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FURNITURE

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Strong oriental influence; gracefully curved lines; cabriole leg; motifs included shells and lion mask; ball and claw foot; spooned-back chairs; use of scrolls and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FURNITURE


1
FURNITURE
Styles, Names, Construction
2
Furniture Names...
Familiarize yourself with certain names that
designers have given to pieces of furniture.
Those names reflect the way the piece is
constructed, more than the way they are decorated
or finished.
A coffee table is a low table, often placed in
front of a sofa for magazines, beverages, etc
regardless of furniture style.
3
Directors Chair wood frame with
canvas seat and back
Morris Chair has loose cushions and a movable
back
Arm and Side Chairs dining chairs
Barcelona Chair stainless steel frame
Bentwood Chair made from steam-bent wood pieces
Club Chair heavily upholstered
Wing Chair projecting sides
4
Small upholstered footstool also known as a
hassock or ottoman
Trundle Bed low bed on casters under a full
height bed
Armoire (ärm-wär) A large
wardrobe cabinet
Bombe Chest A commode with a
bulging sides, front, or both
Breakfront Large china hutch with a center
section that extends beyond the side sections
5
Chaise Lounge backless couch with one high side
for reclining
Loveseat small sofa for 2 people
Hutch chest or cabinet with an open shelf above
Occasional table small table, sometimes with
shelves or drawers may serve as a lamp table or
coffee table
Library table rectangular table Parsons
table is simple and does not have a drawer
Pedestal table has 1 or 2 center support posts
instead of 4 legs
6
Etagère   (a'tä-zhâr')(last syllable rhymes with
chair) an open shelf unit for small ornaments
Davenport small writing desk OR sofa that makes
into a bed
Gateleg or Pembroke table a drop leaf table
with one or two legs that swing out to support
the raised leaves
Divan a living room piece with a concealed bed
mattress that pulls out from the seat
7
Poster bed high posts on all 4 corners
Canopy bed has a cloth topper on a poster
bed
Lingerie chest tall but narrow chest of small
drawers
Settee small double-seat that may have arms and
be upholstered
Sectional piece of seating furniture composed
of sections that can be arranged separately or
together
8
Coffee Table low table often placed in front of
sofa for holding magazines and drinks
Campaign furniture has metal corners and handles
like military chests
Commode low chest of drawers
Credenza storage piece about chair rail height,
usually designed for the dining room but often
found in the den
Console once a shelf but now a versatile table
9
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Ball and Claw Foot
Bun Foot
Pad Foot
10
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Feral Foot Feral wild and menacing a
"ferocious dog"
Reeded Brass Foot
Trifid (TRY fid) FootAlternative name Drake
Foot 3-lobed end-piece of a Queen Anne cabriole
leg
Club Foot may be slightly pointed usually
thick and substantial
Paw Foot may be a hairy dogs paw
11
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Ogee bracket foot, popular on Queen Anne and
Chippendale
French bracket foot
Spade Foot
Arrow Foot
Hoof Foot
12
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Bandy Legged Cabriole Leg
Cabriole Leg with Pad Foot
Cabriole Leg with Ball and Claw Foot
Cabriole Leg
13
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Bulbous Leg
Tapered Leg
Turned Leg
Spiral Legs
14
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
H Stretcher
X Stretcher
Pediments above Pediment with Finial below
Motifs
15
Furniture Construction Identifying Features
Ladder Back Chair
Fiddle Back Chair
Shield Back Chair
Slat Back Chair
Spoon Back Chair
Splat Back Chair
Lyre Back Chair
16
Furniture Construction Quality Check
Eight-way hand-tied springs considered the best
springs, each coil is hand tied into place eight
ways (front to back, side to side, and
diagonally), allowing the coils to move
independently while still providing firm,
comfortable support
Corner blocks blocks of wood used in the corners
of the frame that act as an extra brace,
strengthening the frame
Kiln-dried hardwood frame the best frames are
made of hardwoods such as elm, oak, birch, walnut
and cherry which have been kiln-dried to remove
moisture, thereby protecting the frame against
warping, splitting, swelling and shrinking
17
Furniture Construction Quality Check
Mortise and Tenon a favored means of furniture
assembly where a projection, or tenon, in one
piece of wood fits securely into a groove, or
mortise, in another to make a strong, durable,
interlocking joint
The Dovetail Joint, so named for it's similarity
in shape to the tail of the dove, has been a
hallmark of fine woodworking. Typically,
dovetails are use to join two pieces of solid
wood, as in the side and front of a drawer. 
