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Project and Change Management

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Title: Project and Change Management


1
Project and Change Management
  • Human resource management

2
Project within the organisation
  • Projects usually part of organisation larger that
    the project
  • Project will be influence by the organisation
  • Project can be influenced by the organisational
    structure, culture, and the maturity of the
    organisation with respect to project management
    systems

3
Understanding Organizations
Structural frame Focuses on roles and
responsibilities, coordination and control.
Organization charts help define this frame.
Human resources frame Focuses on providing
harmony between needs of the organization and
needs of people.
Political frame Assumes organizations are
coalitions composed of varied individuals and
interest groups. Conflict and power are key
issues.
Symbolic frame Focuses on symbols and meanings
related to events. Culture is important.
4
Organizational Structures
  • Functional
  • Engineering, Marketing, Design, etc
  • Staff grouped by speciality
  • Project
  • Project A, Project B
  • Income from projects
  • Matrix
  • Functional and Project based
  • Program Mgmt. Model
  • Shorter cycles, need for rapid development process

5
Functional Organization
  • Cons
  • Walls can lack customer orientation
  • Silos create longer decisions cycles
  • Conflicts across functional areas
  • Project leaders have little power
  • Pros
  • Clear definition of authority
  • Eliminates duplication
  • Encourages specialization
  • Clear career paths

6
Project Organization
  • Pros
  • Unity of command
  • Effective inter-project communication
  • Cons
  • Duplication of facilities
  • Career path
  • Examples defense avionics, construction

7
Matrix Organization
  • Pros
  • Project integration across functional lines
  • Efficient use of resources
  • Retains functional teams
  • Cons
  • Two bosses for personnel
  • Complexity
  • Resource priority conflicts

8
Matrix Forms
  • Weak, Strong, Balanced
  • Degree of relative power
  • Weak functional-centric
  • Strong project-centric

9
Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 19
10
Success criteria for projects- hard criteria
(what)
  • Technical Tangible Quantitative
  • Deadlines
  • Performance Spec.
  • Specific Quality Standards
  • Cost Requirements
  • Resource Constraints

11
Success criteria for projects-soft criteria (how)
  • People Intangible Qualitative
  • Commitment
  • Cooperative attitude
  • Positive image
  • Total Project focus
  • Risk Assessed
  • Ethical conduct

12
Organisational planning understand the
organisational framework in which the project
will function
  • Determine how much latitude is allowed in
    organising the project
  • Define the role of the project manager which can
    range from a more passive coordinating to a more
    assertive commanding approach
  • Understand the constraints placed on the project
    by management and other key stakeholder
    organisations
  • Understand the pertinent human resource policies,
    procedures and guidelines
  • Assess the availability, timing, skills and
    capabilities of the people to be assigned to the
    project

13
Determine project organisational structure
  • Assess the various project organisation
    alternatives
  • Identify the approach that would best meet the
    needs of the project
  • Evaluate the organisation constraints and
    limitations
  • Determine the optimal structure within the
    constraints and limitations
  • Discuss the recommendation with the project
    sponsor and decide

14
Define roles and responsibilities
  • Determine the most appropriate people on the team
    to be responsible for all WBS deliverables and
    key activities on the activities list
  • Work with each team member to understand what is
    involved with each assignment
  • Balance the workload equally among team members
  • Confirm each team members commitment to fulfil
    their responsibilities
  • Create a responsibility assignment matrix to
    summarise everyones assignments
  • Identify any deliverables or activities that are
    not assigned and ensure they are accepted by the
    appropriate team members
  • Identify key staffing risks due to lack of needed
    skills or staffing levels

15
Develop Staffing Plan
  • Review project staffing requirement
  • Review the WBS, network diagram and activity
    duration estimates being used to develop the
    project schedule
  • Identify the start and completion dates for the
    different people or skill sets
  • Enter these preliminary assignments into the
    project scheduling tool if one is being used or
    map them on a calendar
  • Review the preliminary assignments with the team,
    activity owners and other key stakeholders
  • Obtain commitments and make adjustments as
    required to develop a realistic staffing
    management plan

16
Create project organisation chart
  • Identify the reporting relationships of everyone
    directly involved in the project
  • List the people by function or project phase in a
    hierarchical manner that clearly shows lines of
    authority
  • Publish the chart and send it to all key
    stakeholders

