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Facilities Services Division


Facilities Services Division Existing Facilities How To Use Facilities Manual Maintenance & Operations Services Guide for School Administrators – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Facilities Services Division

  • Facilities Services Division
  • Existing Facilities
  • How To Use Facilities Manual
  • Maintenance Operations
  • Services Guide for School Administrators

Introduction toMaintenance Operations
  • Goals of Session
  • Define the Organizational Structure of MO
  • Overview of Maintenance Resources Processes
  • Overview of Operations Resources Processes
  • Mandated Regulations

Introduction toMaintenance Operations
  • Organizational Structure
  • Local District
  • Local District Maintenance Operations Areas
  • Central Maintenance
  • Central Operations
  • Construction/Project Management
  • Existing Facilities

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Central Maintenance
Central Services
  • The MO Central Office management and
    administration functions are
  • Development of MO procedures
  • Management of centrally-based maintenance and
    operations services, financial planning, and
    staffing allocation
  • Administration of the Assets and Work Management
    System (AWMS)
  • Facilities management for central administrative
  • Management of the maintenance and repair backlog,
    including deferred maintenance
  • Logistical support of other District departments
  • Site-based coordination and integration with
    other Facilities Services Division activities

Technical Services Unit
  • The Technical Services Unit provides expert
    consultation and serves as a new product and/or
    application repository. This unit also
    administers various legally required or
    regulatory mandated functions in order to ensure
    that the educational environment is
  • maintained in accordance with all applicable
    laws, rules, and regulations.
  • The Technical Services Units duties and
    responsibilities include
  • Development and update maintenance and preventive
    maintenance procedures
  • Support the local districts by investigating and
    troubleshooting problems with procedures,
    products, vendors, and contractors
  • Develop material and equipment specifications
  • Evaluate new products for conformity with
    established LAUSD criteria and guidelines
  • Submit annual purchasing contracts (currently
    responsible for 106 contracts with capabilities
    totaling 130.7 million)

Technical Services Unit
  • Review contract submittals by local district
    maintenance staff and advise regarding
    contractual compliance
  • Develop craft employment examination materials in
    conjunction with the Personnel Commission
  • Provide trade-specific information to update the
    Environmental Health Safety Handbook
    maintained by the Office of Environmental Health
    and Safety (OEHS)
  • Work with OEHS and appropriate vendors to
    identify qualifying products that meet the new
    emission regulations of the South Coast Air
    Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1168
  • Recommend updates to the District Design
    Specifications Manual produced by the Design
    Architectural Engineering Technical Support
  • Provide specialized training for individuals that
    require specific licensing/certifications

The Energy Unit
  • Reduce Energy Consumption
  • Energy Studies
  • Energy Utilization Indices
  • Energy Retrofit Projects
  • Reduce Energy Costs
  • Utility Bill Payments and Reconciliation
  • Energy Procurement (Electricity, Natural Gas
  • Increase Incentives
  • Rebate Applications
  • Grant Applications
  • Regulatory Compliance
  • Underground Storage Tank Monitoring, Testing and
  • Facilities Services Division Assistance
  • Utility Orders Processing
  • Central Fire Alarm Monitoring

The Energy Unit
  • Utility Order Procedures Gas
  • Utility Order Procedures Water
  • Utility Order Procedures Electricity
  • Utility Order Procedures Fire Alarm
  • Utility Order Request Form
  • Energy Rebate List
  • Regulatory Compliance Procedures
  • LAUSD/Utility Company Emergency Contact List
  • Main Phone No (213) 241-0565
  • Alternate Phone No (213) 241-0329

Central Shops
Central Shops
  • Central Shops is the Districts manufacturing,
    fabrication, and specialty equipment facility.
  • Central Shops consists of
  • Lock Shop A full service shop that services
    door closers and safety bars. The Lock Shop also
    re-keys and/or replaces various types of locks
    and provides key security control.
  • Bul-2374.1 School Site Key Control
  • Sheet Metal Shop Fabricates HVAC ducts and
    vents, metal siding, gutters, and downspouts and
    a host of other metal creations. This shop also
    mass produces window security grills and delivers
    them directly to the local MO Areas.
  • The Mill - Fabricates window sashes and custom
    builds doors and cabinets in addition to
    supporting the repair requirements of the local
    MO Areas.
  • Machine Shop Adjusts and maintains school site
    machinery and electric carts and is capable of
    developing and fabricating a variety of tooled

