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Michelle Letourneau, Claire Trempe, John Verhamme, Roman Sanchez, Meg Larson, Collin Feduska * Environmental Benefits - Ethanol Water soluble and biodegradable Higher ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biofuels

Michelle Letourneau, Claire Trempe, John
Verhamme, Roman Sanchez, Meg Larson, Collin
History of Biofuels
  • Biofuels were used in ancient times in the form
    of wood
  • New forms of biofuels arrive in the late 19th
    century with German engineer Nikolaus August Otto
  • Suggested the use of ethanol as fuel
  • Rudolf Diesel, another German inventor, design
  • Model T, designed by Henry Ford, was built to run
    on a hemp derived biofuel Diesel engine that ran
    on peanut oil

History of Biofuels
  • The discovery of mass amounts of crude oil in
    Texas and parts of Pennsylvania greatly
    diminished the use of biofuels
  • Gasoline was much cheaper and therefore inventors
    based designs upon it rather than biofuels

Present use of Biofuels
  • Ethanol and Biodiesel are the two most common
  • Shell Gasoline Representative "When choosing raw
    material for biofuels, people have looked first
    to plants that can be grown regularly in large
  • Corn, Sugarcane, and Wheat are most common crops
    used to produce biofuels

  • Biofuels/ethanol made from corn (maize), other
    cereals, sugar cane, etc (IEA)
  • Gasoline provides much more energy than ethanol,
    therefore ethanol is not used directly but rather
    blended with gasoline
  • Ethanol is currently blended at 10 in all
    commercial gas in the United States (gasohol)
  • March 6, 2008 requests E15 be required
  • E85 can be used in cars with engine modifications
    called Flex-fuel vehicles
  • Even pure ethanol can be used to fuel
    transportation vehicles
  • Most Brazilian gasoline E25 (book), has also
    used pure ethanol
  • Largest industrial market for corn
  • Cellulose ethanol derived from a substance
    called lignocellulose, a compound that makes up
    the majority of material in plants

Flex-Fuel Cars
  • Clean Fuel
  • Can run on up to E85 with modest changes in the
    fuel system
  • 2009 7 million in US today, 170,000 stations
    nationwide, s are growing
  • 30 tax credit to install (Dec 31, 2005-Dec 31
    2009) Flex-Box Smart Kit from the Environmental
    protection agency
  • Ethanol does have only 2/3 the energy new
    technologies being developed

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  • Biodiesel made by the separation of glycerin
    from vegetable oils or fat (transesterification)
    - vegetable oils, canola oil, animal tallow,
    recycled vegetable oils and fats (food processors
    and restaurants), soybeans, animal fats
  • Creates 2 products methyl esters (biodiesel) and
    glycerin (a valuable byproduct used to make soaps
    and other products)
  • Produced Usually B20
  • B100 engine modifications needed

Present use of Biofuels (Diesel)
  • http//

Other uses for biomass
  • Biopower
  • Electricity from organic matter largest
    renewable, non-hydro source, currently 2
  • Agricultural and forest residues, animal waste,
    fast-growing plants, landfills, sewage treatment
    plants, animal waste
  • Biogas (methane gas)
  • Produced by burning organic matter or anaerobic
    fermentation breakdown of organic matter by
    bacteria without the presence of oxygen
  • For local power

  • Biofuels are as available as we make them
  • Unfortunately there is competition between food
    production and biofuel production
  • Competition for land and what the crops are used
  • Production and use of algae does not have this
  • Algae can be grown and cultivated in otherwise
    non-arable areas (i.e. the desert)

World Production Graph
Corn for ethanol
Biodiesel Graph
  • Studies on ethanol find that the energy balance
    ranges from 0.59 to 2.62.
  • The energy balance of ethanol has improved
    dramatically due to advances in technology and
    farm production.
  • The American Coalition for Ethanol concludes that
    the energy balance of ethanol is about 1.79.
  • A 2004 USDA study concludes that ethanol yields
    67 more energy than it takes to produce.

  • We believe (the study) has laid to rest some
    long-held misunderstandings about ethanol and its
    important role in reducing Americas reliance on
    imported oil and our greenhouse gas emissions.
    In terms of key energy and environmental
    benefits, cornstarch ethanol comes out clearly
    ahead of petroleum-based fuels US Department
    of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Price of Ethanol and Biodiesel
  • Average subsidized cost of ethanol is 1.69
    compared to 1.90 for gasoline.
  • Costs based on feedstock cost, production scale,
    and government subsidies.
  • Currently, corn is sold for 3.66/ bushel.
  • International Energy Agency cost competitive
    when oil 45/barrel
  • Biodiesel - 65/barrel
  • Current average biodiesel price ranges from
  • Costs may decrease soon based on potential for

Biofuel Effects on Gas Prices
  • Without ethanol, gasoline prices would be .20 -
    .35 higher per gallon.
  • This amounts to 150-300 in savings per yr. for
    the typical household.
  • With annual US gasoline consumption being 140
    billion gal., this means 28-49 billion saved.

