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Physical and Cognitive Development


Puberty Puberty growth is regulated genetically influenced hormonal processes. Girls on average reach puberty 2 years earlier than boys girls 10, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical and Cognitive Development

Physical and Cognitive Development
  • Adolescence

  • Rousseau and Hall viewed adolescence as a time of
    great upheaval and turbulence
  • Freud- the genital stage- period in which
    instinctive drives reawaken and shift to the
    genital region. Psychological conflict and
    volatile, unpredictable behavior
  • Beginning adolescence is marked by
    puberty-biological changes that lead to an adult
    size body and sexual maturity

Balanced point of view
  • Adolescence is both biologically and socially
  • The length of adolescence varies among
    cultures-simpler societies may have shorter
  • Societies that require many years of education
    for successful economic life have greater
    extended adolescence period.

  • Puberty growth is regulated genetically
    influenced hormonal processes.
  • Girls on average reach puberty 2 years earlier
    than boys girls 10, boys 12
  • Current research is indicating that girls may be
    reaching puberty at earlier rates

Hormonal Changes
  • Growth hormone (GH) and thyroxine contribute to
    the gains in body size and completion of skeletal
  • Estrogens are typically thought of as female
    hormones and androgens as male hormones-both
    types of hormones are present in each sex
  • Testosterone- the androgen released in large
    quantities by a boys testes- leads to muscle
    growth, body and facial hair, etc.
  • Estrogens-development of girls breasts, uterus,
    and vagina female proportions, accumulation of
    fat, and beginning of menstrual cycle

Puberty Changes-Boys
  • Body size generally complete by 17 ½ yrs
  • Broadening of shoulders
  • Less fat in arms and legs
  • Larger skeletal muscles, heart and lung capacity
  • Spurt in strength, speed and endurance
  • Enlargement of testes and penis- one of 1st signs
    of puberty development of pubic and underarm
  • Voice deepens
  • Spermarche-first ejaculation of seminal
    fluid-about 13 yrs of age

Puberty Changes -Girls
  • Growth spurt usually complete by 16
  • Broadening of hips
  • Around age 8- start to add more fat in arms legs
    and trunk
  • Gross motor development gains are slow and
    gradual, leveling off at about 14 yrs
  • Development of breast-one of 1st signs of puberty
  • Pubic and underarm hair appears
  • Menarche- first menstruation-about 12 yrs in
    North American girls

Puberty Timing
  • Heredity is partly responsible for puberty timing
  • Nutrition and exercise also contribute
  • Physical health plays a role especially in other
    poverty-stricken countries
  • Secular trend-generational change in puberty
    timing (improvement of health care, diet and
    sanitation) decrease in menarche age

Reactions to Puberty
  • Past generations-traumatic and disturbing
  • Girls today mixture of positive and negative
    emotions-depends on prior knowledge and family
    members support
  • Boys know about ejaculation but few get
    information from parents- most get info from
    reading material
  • Boys get less social support

Parent-Child Relationships
  • Bickering and standoffs increase
  • Physical departure from family and psychological
    distancing from parents
  • Adolescence demonstrate new powers of reasoning
    possible reason for bickering

Early vs Late Maturation
  • Early Maturing boys- relaxed, independent,
    self-confident and physically attractive
  • Early Maturing girls- emotional and social
    difficulties, withdrawn, lacking self-confidence
    and psychologically stressed
  • Late maturing boys- anxious, overly talkative,
    attention-seeking behavior
  • Late maturing girls- physically attractive,
    lively, sociable and leaders in school.
  • Society favors- girlish shape for girls (late
    developer) and tall, broad-shouldered and
    muscular-early developed boys

Long Term Consequences Varies among cultures
  • Early maturing girls and late maturing boys have
    a difficulty fitting in because they are at the
    extremes of physical development
  • Teens feel most comfortable with peers that match
    their own biological maturity
  • Early maturing teens of both sexes seek out older
    companions-may have unfavorable consequences
  • Early maturing boys and late maturing girls
    admired in teen years may become rigid,
    conforming and discontented adults
  • Late maturing boys and early maturing girls less
    stressed in teen years became independent,
    flexible and cognitively competent