Central Shops
  • Roofing Department Maintains, repairs, and/or
    replaces, when necessary, the Districts nearly
    59 million square feet of roofing.
  • Graphic Arts Provides support and direct
    service to all vocational print shops in the
  • Musical Instrument Repair The largest musical
    repair facility in California. This shop repairs
    and refurbishes all types of instruments
    including pianos, organs, stringed, percussion,
    and woodwinds.
  • Sign Shop/Paint Lab Fabricates all of the stock
    signs used by the District. Fabricates and
    installs signs and graphics on District
  • Glass Shop - Maintains and repairs all mirrors,
    lexan, and glass used in the schools and
    Administrative sites. Glazes the windows produced
    in the mill.

Central Shops
  • Central Shops Crafts (213) 745-1675
  • Fire Extinguisher Repair (213) 745-1598
  • Central Shops Services (213) 745-1520
  • Glass Shop (213) 745-1665
  • Paving (213) 745-1410
  • Graphic Arts Equipment Repair (213) 745-1670
  • Lock Shop (213) 745-1650
  • Machine Shop (213) 745-1492
  • Mill (213) 745-1661
  • Music Instrument Repair (213) 745-1620
  • Power Equipment Repair (213) 745-1641
  • Roofing Department (213) 745-1648
  • Sheet Metal (213) 745-1510

Central Operations
Central Operations
  • Tree Trimming
  • Tree trimming services are also provided
    centrally by M O. In-house crews respond to
    emergency trouble calls, including downed trees,
    hanging branches, and breakouts. Routine tree
    trimming is conducted on a 5-year cycle. Trouble
    calls should not be placed for routine tree
  • Annual Deep Cleaning
  • Custodial staff at traditional calendar schools
    are responsible
  • for the annual deep cleaning of all facilities.
  • schools can elect to conduct their own annual
    deep cleaning or to receive these services from
    central-based crews.
  • Restrooms are all schools must be deep cleaned
  • times per year and kitchens must be deep cleaned
  • per year.
  • Training
  • While Area Operations Supervisors are always
  • to assist with training for the custodial staff,
    M Os central training unit also is available
    to provide training and
  • mentoring services to the Plant Manager and
    custodial staff
  • at the Principals request.

Central Operations
  • Gardening Services
  • All elementary schools receive approximately
    eight hours of gardening services from roving
    crews every two weeks.
  • Secondary schools receive the equivalent of 4-12
    hours in daily gardening services. They can
    elect to have site-based gardening staff or
    receive services from central crews (e.g., A
    secondary school with the equivalent of 8 hours
    daily would receive services from a 5-member
    roving crew one day per week).
  • The Central Gardening crews also conduct small
    landscape projects (e.g., planting of flowers,
    bushes, small trees, etc.) funded by schools.
  • Landscape Services
  • Central-based crews provide weekly mowing and
    periodic renovation of secondary school athletic
    facilities. These crews also may conduct large
    projects involving the installation of new

Definitions of MO Terms
  • What is Maintenance?
  • What is Deferred Maintenance?
  • What is not Maintenance?
  • What is Operations?

  • Routine Repair General Maintenance
  • Maintenance shall mean and include ordinary
    upkeep or repair work such as replacements in
    kind, repainting, replastering and reroofing.
    Reroofing shall be limited to one additional
    application and shall include an examination of
    the structural elements of the roof, walls,
    ceilings, and all other elements which may have
    suffered deterioration from moisture resulting
    from roof leaks.. (California Building
    Standards, Part 1, Title 24, California Code of
    Regulations, Article 2-Definitions)

Deferred Maintenance
  • The Deferred Maintenance Program (DMP) provides
    State matching funds, on dollar-for-dollar basis,
    to assist school districts with expenditures for
    major repair or replacement of existing school
    building components so that the educational
    process may safely continue.
  • Typically, this includes roofing, plumbing,
    heating, air conditioning, electrical systems,
    wall systems, floor systems, etc. An annual
    Basic Grant is provided to districts for the
    major repair or replacement work listed on the
    Five Year Plan (Form SAB-40-20), which is a
    projection of deferred maintenance work to be
    performed on a district wide basis over the next
    five years.