Unleaded Gas vs. Ethanol
Food versus Fuel Debate
  • 25 of U.S. corn production used for ethanol
  • Increases livestock feed costs, milk reached
    3.50 per gallon
  • World food prices go up, corn prices increased
    60 over two years
  • 240 kg of corn equates to 100 liters of ethanol,
    enough to fill an SUVs gas tank or feed one
    person for a year

Biofuel Effects on Food Prices
  • According to the European Association for
    BioIndustries, rising food prices do not entirely
    correlate with increased ethanol use.
  • Historically, current prices arent uncommon.
  • Rising demand for meat has driven the prices for
    raw materials up.
  • Similarly, recent bad harvests and high oil
    prices have contributed as well.

Food vs. Fuel
  • Only 19 of food price from cost of resource
  • Rest from packaging, transportation, energy,
    advertising, profits
  • Largely corn for feed that is a concern
  • Distillers grains
  • Improved farming technologies
  • 2004 US Department of Agriculture Study 67
    more fossil energy than to grow and harvest grain
  • Genetically modified crops
  • Better conversion technologies pre-treatment,
    hydrolysis, fermentation
  • Certainly a factor, not the major factor

Jobs in the Biofuel Industry
  • The Renewable Fuels Association reported the
    refining of ethanol created 2,400 new jobs across
    all sectors of the economy and boosted household
    income by 100 million in 2007, and projects an
    additional 1.1 million new jobs by 2022.
  • 494,000 total in 2008
  • Its estimated that as many as 200,000
    peoplefrom farmers, to construction workers and
    plant operatorsare employed by the corn-based
    ethanol industry in the United States
    (Christiansen, UN Report).
  • Although the industry is suffering in Brazil, new
    innovations in ethanol blends could provide
    millions of jobs in sub-Saharan Africa and China.

Domestic v. International Supply
  • US and Brazil account for about 90 of fuel
    ethanol production in the world
  • The US accounts for 50 of the world production
  • The US also produces 20 of the worlds biodiesel
    while 58 is produced in the European Union
  • The largest producer of biodiesel in the world is
    Germany, who produces 50 of the worlds biodiesel

International Biofuel Production
Growth of International Supply
Differences in Ethanol Production
  • Cost is largely dependent on feedstock and land
  • Brazil makes ethanol from sugar cane, we make it
    from corn both abundant crops
  • In Brazil, production of ethanol from sugar cane
    is much more energy-efficient than the US because
    sugar is relatively easy to extract leading to
    high yields per area of production and a much
    smaller amount of fossil fuels are needed to
    facilitate production

Current International Supply
  • Ethanol
  • By the end of 2005, the US had 95 operating
    plants with total capacity of 16.4 billion liters
    per year and by mid 2006 there were plans for 35
    more plants to add 8 bnl to the supply of ethanol
  • Comparatively, Brazil has over 300 operating
    plants and is planning to increase sugar cane
    production by 40 in 2009
  • The US surpassed Brazil in production of ethanol
    in 2006
  • Biodiesel
  • Global production grew from 2.1 bnl to 3.5 bnl
    between 2004-2005 alone, with production in
    Germany, France, Italy and Poland increasing by
    75 and production in the US tripling

International Projections
  • The EU plans on increasing biofuels share of
    Europes gasoline and diesel consumption to 10
    by 2020
  • EU governments spent an estimated 5.2 billion on
    subsidizing biofuel production
  • However, to create enough ethanol to meet the
    EUs goal, they would need more arable land than
    the current 40, which would require clearing
    grasslands and forests

Environmental Risks
  • Resource limitations
  • Arable land-convert forest and pasture land to
  • 90 of world ethanol is produced in the U.S. and
  • Natural risks disease, drought

Environmental Risks
  • Pollution
  • Less carbon dioxide emitted from burning, but
    more nitrogen oxide emitted from production
  • Soil degradation, water pollution, and habitat
  • Ethanol refineries emit 7.6 million metric tons
    of greenhouse gases, equivalent of 1.4 million
  • Overall, the biofuel industry has a better carbon
    footprint than the oil industry

