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The Reformation and Scientific Revolution

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The Reformation and Scientific Revolution Rethinking Our Place in the Universe A Fork in the Road: People were getting access to books and writing in the vernacular. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Reformation and Scientific Revolution


1
The Reformation and Scientific Revolution
  • Rethinking Our Place in the Universe

2
A Fork in the Road
  • People were getting access to books and writing
    in the vernacular.
  • People were traveling again, trading, and
    exchanging new ideas.
  • A wealthy merchant class was developing that
    wasnt part of feudalism.

3
A Fork in the Road
  • Why would the Church not like these things?
  • Why would some kings not like these things?
  • Would some kings maybe like these changes?

4
Understand Thinking differently from others
could be very, VERY dangerous!
5
Humanism Where it all started
  • An intellectual movement
  • A focus on classical Greek and Roman culture
  • Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious
    subjects
  • Emphasized the study of the humanities
    grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language
    effectively), poetry and history

6
What was the Protestant Reformation?
  • In the 1500s, the N. Renaissance sparked a call
    for big changes within the Roman Catholic Church
  • Humanism caused people to question the Church,
    and the printing press gave them the means

7
Church Abuses during the Middle Ages
  • Popes and Kings struggled for political power.
  • The Church always wanted to expand.
  • Popes lived lavishly and churches were beautiful.
  • (The Basilica, Krakow, Poland, 1300s)

8
SOME popes began to live more like princes.
  • Pope Alexander VI
  • Pope 1492 1503
  • Had two loves in his life
  • Gold and Women
  • Most famous children
  • Cesare Borgia
  • Model for Machiavellis THE PRINCE
  • Lucretzia Borgia

9
Lucretzia Borgia
  • An active participant in her familys excesses?
  • Slimed by her familys enemies?
  • Supposed expert at poisons?
  • "THE CANTARELLA," DEADLY POISON OF THE BORGIA,'

10
The Borgias are still with us in 2008!
  • I was going to come home for an evening of fun
    with my extended family. What do I get? I get the
    four of you going at each other like the Borgias
    on a bad day!
  • Frasier

11
If that wasnt bad enough!
  • The church increased fees and sold indulgences
  • payment to reduce time a soul would spend in
    purgatory before going to heaven.

12
Early Revolts Against the Church
  • 1300s, in England, John Wycliffe used sermons
    writings to seek change.
  • Managed to die of a stroke but the Church
    ordered his corpse to be burned.
  • Jan Hus , Czech Republic, executed for leading a
    reform movement.

13
Fifty years later Martin Luther (1483 1546)
  • German Monk, professor of theology.
  • Led a holy life.
  • Final straw when a priest sold indulgences in
    order to rebuild a cathedral in Rome.
  • The indulgences got yourself and dead family
    into Heaven.

14
Martin Luther
  • Indulgences meant that often peasants did not
    have hope to go to heaven.
  • Created the 95 Theses
  • (arguments against indulgences.)

15
Response to what Luther did?
  • Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther.
  • Made it impossible for Martin Luther to ever go
    to heaven if he believed in such HERESY.
  • HERESY An opinion or a doctrine differing with
    established religious beliefs.

16
Not only was the Pope mad the Holy Roman
Emperor was upset!
  • Charles V, summoned Luther to the City of Worms
    asked him to recant

17
Luther (cont)
  • Luther refused to recant and was made an outlaw.
  • Luther had thousands who followed him and
    renounced the Pope.

18
Luthers Teachings
  • All Christians have access to God through faith
    and the Bible -- we dont need elaborate
    ceremonies.
  • Wanted ordinary people to be able to read the
    Bible (so translated it)
  • Towns should have schools so kids can read the
    bible.
  • Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and
    prayers to saints.
  • Encouraged ex-priests to live as men and have
    families.

19
The Spread of Lutheranism
  • The printing press spread his ideas.
  • Lutherans became called Protestants
  • for those who protested against the Pope.

20
What Luther began was about a hundred years of
warfare in Europe over Religion
  • Catholic v. Protestant
  • Protestant v. Catholic
  • Protestant v. Protestant
  • Country v. Country

21
Attempts at Peace The Peace of Augsburg 1555
  • Emperor Charles V tried to force Luther back into
    the Catholic Church
  • After several short wars they reached a
    settlement.
  • Agreement allowed every prince to decide which
    religion would be followed in his lands.

