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ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

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Typically occurs in the shoulder, wrist, hands, or elbow. ... Usually results from excessive flexing or twisting of the wrist. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY


1
ERGONOMICS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY
  • OFFICE OF RISK MANAGEMENT
  • LOSS PREVENTION UNIT

2
PRE-TEST
  • What is ergonomics?
  • What are MSDs?
  • What are symptoms of MSD?
  • How can I evaluate my workplace?
  • What are some ergonomic solutions?

3
COURSE OBJECTIVES
  • Define ergonomics
  • Establish ergonomics in the workplace
  • Introduce basic skills in the recognition
    control of occupational ergonomic hazards
  • Introduce ergonomic exercises.

4
PROGRAM GOAL
  • To minimize injuries due to chronic physical and
    psychological stresses, while maximizing
    productivity and efficiency

5
ERGONOMICS DEFINED
  • Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to
    the worker.

6
BIOMECHANICS
  • The science of measuring the amount of force put
    on the muscles and joints of people when working
    in different positions.

7
BIOMECHANICS CONT.
  • STATIC - Holding one object or body part in one
    position for an extended period. EX. Standing or
    sitting in a parking booth or at a microscope.

8
BIOMECHANICS CONT.
  • DYNAMIC - An activity created by the rhythmic
    contraction and relaxation of the muscles. EX.
    Walking

9
DID YOU KNOW?
  • As early as the 1700s scientists were aware of
    repetitive movement injuries to workers.
  • Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)
  • Clerks
  • Cobblers and tailors
  • Porters

10
ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS
WORKERS - what they bring to the job TOOLS -
what they bring to the worker
11
ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS
  • TASKS - what the worker must do
  • ENVIRONMENT- the conditions
  • surrounding the worker and the tool

12
ERGONOMIC FOCUS
The Task
The Tool
The User /Operator
The Work Station and Environment
13
RESULTING INJURIES ARE CALLED
  • Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD),
  • Or
  • Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI),
  • Or
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)

14
HOW SERIOUS ARE MSD
  • MSD account for
  • 1/3 of all lost day injuries each year
  • These injuries cost business 15-20 billion in
    workers compensation each year

15
COMMON CAUSES
  • Repetitive and/or prolonged activities
  • Awkward postures/positions for an extended time
  • Static postures
  • Vibration
  • High/low Temperatures for
    an extended time
  • Forceful exertions

16
ERGONOMIC STRESS AREAS
Hip
Knee
17
SIGNS OF MSD
  • Decreased range of motion
  • Loss of function
  • Deformity
  • Cramping
  • Loss of color
  • Decreased grip strength
  • Loss of balance
  • Swelling
  • Redness

18
SYMPTOMS OF MSD
  • Muscle fatigue or pain
  • Aching
  • Burning
  • Numbness
  • Stiffness
  • Tingling

19
EXAMPLES OF MSD
  • TENDONITIS- An inflammation of the tendon.
    Typically occurs in the shoulder, wrist, hands,
    or elbow.
  • CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME- Irritation of the median
    nerve, which runs through a bony channel in the
    wrist called the carpal tunnel. Usually results
    from excessive flexing or twisting of the wrist.

20
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
21
MSD CONT.
  • TRIGGER FINGER SYNDROME- Tendons in the fingers
    become inflamed, causing pain, swelling, and a
    loss of dexterity.
  • EYE STRAIN - The eyes become strained as a result
    of poor lighting, glare or viewing from awkward
    positions.

22
MSD CONT.
  • HAND/ARM VIBRATION SYNDROME- Tingling, numbness,
    blanching, loss of dexterity in the hand/arm
  • MUSCLE STRAIN Pain in muscles

23
VIDEO
24
WHAT CAN WE DO?
  • Administrative controls
  • Work practice controls
  • Engineering controls

25
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Employee rotation/job task expansion
  • Physical adjustments to the work pace
  • Redesign of work methods
  • Alternative tasks
  • Breaks

26
WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS
  • Safe proper work techniques procedures
  • Training
  • Physical conditioning period

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29
POSTURE ANGLES
  • Whether your tasks are performed while
  • sitting or standing, always maintain proper
    posture angles--and avoid
  • Awkward positions, and
  • Extreme reaches for materials

30
BODY ANGLES
  • HEAD
  • SHOULDERS
  • ELBOWS
  • HANDS
  • WAIST
  • LEGS
  • FEET

31
SITTING POSTURES
32
MORE ANGLES…
33
MORE ANGLES…
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39
ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  • Workstations
  • Tools/equipment
  • Facilities

40
WORKSTATIONS
  • The objective is to
  • Fit the workstation to the employee
  • Reduce awkward positions
  • This can be done by using two methods

41
WORKSTATIONS CONT.
  • Standard Way
  • Adjustable workstation
  • Adjustable chair
  • Foot rests
  • Adjustable monitor
  • Document holder
  • Innovative Way
  • Cut legs off
  • Add blocks
  • Build foot rest
  • Thick book
  • Build platform

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45
TOOLS
  • Use of Force or of grip-strength
  • Longer/shorter and thicker/thinner handles
  • Repetitive motion
  • Ratcheting mechanism or gears
  • Power tools
  • Electric stapler
  • Electric knife
  • Spring-loaded returns

46
TOOLS CONT.
  • Awkward positions
  • Bent or curved handles
  • Extensions or add-ons
  • Headphones
  • Support equipment overhead
  • Step stool
  • Forceful exertions
  • Soft-touch keyboards/buttons
  • Lifting devices

47
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49
TOOLS CONT.
  • Static positions
  • Anti-fatigue mats
  • Vibration
  • Anti-vibration materials
  • Anti-vibration mounts/handles
  • External support
  • Anti-vibration gloves

50
FACILITIES
  • Lighting/glare

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FACILITIES
  • Temperature

53
FACILITIES
  • Noise

54
EXERCISES STRETCHES
  • These are exercises or stretches that can be
    performed at your workstation, home, just about
    anywhere.