Political Risks
  • Every gallon of ethanol produced cost taxpayers
    0.51 dollars.
  • In 2007 taxpayers contributed 5.1 billion for
    government subsidies
  • 79 of all federal subsidies for renewable fuels
    supported ethanol
  • VeraSun, the 2nd largest ethanol producer filed
    for bankruptcy protection

Environmental Benefits - Ethanol
  • Water soluble and biodegradable
  • Higher oxygen content ? more complete combustion
  • Directly replacing oil, which produces a larger
    carbon footprint
  • 2008 Reduced greenhouse gases by 14 million tons
  • 2.1 million cars
  • 15-25 reduction from gasoline
  • Ethanol from corn
  • 30 decrease carbon monoxide
  • 50 decrease particulates
  • Formaldehyde decrease
  • Ethanol from sugarcane 90 carbon dioxide
    emissions reduction
  • Ethanol from sugarbeet 50-60 reduction
  • Cellulosic Ethanol at least 50-60 in
    greenhouse emissions
  • Water use at ethanol biorefineries decreased
    26.6 2001-2006

Environmental Benefits - Biodiesel
  • Reduces carbon emissions 40-60

Benefits to US Security
  • Domestic renewable resource no significant
  • Reduce dependence on oil
  • 2008 9 billion gallons ethanol replaced 321.4
    million barrels of oil
  • imports from Venezuela for 10 months
  • Only 17 of energy to make ethanol from petroleum
  • 1 BTU petroleum fuel ? 13.2 BTUs to be used

Benefits to US Economy
  • Creates more jobs
  • 140 million local economies
  • Billions of dollars not spent on oil or
    subsidies/farm program costs
  • Could actually be cost-competitive

Cellulosic Ethanol Benefits
  • Still being fully developed
  • Inedible part of the plant
  • Can be obtained from any plant, not just plants
    used in food - corn stalks, rice straw, wood
    chips, fast-growing trees and grasses (wheat,
    oat, barley straw)
  • Jobs and economic growth in other regions

Car Benefits
  • Cleaner no deposits like fuel
  • Antifreeze
  • Only 30 ? 29.4 miles/gallon decrease with gasohol
  • Warrantied in all mainline automobiles, power
    equipments, motorcycles, boats, snowmobiles

Biopower Benefits
  • Can be located near a resource
  • No need to put on power grid reduces loss in
  • 20x more local jobs than natural gas plants
  • Combined with coal reduce carbon dioxide,
    sulfur dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions
  • Capture Methane

Methane Gas Benefits
  • Captured rather than natural slow release into
  • 229 million tons waste per year 65 organic
  • 56 landfilled, 29 recycled
  • More valuable to be recycled but some energy
    (15) from combustion
  • Only economically competitive with natural gas if
    uses waste that would be disposed of
  • Used at sewage plants and breweries

  • Algae In some cases, more than half the mass of
    algae consists of lipids or triacylglycerides,
    the same material found in vegetable oils
  • Some algal strains are capable of doubling their
    mass several times per day
  • Microalgae can potentially produce 100 times more
    oil per acre of land than soybeans or any other
    oil-producing crop
  • Algae do not have to compete for land with food
    crops as it can be cultivated in large open ponds
    or closed photobioreactors, which can be sited in
    deserts and other non-arable areas.

Current US Energy Policy
  • The US Energy Policy Act of 2005 introduced new
    policy regarding biofuels
  • It established annual goals for how many billions
    of gallons of renewable fuels (mainly ethanol)
    are produced
  • For 2006, the goal was 4 billion gallons
  • By 2012, the goal is 7.5 billion gallons

Federal Investments
  • 2008 Farm Bill Tax credit 1.01/gallon, Biomass
    Crop Assistance program funds to help collect,
    harvest, store, transport biomass to conversion
  • Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 -
    525 million to expanding technology
  • 2007 Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (51
    cents per gallon for domestic)
  • 30 tax credit for installing systems that run on
    clean fuels 85 other than petroleum

  • Improve technology
  • Farming, genetic engineering, conversion,
    cellulosic ethanol, algae
  • Vehicles capable of running on higher percentages
    of biofuels will require government
  • Continue to convert waste into methane gas
  • Continue to use some local resources for local

  • http//
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  • IEA Energy Technology Essentials January 2007
  • Energy and Environment textbook
  • Americas Energy Future National Academies
    Report, http//
  • http//
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  • Energy Policy Act of 2005 http//
  • New Study Confronts Old Thinking on Ethanol's Net
    Energy Value, Agriculture Online