22
Religious map of Europe
23
Swiss Reform
  • John Calvin, priest and lawyer, published a book
    on how how to run a Protestant church. Shared
    Luthers ideas, but had some ideas of his own.

John Calvin
24
John Calvin
  • He preached PREDESTINATION
  • that God had already determined who would be
    saved
  • The world was divided into two-
  • -saints and sinners
  • Only those who were saved could live truly
    Christian lives.
  • See pg. 64, compare the 3 religions/copy chart

25
Geneva
  • Protestants in city-state of Geneva, Switzerland,
    asked Calvin to lead their community.
  • Calvin established a theocracy
  • Government based on religion
  • The community considered selves the chosen
    people, faced fines or harsh punishment for
    fighting, swearing, dancing, laughing in church.
    -- model community!

26
The Spread of Calvinism
  • Reformers from all over Europe visited Geneva
    took home ideas
  • Calvinism spread into parts of Germany, France,
    the Netherlands, England and Scotland.
  • There were wars between the countries above and
    the catholic church.
  • Throughout Europe, Calvinists clashed with
    Lutherans and Catholics

27
The Catholics React
  • If you wanted to make people believe in your
    religion again, what would you do?

28
Catholic Reaction to the Reformation
  • The Inquisition
  • Make people fear!
  • Reform of the abuses in the Church
  • Change the mistakes!

29
The Inquisition
  • for punishment does not take place primarily and
    per se for the correction and good of the person
    punished, but for the public good in order that
    others may become terrified and weaned away from
    the evils they would commit."
  • 1578 justification

30
The Catholic Reform Movement The Council of
Trent in 1545
  • Reaffirmed Catholic belief that salvation comes
    through faith and good works.
  • Admitted there was corruption that had to end in
    the Church
  • Sought better education for priests.

31
The Jesuits
  • Soldiers of God with spiritual and moral
    discipline.
  • Very educated to combat heresy.
  • Advisors to Catholic kings.
  • Traveled secretly in Protestant lands to
    administer to the Catholics.
  • Traveled to Africa, Asia, and the Americas to
    spread the faith.

32
Teresa of Avila
  • A Spanish noblewoman who found the convent she
    was at was not strict enough.
  • Started her own order for women to dedicate
    themselves to prayer and meditation
  • Live in isolation.
  • Eating and sleeping little.

33
Teresa of Avila
  • The Catholic Church picked up on her ideas and
    used them to reform monasteries and convents.

34
Differences between Protestants and Catholics
continue in 2008
  • Intellectual disagreements
  • Violence still happens.
  • Northern Ireland

35
While people were battling over issues of
religion
36
Something was happening that would change
EVERYTHING.
  • THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

37
What was so dangerous?
  • The Reformation had people rethinking their
    relationship with God.

38
The Scientific Revolution
  • Had people rethinking our position in the
    universe.
  • Science and the Bible.

39
Four Men that took the Red Pill -
  • And led all of humankind down the rabbit hole.
  • Nicholas Copernicus
  • Tycho Brahe
  • Johannes Kepler
  • Galileo Galilei

40
After The Library of Alexandria burned
  • The Church in the Dark and Middle Ages took an
    Earth Centered view of the Universe.
  • Man was at the center of everything.

41
Early Christianitys Main Points about the earth
and the relationship to the sun and stars.
  • Uniqueness
  • Centrality
  • Fixity

42
The Problems This View Created?
  • It was WRONG!
  • Trying to track the path of planets got VERY
    confusing.
  • It didnt fit the perfect circles.

43
The first to say the Earth was not the center?
  • Giordano Bruno (1548 1600)
  • Suggested a HELIOCENTRIC system
  • The SUN was the center of the system, NOT the
    earth.
  • Questioned the relationship between science and
    faith.

44
Giordano Bruno was declared a heretic
  • Burned at the stake.

45
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Polish mathematician and astronomer.
  • Picked up on what Arab and Indian astronomers had
    written about
  • HELIOCENTRIC System.
  • Sun centered universe

46
Nicholas Copernicus ( 1473 1547)
  • Did NOT publish his ideas until he was on his
    deathbed!
  • Also thought if he dedicated his book to the
    Pope, it would help.