Brain development
  • Frontal lobe development lags behind emotional
    limbic system impulsiveness, emotional storms,
    risky behaviors
  • When frontal lobe matures so do emotions and
  • Before prefrontal cortex fully develops, amygdala
    has major control

Nutritional Needs of Teens
  • During growth spurt, boys require about 2,700
    calories a day and much more protein
  • Girls require about 2200 calories and somewhat
    less protein
  • Iron deficiency- most common problem in
  • Calcium, riboflavin (Vitamin B2) and magnesium
    may be limited in diet as well
  • Fad diets are too limited in nutrients and
    calories to be healthy for teens

Eating Disorders
  • At risk-girls with dissatisfied body images,
    growing up in economically advantaged homes where
    cultural concerns are weight and thinness

Anorexia nervosa
  • Parents have high expectations for achievement
    and social acceptance, overprotective and
    controlling Anorexia nervosa- individuals starve
    themselves because of compulsive fear of getting
    fat 1 in 50 girls peak age 14 and 18 Lose
    between 25 to 50 of body weight and look
    painfully thin Symptoms- cessation of
    menstruation, or nonoccurrence of menarche, pale
    skin, brittle discolored nails, fine dark hair
    all over body and sensitivity to cold

  • Individuals go on eating binges following by
    deliberate vomiting, other purging techniques
    such as heavy doses laxatives and strict dieting
  • Repeated vomiting causes erosion of tooth enamel,
    and can cause life threatening damage to the
    throat and stomach
  • More common than anorexia, 5 bulimic girls have
    previously been anorexic
  • Bulimic are not just impulsive eaters they lack
    self-control in other areas of their lives
  • Abnormal eating habits, feeling depressed, and
    guilty about eating-usually easier to treat than

Sexual Activity
  • American parents typically give children little
    information about sex, discourage them from
    engaging in sex play and rarely talk about sex in
    their presence.
  • Teens may receive contradictory and confusing
    messages about sex.
  • Adults emphasize that sex at a young age and
    outside if marriage is wrong Broader social
    environments emphasizes the excitement and
    romanticism of sex
  • Over past 30 years sexual attitudes are more

Sexually Active Teens
  • Linked to early physical maturation, parental
    separation and divorce, large family size,
    sexually activity of friends, and older siblings,
    poor school performance, lower educational
    aspirations, and tendency to engage in
    norm-violating acts

Sexual Orientation
  • 3 to6 of young people discover they are lesbian
    or gay
  • Heredity may contribute to homosexuality
  • Stereotypes and misconceptions continue to be

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS) are highest
    among teens 1 out 6 each year
  • Teens at greatest danger- poverty stricken teens
    with sense of hopelessness
  • Most serious STD- Acquired Immunodeficiency
    Syndrome (AIDS)

Teen Moms
  • Less likely to finish high school
  • Less likely to get married
  • More likely to be on welfare
  • Babies are more likely to have prenatal problems,
    complications and low birth weight
  • Know less about Child Development, positive
    parenting, and proper interaction with babies

Community Prevention of Teen Pregnancy
  • Inform teens about facts of anatomy, sex and
  • Promote abstinence and provide information about
    birth control
  • Encourage teens to look forward to promising

Substance Abuse
  • By 14 yrs of age, 56 teens have already tried
  • 81 drinking, 39 at least one illegal drug
  • Majority are substance experimenters are
    psychologically healthy, sociable and inquisitive

Substance Abusers
  • Troubled teens
  • Peer encouragement
  • Mental health problems
  • Family drug use
  • Lack of parental involvement
  • Poor school performance

  • School-based programs promoting effective
    parenting, educating students about drugs and
  • Teaching teens to resist peer pressure
  • There is a relapse rate

Cognitive Development
  • Piagets formal operational stage-abstract
    scientific thinking
  • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning- problem solving
    strategy- begins with general theory and deduce
    specific hypotheses which is tested
  • Concrete operational children experiment