Deferred Maintenance
  • Major Maintenance
  • Roofing, Painting,
  • Flooring, HVAC Replacement, etc.
  • Funded by up to .5 of
  • General Fund (part of 3)
  • used as District contribution for qualifying
    for State Matching funds

Boiler beyond life expectancy
  • Averaging 30M per year
  • 30M State Match
  • Measure Y Funds for 5 years
  • New Execution Unit

What is not Maintenance?
  • Repair or replacement of furniture or equipment
    is not budgeted as a maintenance expense.
    Alterations and Improvements are projects that
    result in modification or addition to an existing
    facility. Maintenance and Operations areas
    commonly refer to these projects as AI also
    known as OTM (other than maintenance).
  • These projects may include improvements to your
    site, construction, and additions to your
    facility, installation of new mechanical systems
    or remodeling of buildings. Maintenance work is
    funded by the Maintenance and Operations Branch,
    while schools must usually identify funding for
    alterations and improvements.
  • Schools should discuss their desired alteration
    and improvement work with their Complex Project
    Manager. He/she will work with Maintenance
    Operations Branch in developing scope of work,
    preparing a job cost estimate and sends it to the
    site administrator for funding source
    identification. After funding verification, the
    project will be scheduled with in-house staff or

What is Operations?
  • The functions of Operations Central Regional
    Support are as follows
  • Provide administrative, clerical, technical, and
    training support for all Operations functions at
    District schools
  • Establish and monitors standards, policies and
    procedures for the custodial, gardening,
    landscaping, tree trimming, and pest management
  • Operations Training Unit Services the
    custodial training staff has been augmented to
    provide wide range of training opportunities for
    custodial staff, including the following
  • Ten day intensive fast-track custodial
    certification training program for prospective
    Building Grounds Workers (custodians).
  • Formal 10-day training program for Plant Managers
    and Assistant Plant Managers
  • Informal training and mentoring for PM
    custodial staff at schools
  • Introduction of and training in the use of new
    custodial equipment supplies.

Cost Breakdown
The Complex Project Manager (CPM)
  • The Link to MO
  • Provides One Stop Service on all Facility Needs
  • Coordinates all School Repair/Renovation Projects
  • Acts as Liaison for all Centralized Services
  • Provides Technical Support for School Operations
  • Works with Principals on Top 10 list

Insert1 Additional Pages
  • Complex Project Managers
  • Duties and Responsibilities
  • Job/Class Description
  • Top 10 List Form

Service Calls
  • Response Time
  • Tracking
  • School Log
  • Maximo Report
  • Service call manual
  • Service Call Unit Contact Info
  • Phone (213) 763-2911
  • Fax (213) 765-9044
  • School Mail Address
  • Central Shops, Service Call Unit
  • 1240 S. Naomi St.
  • Los Angeles, CA 90021

Service Calls
  • Receive 250,000/year (1,000/day)
  • Complete 95
  • Average backlog 20,000 Calls
  • Average Ages
  • Completed 22 days
  • Aging 80 days
  • Priorities
  • 05 Emergency 30 minute response
  • 04 Routine/Urgent 48 hour response
  • 03 Routine/Medium 30 day response

Priority 05 Work- Emergency (Highest)
  • Immediate danger to staff and/or student
  • (30 MINUTE RESPONSE TIME, could be just a phone
  • Examples include (but are not limited to)
  • a. Broken steam or water line causing flooding
  • b. Major sewer line stoppage
  • c. Gas leak
  • d. No electrical power in a large portion of
  • e. Overheated electrical circuits
  • f. Bells out of order and cannot be operated
  • g. Exterior doors, gates, or windows that are
    broken or will not lock
  • h. Swarm of bees, fire ants, rodent in food
    service area
  • i. Fire system failure
  • j. Fire sprinkler broken off

Priority 04 Work-Urgent (Very High)
  • Less immediate danger to health/safety
  • Examples include (but are not limited to)
  • a. No heat on cold mornings
  • b. No air conditioning on hot days
  • c. Minor plumbing stoppages but other site
    facilities are available
  • d. Electrical power failure in a small portion
    of building
  • e. Bells out of order but can be manually
  • f. Obscene or gang-related graffiti
  • g. Broken marble
  • h. Broken gate hinges
  • i. Rodents on exterior, flies
  • j. Interior corridor doors broken or will not
  • k. Restroom stall door hinges broken