47
Copernicus On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres.
  • There is no one center of all the celestial
    circles or spheres.
  • The center of the earth is not the center of the
    universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar
    sphere.
  • All the spheres revolve about the sun as their
    mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of
    the universe.

48
It was three years after Copernicus died before
people realized his ideas
  • Denounced the theory as being against the
    absolute truth of the Bible.
  • In its full text it was prohibited reading for
    Catholics.
  • 1633 Galileo was convicted of grave suspicion of
    heresy for "following the position of Copernicus,
    which is contrary to the true sense and authority
    of Holy Scripture,"

49
Along comes Tycho Brahe
  • 1546 1601
  • Danish nobleman who had a passion for astronomy.
  • To prove Copernicus WRONG, there needed to be
    detailed observations of the movement of the
    planets over years.

50
Tycho Brahe
  • Lost his nose in a duel over a mathematic
    equation.
  • Didnt help that he was drunk and the sword fight
    was in the dark.
  • Wore a silver or gold nose that he colored to
    look like flesh.

51
Tycho Brahe
  • Kept an observatory in Hven, Denmark.
  • Entertained royalty and others and invited them
    to watch the night sky with him.
  • No telescopes yet!
  • Naked eye observations that were INCREDIBLY
    accurate
  • Tychos Tame Elk story.

52
Tycho Brahes unusual death
  • Rule of the time If dining with a king, you
    couldnt leave the table until the king was
    finished and ready to get up.
  • Tycho really had to go.
  • Either he burst his bladder or stretched it so
    bad an infection set in.

53
Tycho Brahes Death
  • "Let me not seem to have lived in vain.

54
Tycho Brahes Records
  • Incredibly detailed in tracking planetary and
    star movement.
  • Thought he was going to prove a GEOCENTRIC
    universe.
  • The Earth at the center.

55
Tycho Found Problems with the fixity of the
universe!
  • eternally unchangeable.
  • But in 1578, Brahe witnessed a SUPERNOVA!
  • A birth of a new star.

56
The Tychonic Universe
  • the Sun annually circles a central Earth
  • While the five planets orbit the Sun.
  • In Tycho's model the Earth does not rotate daily!

57
Johannes Kepler to the rescue!
  • 1571 1630.
  • Tychos assistant.
  • Had the math background that Tycho didnt.
  • Wanted to read the Mind of God.
  • Math and science could help him.
  • Believed in the Copernican Theory.

58
Kepler and the Copernican Theory
  • Wanted to believe that the orbits of the planets
    around the sun were perfect circles.
  • Continue the belief of the universe
  • Unique
  • Centrality
  • Fixity

59
Keplers Problem
  • He couldnt make it WORK!
  • The data of Tychos didnt fit his perfect circle
    math!

60
Keplers problem
  • Religion said that the universe was circular.
  • But the math said it wasnt.
  • WHO SHOULD HE BELIEVE??

61
Keplers Choice
  • Follow the math.
  • ELLIPTICAL orbits made the math work with Tychos
    observations!
  • But they werent perfect!
  • They werent central!
  • They werent fixed!

62
Keplers NEW problem
  • He thought he had read the mind of God.
  • How does he tell people and not end up dead?
  • Keplers mother had been accused of witchcraft.
  • He wasnt sure he had royal or religious
    protection.

63
Kepler HAD to tell what he knew!
  • Wrote the first science fiction work
  • THE DREAM
  • Shows the feasibility of a heliocentric system.
  • Feasibility possibility
  • Has a trip to the moon.
  • What it would be like looking out from another
    planet.

64
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
  • LAW 1
  • The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an
    ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one
    focus

65
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Law 2
  • A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps
    out equal areas in equal intervals of time

66
Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Law 3
  • The squares of the periods of the planets are
    proportional to the cubes of their semi-major
    axes

67
Johannes Kepler
  • Excommunicated from the Lutheran Church.
  • Lost his wife and all but two children to
    smallpox.
  • Saved his mother from being burned as a witch.