Formal Operation Stage
  • Propositional thought-formal operational
    reasoning in which teens assess logic of verbal
    statements without referring to real-world
  • Piaget agreed that language plays a significant
    part of adolescent development due to reasoning
    about abstract concepts

Formal Operations
  • About 40 to 60 of college students fail
    Piagets formal operational problems
  • Abstract thinking comes from extensive experience
    in that area
  • Some villages and tribal societies do not include
    formal operations

Cognitive Development of Teens
  • Can argue more effectively
  • Become more self-conscious and self-focused
  • Become more idealistic and critical
  • Become better at everyday planning and decision

Adolescent Cognition
  • Piagets Theory Adolescent was in formal
    operational stage of cognition where thought is
    more abstract adolescents are no longer limited
    to actual, concrete experiences as anchors for
  • They can now conjure up make-believe situations
    events that are hypothetical possibilities then
    try to reason logically about them
  • In this stage adolescent has ability to develop
    hypotheses, or best guesses to solve problems as
    in algebraic equation
  • They systematically deduce, or conclude best path
    to follow in solving equation

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Adolescent Egocentrism
  • Heightened self-consciousness of adolescents
    which is reflected in their belief that others
    are as interested in them as they are in their
    sense of personal uniqueness
  • David Elkind proposes two types of social
  • imaginary audience a belief that they are on
    stage and that their every act is being viewed
    by an imaginary audience
  • personal fable sense of uniqueness making them
    feel that no one can understand them

Information Processing in Adolescents
  • Ability to process information improves in areas
    of memory, decision making critical thinking
    self-regulatory learning
  • Robert Sternberg found that solving problems,
    such as analogies, requires individuals to make
    continued comparisons between newly encoded
    information previously encoded information
  • Adolescents probably have more storage space in
    short-term memory

Adolescent Cognitive Capacities
  • Adolescents have
  • Increased speed, automaticity capacity of
    information processing
  • More breadth of content knowledge,
  • Increased ability to construct new combinations
    of knowledge
  • Greater range for applying or obtaining knowledge
  • Capacity to set goals for extending knowledge
  • Awareness of their emotional makeup to
    periodically monitor their progress, fine-tune
    their strategies, evaluate obstacles make

  • Adolescents carry with them a set of values that
    influences their thoughts, feelings actions
  • Over past two decades, they have shown an
    increased concern for personal well-being
    decreased concern for well-being of others
    demonstrate an increasing need for
    self-fulfillment self-expression
  • Some signs indicate that todays students are
    shifting toward stronger interest in welfare of
    society as there has been increase in percentage
    of freshmen who said that they were strongly
    interested in participating in community action

Schools for Adolescents
  • Controversy Surrounding Secondary Schools
  • This century has seen schools playing prominent
    role in lives of adolescents
  • Laws excluding teens from work mandating
    attendance at school were passed by virtually
    every state
  • Some experts believe that junior senior high
    schools actually contribute to alienation
    delinquency interfere with transition to
  • A push for back-to-basics where students are
    being taught fundamental skills knowledge
    needed for workplace

Transition to Middle Junior High School
  • When students make transition from elementary to
    middle or junior high school - they experience
    top-dog phenomenon
  • Circumstance of moving from top position in
    elementary school to lowest position in
    middle/junior high school
  • These positions are characterized by being
    oldest, biggest most powerful versus youngest,
    smallest least powerful

Theories of Career Development
  • Three main theories describe manner in which
    adolescents make choices about career
  • Ginzbergs Developmental Theory
  • Children and adolescents go through three
    career-choice stages fantasy, tentative, and
  • Until about age 11, children are in fantasy stage
    with unrealistic visions of their career
  • Tentative stage is a transitional and occurs in
    the early to mid-adolescent years
  • Realistic stage explores, focuses then selects
    a career

Theories of Career Development
  • Supers Self-Concept Theory
  • Individuals self-concepts play central roles in
    their career choices
  • During adolescence individuals first construct a
    career self-concept
  • Develop ideas about work
  • Crystallize or narrow their choices
  • Begin to initiate behavior for some type of
  • Begin specific training for a career
  • In later life - after 35 years of age - begin to
    consolidate engage in career enhancement