Priority 03 Work-Routine (Medium)
  • No immediate danger to health/safety
  • Examples include (but are not limited to)
  • a. Breakdowns that pose no danger to health or
  • b. Ants on exterior of buildings, termites, weed
    with no tripping or fire hazard
  • c. Repair interior gate/fence where there is no
    danger to health or safety

Service Call
Maintenance Operations
Service Call (Work Order Log Sheet)
Maintenance Operations
MO Website
  • Service Calls Report
  • Project Status Summary Report
  • Website
  • Option 1
  • http//mo.laschools.org/fis/existing-facilities/m-
  • Option 2
  • Go to www.laschools.org
  • Click Existing Facilities
  • Click Maintenance Operations

Guide to Viewing Service Call Reports Online
Guide to Viewing Service Call Reports Online
Querying the Service Call DB
Service Call Overview
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Insert2 List of CPM Complexes
  • Sample from District 1

Operations Services Processes
  • Area Operations Supervisor
  • The Plant Manager
  • Job Description
  • Plant Managers Staff

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Insert3 Additional Pages
  • AOS Duties Responsibilities
  • Area Operations Supervisor (AOS) Class

Insert4 Additional Pages
  • Sample Form Site Visit Observation Sheet
  • Sample of Restroom Inspection Sheet
  • Annual Cleaning Memo Ballot Form
  • Unit C Evaluation Procedures
  • Classified Employees Evaluation Forms

Site-Based Custodial Services
  • Include
  • Cleaning Restrooms/Classrooms/Offices
  • Cleaning Eating Areas After Nutrition and Lunch
  • Removing Graffiti Throughout the Campus
  • Cleaning Exterior Buildings and Grounds
  • Cleaning Gyms/P.E. Areas
  • Cleaning Multi-Purpose Rooms
  • Cleaning Auditoriums
  • Cleaning Hallways/Stairways
  • Opening/Closing Gates, Buildings and Classrooms
  • Supporting Recycling Program
  • Performing Routine Repairs
  • Testing Fire Extinguishers
  • Setting up and Tearing Down Furniture for Events
  • Receiving Distributing Supplies
  • Flushing Water Fountains Each Morning
  • Monthly Fire Alarm and Extinguisher Inspection

Insert5 Additional Pages
  • PM The Quarter Back..
  • Class Descriptions for
  • Plant Manager
  • Assistant Plant Manager
  • School Facilities Attendant
  • Building Grounds Worker
  • Gardener

The TIME for Cleaning
  • Allotments
  • Work Schedules
  • Inspections


Factors Impacting Operations Staffing
  • Gardening services at elementary schools by
    central crews were reduced dramatically during
    the 1990s. Duties were absorbed by building and
    grounds workers with no additional staff time.
    Some gardening services have been restored, but
    landscaping staff has not been included.
  • Gardening services at secondary schools have been
    reduced by more than 50 from 1960 levels.
    Currently middle schools receive 4 to 8 hours of
    service per day while senior high schools are
    allotted 8-12 hours per day.

Insert6 Additional Page
  • Allotments and other Operation Terminology
  • Allotment Sheet
  • Tree Trimming Schedule
  • Bul-Y-1 Approved Trees Plants

Insert7 Additional Pages
  • Bulletin No. DB-31 Overtime Policy for
    Classified Employees
  • Sample Forms
  • Request for Custodial Overtime
  • Verification of Custodial Overtime
  • Custodial Overtime Procedures
  • Work Schedule for PM
  • Work Schedule for APM
  • Work Schedule for BG Workers
  • BG Inspection Report
  • Disposal Practices for Storm water and Sewer
  • Reference Guide 858- Daily Flushing Requirements
    for Drinking Fountains
  • MO Procedure G-F-8 Fire Extinguisher
    Inspections Use
  • Bulletin No. R-15 Nepotism Policy/Certification
    From for Classified Service

Bond Measures
  • PROPOSITON BB - is a school bond measure that
    authorizes LAUSD to use 2.4 billion in bonds for
    the construction of new schools and the repair
    and modernization of existing schools through the
    district to improve local schools and relieve
    classroom overcrowding. The ballot measure was
    approved in April 1997 by 71 of voters.
  • MEASURE K - is a school bond measure that
    authorizes LAUSD to issue 3.35 billion in bonds
    for repair and renovation of existing schools and
    to build neighborhood schools to improve local
    schools and relieve classroom overcrowding. The
    measure was passed in November 2002 by 64 of