68
Johannes Kepler The End
  • Made a living teaching astronomy and astrology
  • Said astrology evil-smelling dung!
  • Did some math writing, but kept a low profile.

69
An Earth Centered Universe
  • Why would people think that the Earth is the
    center?
  • Why would the Church prefer to think that man was
    the center of the Universe?

70
A new way of thinking!
  • A shift in thinking to the assumption that
    mathematical laws governed nature and the
    universe therefore, the physical world could be
    known, managed and shaped by people.

71
Galileo The Lightning Rod
  • The one who swallowed the red pill and REALLY
    took us all down the rabbit hole!

72
Galileo
  • 1564 1642
  • Italian mathematician, astronomer.
  • Invented the telescope.
  • LOVED to create controversy.

73
Galileo felt confident in creating controversy
He had protection!
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent de Medici was his
    patron.
  • Proved Aristotle wrong about gravity.
  • Turned his telescope to the heavens.

74
What did Galileo see?
  • The universe was NOT
  • Unique
  • He found other moons circling planets.
  • We were not unique.
  • Perfect
  • The moon had a rough surface.
  • Fixed
  • Supernovas and sunspots!

75
Galileo did NOT keep his observations quiet!
  • Wrote The Starry Messenger to tell about what he
    saw.
  • Proposed the Heliocentric system.

76
Why did Galileo do this?
  • Thought with Lorenzo the Magnificents protection
    he could be safe and teach that the universe was
    different than how the Bible interpreted it.
  • To be safe He named the moons of Saturn after
    Lorenzos daughters.
  • Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Calysto.

77
Galileos Argument
  • Just look in the BLEEP! telescope!

78
The Catholic Church felt they had to make a stand
and example
  • Western Christian biblical references Psalm 931,
    Psalm 9610, and 1 Chronicles 1630 include text
    stating that "the world is firmly established, it
    cannot be moved." In the same tradition, Psalm
    1045 says, "the LORD set the earth on its
    foundations it can never be moved." Further,
    Ecclesiastes 15 states that "And the sun rises
    and sets and returns to its place, etc

79
Galileos Counter Argument
  • Just look in the BLEEP telescope!
  • The Bible isnt wrong, it is the interpretation
    that is wrong.
  • It is a HELIOCENTRIC universe out there!

80
Galileos Trial for HERESY
  • Galileo was required to abjure the the idea that
    the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally
    heretical.
  • He was ordered imprisoned the sentence was later
    commuted to house arrest.
  • His offending books were banned and in an action
    not announced at the trial, publication of any of
    his works was forbidden, including any he might
    write in the future.

81
Galileo
  • He knew he had escaped the worst the Inquisition
    could have done to him.
  • Accepted the sentence and died after 9 years
    either in prison or house arrest.

82
Galileo
  • It took until 1835 for the Catholic Church to
    admit the heliocentric universe.
  • 1992 Pope John Paul II apologized for what the
    Church had done. "most audacious heroes of
    research ... not afraid of the stumbling blocks
    and the risks on the way.

83
The Birth of the Scientific Method
  • A new way to problem solve.

84
The Old Way Aristotles Method
  • People used to make guesses, could not prove or
    disprove any thing, and had vague theories.
  • EXAMPLE Aristotle claimed that human males have
    more teeth than females.

85
The Old Way
  • Galileo, Kepler, Tycho and Copernicus all battled
    with the old methods to try to explain what they
    were discovering.

86
A New Way The Scientific Method
  • Created by Sir Francis Bacon (1564 1626)
  • The method was to be inductive and experimental,
    amassing data on important subjects, classifying
    them, and developing from them wider rules and
    hypotheses.

87
Inductive Reasoning in the Scientific Method
  • 358 and eight is an even number.
  • Therefore, an odd number added to another odd
    number will result in an even number.
  • This ice is cold.
  • All ice is cold.

88
The Steps of the Scientific Method
  • Observe a condition or behavior.
  • Make a guess as to why that condition or
    behavior exists.
  • Experiment to see if you can make it happen
    again.
  • Analyze the results.
  • New guess needed or not?

89
The Stage was set for the FUTURE
  • Newton
  • Einstein
  • Hawking
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