Dowel joints a traditional method of
construction using dowels (pegs made of wood or
steel) that are fitted into holes to join two
pieces of a frame
Tongue and Groove Construction
18
Furniture Construction Quality Check
High density polyurethane foam wrapped in Dacron
is the most common (and least expensive) seat
core in upholstered furniture. The density of
foam (should be at least 1.8 pounds per cubic
foot) and quantity of Dacron will determine the
softness of the upholstered seat.
Spring-Down cushions consist of innerspring coils
surrounded by foam and wrapped in Dacron. This
whole unit is then inserted into a muslin bag of
channeled down. The springs give the upholstered
furniture support, while the down gives a
luxurious surface feel.
Down cushions offer the softest seat, utilizing a
combination of down and feathers sometimes
wrapped around a foam core and then encased in a
muslin bag. This cushion does not retain its
shape without an occasional fluffing. Back
cushions are primarily filled with Dacron fiber.
Encasing the filling in a bag will help the
cushions keep their proper shape.
19
Traditional Furniture Styles...
Traditional furniture styles originated during
historical periods of time from the 1500-1900s,
primarily in France, England, and the United
States. The European styles came about in two
ways either the ruler of the country decided
what their own preferences were and then
commissioned the cabinet makers to produce the
designs OR a cabinetmaker themselves developed a
particular style that others liked.
20
Traditional Furniture Styles...
1840 Victorian- English 1810
Empire French 1795
Directoire French 1790
Sheraton - English 1780
Hepplewhite - English 1774
Neoclassic - French 1770 Adam -
English 1760 Regency -
English 1750 Federal - American
1750 Chippendale - English
1730 Georgian - American
1723 Rococo - French 1715
Regence - French 1702 Queen Anne
- English 1690 Early American -
American 1680 William Mary -
English 1660 Restoration - English
1660 Colonial - American
1643 Baroque - French
1643 Cromwellian - English
1603 Jacobean - English
1600 Late Renaissance -
French 1580 Elizabethan - English
1553 Tudor -
English
1500 - 1900
21
Traditional Furniture Styles Late French
Renaissance...
Italian and Flemish influence such as bun feet
Henry IV and Louis XII furniture was large and
upright walnut, oak, and ebony were preferred
marquetry was common (wooden inlays used to
create patterns in furniture, sometimes cut into
shapes such as geometric shapes or flowers or
leaves, and sometimes used in a variety of woods
in interesting grains and colors) tall, slender
columns and spiral turnings.
22
Traditional Furniture Styles French Baroque...
Louis XIV massive, rectangular, and
proportionately heavy furniture marble
tabletops often placed on elaborately carved,
square legs upholstered chairs and sofas
covered in rich tapestries, brocades, and silks
the cabinetmaker Andre-Charles Boulle created
boulle work which used pewter, brass,
semitransparent tortoiseshell and a lustrous gold
allow of copper and zinc called ormolu for
ornamentation
23
Traditional Furniture Styles French Regence...
A transitional style between Baroque and Rococo
cabriole legs were introduced lighter woods
were used
24
Traditional Furniture Styles French Rococo...
Louis XV furniture scaled down to more human
proportions curves, flowing lines and symmetry
cabriole legs and scroll feet ornamentation
included designs of shells, foliage, shepherds
crooks, musical instruments, inlaying, and
marquetry marble and leather tops were common,
as was gold-leafing Chinese lacquer and
Oriental motifs were introduced
French Provincial was a term given to much of the
furniture during the reigns of Louis XIV through
XVI. Some exposed wood was painted white with
painted enamel or omalu trim.
25
Traditional Furniture Styles French
Neoclassic...
Sometimes called Classic Revival, this style
returned to straighter lines simpler motifs
included roses, garlands, ribbons, and Cupids
bows and darts some Greek Roman influences
26
Traditional Furniture Styles French
Directoire...
Just after the French Revolution, furniture
production was disrupted transition between
Neoclassic and Empire styles motifs included
military and agricultural forms such as arrows,
spears, drums, stars, and wheat some Greek
and Egyptian influences
27
Traditional Furniture Styles French Empire...
