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Andrew Jackson: Democrat or Demagogue?


Andrew Jackson: Democrat or Demagogue? 1) Andrew Jackson s election as President marked the beginning of a new age in American political history. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Andrew Jackson: Democrat or Demagogue?

Andrew Jackson Democrat or Demagogue?
  • 1) Andrew Jacksons election as President marked
    the beginning of a new age in American political
    history. Assess the validity of this
    generalization. (71)
  • 2) At various times between 1789 and 1861,
    Americans changed their positions on the
    constitutional question of loose construction or
    strict construction as best suited their economic
    or political interests. Discuss this statement
    with reference to any TWO individuals or groups
    who took positions on this constitutional
    question. (81)
  • 3) Although historically represented as distinct
    parties, the Federalists and the Whigs in fact
    shared a common political ideology, represented
    many of the same interest groups, and proposed
    similar programs and policies. Assess the
    validity of the statement. (91)
  • 4) Analyze the extent to which Two of the
    following influenced the development of democracy
    between 1820 and 1840.
  • Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral
  • Second Great Awakening Westward
    movement (96)
  • 5) How did Two of the following contribute to the
    reemergence of a two party system in the period
    1820 to 1840?
  • Major political personalities States rights
    Economic issues (99)

I. The Inauguration of Andrew Jackson, 1829
  • Democrats triumph of great principle of
    self-government and democracy
  • Validation after corrupt bargain of 1824 JQA
    made Henry Clay Secyy State in return for
    support in House vote
  • 2002 Doc I
  • Jackson met people at White House afterward,
  • Huge crowd (20,000)? trash the place

II. Growth of Mass Politics
  • Jacksonian Democracy growth of mass politics
    (participation techniques)? began before AJ
    (Jeffersonians)? AJ beneficiary
  • A. Change in Attitudes
  • pre-1790s parties are factions? evil, should be
    stamped out entirely
  • 1790s parties as necessary evil? need to form to
    protect nation against the others (Fed/D-R), who
    are the real faction once done, party will
  • Post-1800 parties as positive good? educate
    involve voters in political process? necessary
    for mass democracy
  • 1990 Doc A

B. Stages of Development
  • 1) Expansion of electorate (collapse prop req)
  • 1810-1821 6 western states w/minimal or no prop
  • 4 old states ratify new constitutions
    lowering/eliminating prop req

  • 2. Jump in voter turnout
  • 1828 58 1840 80
  • 2000 51.3
  • 3. New efforts to mobilize
  • Political rallies, parades, songs, slogans,
    badges, picnics, mud slinging character
  • Modern political tactics
  • Dangers of mobilization Doc E

George Caleb Bingham, Stump Speaking
The County Election
  • JQ Adams surrogates Mrs. Jackson a bigamist and
    adulterer (had not been formally divorced)
  • Jacksons surrogates Mrs. Adams illegitimate
  • Aimed at wives, not candidates themselves

C. Developments Under Jackson
  • 1) Spoils system civil servants appointed by
    past admin should be tossed out? patronage for
    party loyal
  • 2) National party convention previously
    nominated by state legis./Congressional caucus?
    1832 1st national convention
  • Theory was more democratic, in fact more liable
    to party machinations

III. Old Hickory Symbol for an Age
  • A. Life of Jackson
  • Born into dirt poor frontier family, rises up as
    lawyer (suing debtors), land speculator, planter
    (the Hermitage)
  • Served in political offices in Tenn. (state
    house, senate, supreme court US Senate 1823-4)
  • Fought at age 13 in AR led Tenn. militia against
    Creek in Alabama Battle of New Orleans gives
    nation something to be proud of? tours the nation
  • Compare to GW who goes home AJ running for
    office not standing

B. Jacksonian Values
  • 1) Natures Nobleman contact w/nature produces
    greatness rose w/o family connections, political
    corruption, or formal education
  • Disguises 300 inheritance from Irish relative
    that got him started
  • AJ presented self as plain cultivator of soil
    (but lawyer, slave owner)
  • Anti-intellectualism the plowman vs. the

2. Man Chosen by God
  • Evidence from miraculous victory at NO (14,000
    Brits vs. 4,000 Americans) and 1835 survived
    assassination attempt (Richard Lawrence)
  • G.W. Bush I feel like God wants me to run for
    President. I can't explain it, but I sense my
    country is going to need me. Something is going
    to happen... I know it won't be easy on me or my
    family, but God wants me to do it.