Bond Measures
  • Measure R - is a school bond measure that
    authorizes LAUSD to issue 3.87 Billion in bonds
    to continue repair/upgrade of aging classrooms
    and build neighborhood schools. The measure was
    passed in March 2004 by 63 of voters
  • Measure Y - is a school bond measure that
    authorizes LAUSD to issue 3.985 billion in bonds
    to continue repair/upgrade of aging classrooms
    and to build new neighborhood schools. The
    measure was passed in November 2005 by 66 of the

Insert8 Additional Pages
  • Measure K Fact Sheet
  • Measure R- Fact Sheet
  • Measure Y Fact Sheet
  • Facility Condition Index (FCI)

Facilities Condition Index (FCI)
  • The FCI is an industry recommended ratio used to
    measure the condition of a single building or
    portfolio of buildings.
  • It is calculated by dividing the Cost of Repairs
    by the Current Replacement Value of the building
    or building components in question.
  • The higher the FCI the worse the condition of the
    building or portfolio.
  • Facilities Services Division adopted FCI, its
    principles and practices for identifying,
    measuring and predicting the outcomes of
    facilities investments made through maintenance
    and repairs.

Facility Condition Index
Districts Facilities Condition Index
  • Based on
  • Needs-based facilities assessment verified with
    site visits by Maintenance and Operations staff
  • Identified building system deficiencies
  • Projected life-cycle of building systems
  • Estimated replacement cost of facilities assets
  • How FCI is used
  • Allocation of Deferred Maintenance funding
  • Allocation of Measure R and Measure Y bond
  • Considered in replacement strategies for District
  • Districts overall FCI as of April 2006 is 28.66
    which is considered a poor rating.

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Mandated Regulations
  • Brief Descriptions of the Programs
  • Asbestos and Lead
  • Fire Alarm Procedures
  • Illness and Injury Prevention Plan
  • Safe School Inspections
  • Clean Restroom Initiative
  • Integrated Pest Management
  • Williams Case and SARC

Asbestos Lead Issues
  • Asbestos Management Plan
  • Fire Log Book
  • Memo-3303.0 Asbestos Inspection Abatement
  • Fire Life Systems Training for PM
  • RG858- Daily Flushing Requirements for Drinking
  • Contact for Asbestos Lead
  • Asbestos Technical Unit (213) 745-1400
  • Office of Environmental Health Safety (213)

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Fire/Life Safety
  • Fire Log Book-MO Procedure G-F-2
  • Fire Extinguisher Inspections Use
  • Contact
  • Fire/Life Safety Test Group (FLSTG)
  • (323) 980-8443
  • Tests/services fire sprinklers fire alarms
  • Fire/Life Safety Group _at_ Central Shops
  • (213) 745-1598
  • Tests/services fire extinguishers

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Health Safety Policies
  • LAUSDs Health Safety Policy
  • Illness Injury Prevention Program
  • Safety Inspection Guidebook
  • Safety Alert at School Sites Under Construction
  • Chemical Product Evaluation Request Form
  • Sample of Corrective Action Notice Issued by OEHS

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ABC Elementary School
8960 Herrick Ave Sun Valley, CA 91352
Senate Bill 892- Clean Restrooms
  • SB 892 was passed concerning clean restrooms.
  • It requires districts to maintain clean
    restrooms that are open during class instruction
    time and stocked with all necessary paper
    products and soap. It also requires the stalls to
    have doors and locks that are operable. Failure
    to do so may result in loss of deferred
    maintenance funds.
  • The Office of Public School Construction (OPSC)
    has been charged with enforcement of the law.
    They have developed a complaint form for the
    public to report improperly maintained restrooms.
  • Copy of SB-892
  • CA Restroom Maintenance Instructions Complaint
  • Bulletin-735 Restroom Policy

Restroom Initiatives
  • Open Bathrooms - site plans have been developed
    for each secondary school and specify where
    student bathrooms are located and when they will
    be open each day, adequate to serve student
  • Clean Bathrooms - the District has a schedule for
    cleaning and servicing
  • bathroom facilities at each school, restock soap
    and paper supplies.
  • Monitoring - nearly 300 School Facilities
    Attendants and Building and Grounds Workers have
    been hired to spot-clean, dispose of trash and
    restock soap paper supplies.
  • Bulletin 735 LAUSD Policy on Restroom Access,
    Cleanliness Repair (March 2004)
  • LAUSD Clean Restroom Hotline 800-495-1191