Napoleons reign masculine furniture with
geometric shapes, absolute symmetry, and heavy,
solid proportions less carving and what was
used was very military in nature and included
chariots highly polished veneers, brass and
ormalu ornamentation such as brass corner
protectors
28
Traditional Furniture Styles English Tudor...
Henry VII VIII, Edward VI, and Mary native
oak was most popular simple carving and
inlaying Tudor rose, coat of arms and
arabesques (scrolled leaf pattern generally
symmetrical in design) motifs overall
appearance was large and heavy
Tudor Rose
29
Traditional Furniture Styles English
Elizabethan...
The bulbous form (melon shaped) was introduced
turned chairs had triangular seats with thick
turnings for back, arms, and legs wainscot
chairs had rectangular seats with turned or
column legs and carved or inlaid wooden backs
30
Traditional Furniture Styles English Jacobean...
James I and Charles I reigns more slender
bulbous forms motifs of acanthus leaves (large
leaves used by Greeks in decoration), intertwined
circles, palmettos (resembled a small, fan-shaped
palm branch), ionic capitals on columns, and
romayne work (caricatures of human heads) split
balusters (short, turned pieces of wood like
spindles split in half and often glued to
surfaces) upholstered chairs gained popularity
31
Traditional Furniture Styles English
Cromwellian...
Civil War halted all furniture production any
pieces made were much plainer than before and
relatively undecorated
32
Traditional Furniture Styles English
Restoration...
Walnut replaces oak as most popular wood
Charles II and James II reigned carvings and
spiral turnings till used marquetry and gilded
metal gained popularity oriental lacquers
introduced in England at this time scrolls and
floral patterns were common caned chairs
elaborate cushions with fringes
33
Traditional Furniture Styles English William
Mary...
Simpler, more elegant, and less ornate furniture
highly polished woods oriental lacquers and
japanning (less expensive but similar to
lacquering) inlaid and marquetry bun feet
some metal decorations x-stretchers
34
Traditional Furniture Styles English Queen
Anne...
Strong oriental influence gracefully curved
lines cabriole leg motifs included shells and
lion mask ball and claw foot spooned-back
chairs use of scrolls and finials was common on
top or bottom of pieces
35
Traditional Furniture Styles English Georgian...
Chippendale
Thomas Chippendale was a London cabinetmaker
lyre, pretzel, ladder back, latticework chair
backs mahogany much Chinese influence
36
Traditional Furniture Styles English Georgian...
Hepplewhite
George Hepplewhite featured more slender lines
and delicate proportions than Chippendale
straight, tapered legs with straight, spade, or
thimble feet chairs had heart, caned, wheel,
oval, and his characteristic shield backs
wheat, ribbons, fluting, and oval carvings some
painted motifs such as the 3-feathered crest of
the Prince of Wales and floral designs
37
Traditional Furniture Styles English Georgian...
Adam
Robert James Adam were architects employing
cabinetmakers to make furniture to complement
their architecture symmetrical with Greek and
Roman designs moved from mohagany to satinwood
(a medium brown with less red tone)
38
Traditional Furniture Styles English Georgian...
Sheraton
Thomas Sheraton designed furniture but left
construction to others straight lines
rectangular chair backs legs and feet like
Hepplewhite motifs included urns, swags,
leaves porcelain plaques used for decoration
splayed legs incorporated mechanical devices
for disappearing drawers folding tables, and
secret compartments
39
Traditional Furniture Styles English Regency...
Less originality reused ancient Roman, Greek,
and Egyptian designs such as the concave legs on
chairs and symmetrical leaf designs
40
Traditional Furniture Styles English
Victorian...
Queen Victoria reigned designs borrowed from
several earlier styles such as Renaissance,
gothic (the middle ages artwork and
architecture) and Rococo (so sometimes called the
eclectic style) mass produced, but elaborately
ornamented objects such as rose carvings
characteristic deep greens and burgundy velvet
and brocades rosewood
41
Traditional Furniture Styles Colonial
Homes were small and survival was an issue rather
than furniture, so home furnishings were few and
basic low trunks doubled as seats and
slanted-top bible boxes served as lap desks
trestle tables had bench seats drop-leaf table
and chair seats were popular chairs had
slatbacks and cane seats.
