    variety of technical rescue operations.

102
Review Questions
  • 1. Describe powered hydraulic tools used in
    rescue incidents.
  • 2. What are air chisels and pneumatic nailers
    commonly used for?
  • 3. List four safety rules when using pneumatic
    lifting bags.

(Continued)
103
Review Questions
  • 4. Why is stabilizing vehicles involved in
    incidents important?
  • 5. What are the common means of locating hidden
    victims in the rubble of a structural collapse?
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