55
EYE
  • Eye comfort exercises
  • Blinking
  • Yawning
  • Focus change

56
EYE Palming
  • While seated, brace elbows on the edge of the
    desk
  • Let weight fall forward
  • Cup hands over eyes and close eyes
  • Inhale slowly through nose hold for 4 seconds
  • Continue deep breathing for 15-30 seconds

57
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58
EYE Movements
  • Close eyes and slowly gently move eyes up to
    the ceiling, then slowly down to the floor
  • Repeat 3 times
  • Close eyes and slowly gently move eyes to the
    left, then slowly to the right
  • Repeat 3 times

59
NECK STRETCH
  • Tilt ear towards shoulder
  • Reach up and touch top of head with palm to hold
    in tilted position
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times (come out of
    stretch slowly)
  • Reverse side and repeat

60
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61
Pec Corner Stretch
  • Stand at a corner about a foot away from the wall
    with forearms on opposite sides of the corner.
    One foot should be forward.
  • Elbows should be at slightly below shoulder
    height
  • Keep abdominals tight to avoid arching back
  • Lean gently towards corner by bending the front
    knee until a stretch is felt in front of the
    chest.
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times

62
Overhead Reach
  • Take a deep breathe and reach up over head with
    both arms.
  • Hold 5-10 seconds
  • Exhale and lower slowly
  • Repeat 2-3 times

63
Shoulder Pinch
  • Place arms behind head being careful not to press
    hand into head
  • Relax shoulders, and squeeze shoulder blades
    together while keeping shoulders back and down
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times

64
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65
Shoulder Shrug
  • Sitting up straight, slowly bring shoulders up
    toward your ears.
  • Hold positions 5-10 seconds
  • Then bring the shoulders down and hold
  • Repeat 2-3 times

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67
Chair Rotation Stretch
  • Sit in chair and place feet flat on floor
  • Reach across your body and grab the back of the
    chair
  • Pull gently to increase stretch in mid back
  • Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 5 times
  • Repeat on other side

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69
Arms Behind Back Stretch
  • Hold hands behind back and grasp hands together
  • Pull shoulder blades back and down
  • Hold 5 seconds. Repeat 5 times

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71
Thoracic Spine Extension Stretch
  • Lie on your back with a pillow under your knees.
    Place a firmly rolled towel under your shoulder
    blades across your upper back
  • Raise arms up as you inhale
  • Lower arms as you exhale, and hold a couple of
    seconds
  • Do this 5 times

72
Prop Ups or Press Ups
  • Lie on stomach and either prop up on forearms or
    if wrists are not compromised, press up through
    hands.
  • Let stomach sag, and allow back to arch without
    using back muscles.
  • If propped on elbows, hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat
    5 times
  • If on hands, press up and down slowly 10 times

73
Foot Rotations
  • While sitting upright, slowly rotate each foot
    from the ankles 3 times in one direction
  • Then rotate 3 in the opposite direction

74
Wrist Flexed Extended
  • Hold arm straight at waist height
  • With fingers of other hand, gently press down
    above the knuckles, bending wrist down. (DO NOT
    hold at the fingers to push down.)
  • Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times
  • For extending, hold onto palm of hand and stretch
    wrist back. (DO NOT pull on fingers.)
  • Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times.

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77
Finger Massage
  • VERY gently, massage the fingers of each hand
    individually.
  • Move toward the nail gently.
  • Massage the space between your fingers to widen
    and relax

78
Finger Squeeze
  • Squeeze a foam block OR the edge of your desk
    firmly with all fingers
  • Hold for 3 seconds
  • Relax your grip

79
ERGONOMICS PROGRAM
  • Essential elements
  • Management Leadership and employee participation
  • Hazard information and reporting
  • Job Hazard Analysis and Control
  • Training
  • MSD Management
  • Program evaluation

80
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What three types of controls can we implement as
solutions for ergonomic problems?
81
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What three types of controls can we implement as
solutions for ergonomic problems?
List three (3) examples of environmental
conditions that affect employees.
82
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What three types of controls can we implement as
solutions for ergonomic problems?
List three (3) examples of environmental
conditions that affect employees.
Posture is not important in regards to
ergonomics. T or F
83
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What three types of controls can we implement as
solutions for ergonomic problems?
List three (3) examples of environmental
conditions that affect employees.
Posture is not important in regards to
ergonomics. T or F
What does MSD stand for?
84
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What three types of controls can we implement as
solutions for ergonomic problems?
List three (3) examples of environmental
conditions that affect employees.
Posture is not important in regards to
ergonomics. T or F
What does MSD stand for?
Two examples of MSDs are, Tendonitis and Carpal
Tunnel Syndrome. T or F
85
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What is ergonomics?
86
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What is ergonomics?
List three (3) signs of MSD.
87
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What is ergonomics?
List three (3) signs of MSD.
Ergonomics study areas include the worker and
tools. T or F
88
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What is ergonomics?
List three (3) signs of MSD.
Ergonomics study areas include the worker and
tools.
When focusing on the tool, the task and the
environment you are trying to find the best
combination for the worker (user/operator). T
or F
89
ERGONOMICS POST TEST
What is ergonomics?
List three (3) signs of MSD.
Ergonomics study areas include the worker and
tools. T or F
When focusing on the tool, the task and the
environment you are trying to find the best
combination for the worker (user/operator). T
or F
How can I evaluate my workplace?
90
QUESTIONS
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