42
Traditional Furniture Styles Early American
Slatback chairs were replaced by ladder backs for
more comfort split spindles, turnings, and bun
feet low relief carvings, if any painted and
stenciled designs often replace carvings corner
hutches pine, beech, and ash woods were popular
because they were plentiful.
43
Traditional Furniture Styles American Georgian
Boston, Newport, New York, and Philadelphia
emerged as design centers, each with their own
distinct styles or modifications on traditional
European styles chairs became contoured
couches and upholstered pieces were popular
including the wing chair The Windsor chair from
England was introduced as a rocker in Boston
secretary pieces became popular highboys and
lowboys were introduced to replace chests brass
hardware
44
Traditional Furniture Styles American Federal
Little change during the American Revolution, but
resumed later ornamentation was patriotic and
included eagles, cornucopias, fruit, flowers,
lyres, and spiral turnings designer Duncan
Phyfe used concave legs and ornate mirrors
Pennsylvania Dutch liked cheerful designs
including colorful stencils of tulips, hearts,
birds, and leaves animal and human motifs used
by American Scandinavians Shakers valued clean
lines and frugality
45
20th Century Furniture Styles...
20th Century styles of furniture are those that
originated after the 1900s. They were inspired
by specific designers such as Frank Lloyd Wright,
popular trends such as Art Nouveau or
Contemporary, or the influence of preferences
from specific countries such as Scandinavia.
Todays manufacturers still create the
traditional styles of furniture, but do not
adhere to strict rules of design. They modify
the designs to suit their clients preferences or
method of manufacturing. Interior designers do
not select all one style of furniture for any one
room either. They may mix match them in an
appealing manner. This is described by the term
eclectic.
46
20th Century Furniture Styles Art Nouveau
As early as 1902, there was a rebellion against
ornamentation called Art Nouveau designed to
work well with mechanization based on flowing,
natural lines ending in a curve similar to the
bud of a plant beautiful for its artistic
merit rather than its cost inexpensive woods
47
20th Century Furniture Styles Frank Lloyd Wright
1867-1959
Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built homes and
furniture with an emphasis on nature, in a manner
like he designed his sprawling ranch style homes
in keeping with the sprawling prairies. He
integrated furniture into the structure whenever
possible these referred to as built-ins
geometric shapes, slats, and flat surfaces with
no ornamentation often regarded as
architectural sculpture
48
20th Century Furniture Styles Bauhaus
Walter Gropius founded a school known as The
Bauhaus in Germany in 1919 where the guiding
principle was to simplify the design of objects,
and mechanization tubular steel, canvas, and
leather straps Bauhaus design focused only on
function
49
20th Century Furniture Styles Scandinavian
In Scandinavian design from 1930-1970 the wood
was curved by applying heat and steam to many
veneers (same principle used in making skis)
white birch often used clean, sleek lines
upholstered pieces still had exposed wood arms
and legs
50
20th Century Furniture Styles Contemporary
Latest furniture designs, not yet classified or
experimental wood, metals, plastics, and glass
are used designs inspired from abstract art to
everyday objects some created simply for the
artistic pleasure of the designer, but most for
the middle-class market mobile society wants
lightweight, affordable, adaptable furniture
modular pieces folding metal or canvas chairs,
waterbeds, bean bag chairs, etc.
51
FURNITURE
Styles, Names, Construction
The End
52
Selecting identifying furniture styles...
Name _____________________ Due Date
__________________
You have already been assigned a drafting
projectto draw a ranch style house floor plan.
Then you were asked to choose one room of that
floor plan, and render it as a shaded,
perspective drawing. Now, were ready for
furniture selection.
  • On your ranch style floor plan, choose two rooms
    that you wish to show furnishings for. Choose two
    different types of rooms a living room and a
    bedroom perhaps, not two bedrooms.
  • Using magazines or catalogs, find a picture of an
    individual furniture item OR a whole room full of
    furniture, to illustrate the style of furniture
    you want in each room. The two rooms cannot have
    identical furniture styles.
  • Cut out the pictures, and set them aside for now.
    They will be added to your final project later
    on. Identify the furniture styles, and be
    prepared to label those later as well.
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