3. Man of Iron Will
  • 1806 duel w/Charles Dickinson (remarks about AJs
    wife) CD best shot in Tenn? lets CD fire first?
    AJ hit but makes no sign, fires and kills CD
  • AJ hit near the heart, walked off field w/o
    making sign injured
  • (bullet could not be removed)

C. Election 1828
  • AJ offered stability in middle of tumultuous time
  • BUT AJ instrument of that change market,
    expansion, Indian Removal, land speculation, mass

IV. Democrat or Demagogue?
  • A. Democrat
  • AJ claimed to be man of the people only position
    in 1828 was that Adams a monocrat aristocrat
  • AJ idealized producers (ind. workingmen
    farmers, laborers, artisans) vs. parasites
    (bankers, lawyers)
  • Probably really believed it even though sued
    producers for parasites

  • Wanted limited govt Govt used by rich against
  • Believed in State power over central govt 1830
    vetoed Maysville Road bill? Fed should not fund
    projects w/in single state
  • Also hurt Henry Clays (KY) nationalist program?
    pay back
  • Argued that spoils system made govt more
    responsive? bureaucracy would support new Pres.
    rather than obstruct (Marbury v. Madison)
  • Feared centralization of economic power opposed
    fed support banks paper money
  • Nostalgic for Jeffersonian America yeoman, rural

B. Demagogue
  • 1. Imperial President reduced fed power,
    increased Presl power? spoils system, Kitchen
    Cabinet, violated separation powers checks and
  • Indian Removal (Doc G)
  • Veto Doc B vs C

2. Nullification Crisis
  • 1828 Congress raises high tariffs (protect
    North)? South Tariff of Abominations
  • John C. Calhoun, South Carolina, Exposition and
    Protest states can nullify fed laws (VA KY
    Resolves) state sovereignty
  • JC Vice President
  • Doc F
  • 1832 SC nullifies tariff laws (28 32)? AJ
    privately threatened to invade SC and hang JC
  • Publicly moved troops to fed forts in SC, issued
    proclamation denying nullification, Force Act?
    authority to call up troops

3. Bank War
  • Second Bank of the US (charter to expire 1836)
    private bank, federal funds? power over state
    banks, concerns from Panic of 1819? opposition
    (esp. western urban workers)
  • Nicholas Biddle (bank pres.) operated Bank for
    owners benefit, seen as eastern patrician
  • NB allies w/ H. Clay and Daniel Webster (Mass.)
    to protect Bank in 1832 election? asked Congress
    to re-charter Bank in 1832 (hoping that AJ
    wouldnt risk the loss of PA voters (where BUS

The lady holding a bottle of port says, "Darken
his daylights, Nick. Put the Screws to him my
tulip!" Daniel Webster "Blow me tight if Nick
ain't been crammed too much. You see as how he's
losing his wind!" Henry Clay "Hurrah Nick my
kiddy! Hit him a pelt in the smellers!" Martin
Van Buren "Go it Hickory, my old Duffer! give it
to him in the bread basket, it will make him
throw up his deposits!" Major Jack Downing (a
mythical Jacksonian hero) "I swan if the Ginral
hain't been taken lessons from Fuller!" The man
standing next to the whiskey bottle "Hurrah my
old yallow flower of the forrest, walk into him
like a streak of Greased lightning through a
gooseberry bush!"
  • AJ vetoes the BUS bill and wins election easily?
    declares war on bank? deposits Fed in pet
    banks Deposit Act (1836)? state banks take on
    function of BUS but under AJs control
  • King Andrew I
  • National Republicans? Whigs vs. Democrats

4. The Veto
  • AJ vetoed more bills than all prev. Pres
    combined? Congress had to consider possible veto
    when debating? Pres became true rival/equal power
    for 1st time
  • AJ believed he imposed his will as the will of
    the people? could ignore/override those who
    opposed him (BUS, Clay, Congress, John Marshall,
    Cherokees, etc.)