Williams Case Settlement
  • Williams vs. State of California (Class Action
  • Funded approximately 34.6 million square feet in
    assessments at 286 LAUSD sites completed in
    Dec. 2005
  • Establishes the School Facilities Needs
    Assessment Grant Program (25million) and the
    School Facilities Emergency Repair Account
    (100 million annually statewide -
  • District must establish a facilities inspection
    system for all facilities in order to qualify for
    Facilities Grants funds and Deferred Maintenance
  • Leverage resources to capture remaining FCA

School Accountability Report Card
  • The SARC is used as the source of information for
    the Williams compliance reviews conducted by the
    Los Angeles County Office of Education (LACOE)
    that are conducted at the beginning of each
    school year.
  • The Williams schools are those schools that
    ranked in deciles 1-3 on the 2003 Base API.
  • School Facilities - one of the data elements that
    is required by the state to be included in the
  • REF 3454 LAUSD SARC 05-06

Integrated Pest Management
  • Adopted by Board of Education in 1999
  • Implemented a District-wide training program
  • Encourages reduced risk substances
  • Pest exclusion, improved sanitation, habitat
  • For more info
  • Department of Pesticide Regulation (916) 445-4300
  • AB 2260 Healthy Schools Act of 2000

IPM Policy Overview
  • School environments that are free of pests, such
    as ants, cockroaches, and rodents have positive
    impact on the learning conditions and the health
    and safety of students, staff, parents and the
  • The IPM policy provides guidance and direction in
    managing pests, while minimizing the use of
    pesticides, with the ultimate goal of not using
    any pesticides

IPM References
  • Integrated Pest Management Policy
  • IPM Procedures Manual
  • Pesticide Application Required Posting
  • Approved Pesticide List

MO Challenges
  • Funding Limitations 3 a ceiling or floor? BG
  • Large Area of Responsibility - 14,000 structures,
    72 million square feet, 5,800 acres, dispersed
    over 704 square miles
  • Aging Facilities - Average age of school
    facilities is 46 years
  • Increasing Inventory - Adding 150 new schools to
    the existing 1,100 schools and centers, without
    increasing Maintenance budget
  • Breakdown Maintenance - Over 250,000 Trouble
    Calls per year
  • Preventive Maintenance Transition from trouble
    call focus
  • Broad Spectrum of Equipment - 58,000 HVAC Units
  • High Utilization 200 Year-Round schools, large
    summer programs, Joint-Use
  • Vandalism and Graffiti - Cost up to 15M per
  • Special Initiatives - 7,500 Student Restrooms,
    30 increase in green space
  • 30 Years of Neglect - 5.8B Repair Backlog to
    bring FCI to Fair
  • Staffing Challenges - Up to 15 Vacancy Rates
  • Temporary Hires
  • A/B Letter Contracts

Underfunded Custodial Services
  • Currently underfunded by approximately 30 based
    on Board-approved formula and 30-40 based on
    cleaning industry standards
  • Average Building and Grounds Square Footage/FTE
  • LAUSD 97,067 ft2/custodian (buildings and
  • 23,494 ft2/custodian (buildings only)
  • American School University 35th Annual MO
    Cost Study of School Districts, April 2006
  • 25,173 sq ft/custodian (buildings
    and grounds)

Based on an estimated 60 of a day custodians
time spent performing non-redundant tasks. The
remaining 40 is spent on redundant restroom
cleaning during the school day and non-cleaning
duties (e.g., testing fire extinguishers, or
setting up for events).
Underfunded Custodial Services
  • Custodial Allotment Analyses
  • Underfunded by approximately 30 based on
    Board-approved formula.
  • Underfunded by 30-40 based on industry
  • Average staffing deficit at District sites using
    Super Ace (software system for determining
    cleaning task allotments based on industry
    standards) 31
  • (Graffiti removal, daily flushing of drinking
    fountains, testing of handicapped lift systems,
    and daily checking of fire extinguishers not
    accounted for in the formula)
  • Average staffing deficit at District sites using
    California Association of School Business
    Officials (CASBO) formula 43
  • Up to 6 vacancy rate

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Fairfax High School
Student Restroom, March 12, 2007 (one week after
being repainted)
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