17
Document Supporting Detail
  • Document alternative organisational approaches
    this should a description of each structure, the
    reason for its exclusion and the person
    responsible for making the decision
  • Create job descriptions although this is not
    mandatory it is a good idea to create written
    descriptions for each position
  • Identify and describe training needs activities
    that will be needed to provide the necessary
    training must be incorporated into the project
    plan

18
Staff Acquisition - Identify
  • Related work history and performance
  • Special knowledge and expertise
  • Previous attendance record
  • Current workload
  • Cost and permits to work overtime
  • Interest in the project

19
Staff identificationinvolves
  • Compare the staffing requirements to the resource
    pool
  • Identify those individuals with the closest match
    to the requirements for the various project
    assignments
  • Identify back up selections in case of any of the
    first selections becoming unavailable
  • Identify gaps in the staffing plan where suitable
    internal candidates are unavailable

20
Negotiate Staffing Commitments
  • Develop positive relations with the various
    project managers
  • Be assertive about staffing the project with the
    best people, but be willing to compromise
  • Identify alternative internal staff selection
  • Determine the feasibility and costs involved with
    hiring from the outside if the reqquired people
    cannot be made available
  • Seek to negotiate a fair deal in which both
    parties can achieve their objective
  • Consult with the project sponsor in cases where a
    reasonable agreement cannot be worked out
  • Confirm all negotiated staff commitments in
    writing

21
Identify and recruit new team members
  • Obtain authorisation to hire externally
    including the recruitment related costs
  • Work closely with a recruiter who has experience
    hiring people with the required qualification
  • Develop and implement a recruitment strategy
  • Ensure qualified candidates are interviewed by
    key team members and project stakeholders
  • Select the candidate who will work best with the
    other team members and who has the most suitable
    qualifications

22
Identify and Obtain Needed Outside Resources
  • Obtain authorisation to contract with external
    employment agencies, including the needed budget
  • Identify qualified employment agencies
  • Solicit proposals from qualified employment
    agencies
  • Select the most appropriate employment agencies
  • Negotiate a contract with the employment agency
    for the timely delivery of specific services or
    deliverables

23
Publish team directory
  • Obtain needed information form all team members
    and other project stakeholders
  • Identify who needs to receive the team directory
  • Determine the most appropriate means for
    distributing the team directory, ranging from a
    memo or a printed publication, to an e-mail
    notification or a link on a project-related
    website

24
Team development team building
  • Organise an off-site team building meeting to
    kick the project off
  • Involve all team members in putting together the
    project schedule and plan
  • Clarify roles, responsibilities and expectations
  • Agree on a set of ground rules to govern team
    behaviour and interactions, including common
    methods for managing meetings, solving problems,
    making decisions, resolving conflict and
    escalating issues resolution
  • Engage in group activities that enable to get to
    know each other better and develop mutual respect
    and trust

25
Set up reward system
  • Identify key milestones in the project schedule
    that will serve as appropriate times to recognise
    and reward individuals and team accomplishments
  • Identify informal forms of recognition and
    rewards that are in the project managers
    authority to provide
  • Identify formal forms of recognition and rewards
    that would be appropriate but require high level
    approval
  • Seek approval for the projects recognition and
    reward system from the project sponsor and
    functional management
  • Administer recognition and rewards in an
    equitable, non-biased manner based upon
    individual and team accomplishment of important
    project milestones

26
Location
  • Assess the physical proximity of team members and
    determine whether co-location could significantly
    improve team communications
  • Determine if the potential benefits of
    co-locating team members would out-weigh the
    costs
  • Where co-location is not possible, organise a
    project war-room for displaying and discussing
    project information
  • Provide the team with an easy to use electronic
    mail system to expedite communication and the
    exchange of project documents

27
Training
  • Identify the skills required for successful team
    performance
  • Assess team skills individually and collectively
  • Schedule technical and non-technical training
    needed by most members of the team
  • Work with individuals who have specific learning
    needs to attend appropriate classes
  • Encourage team members to share their knowledge
    to help each other learn

28
Coach
  • Observe team member performance and identify
    areas for possible improvement
  • Be available to team members to talk about their
    questions, concerns and problems
  • Ask team members if they would like help or
    assistance
  • Coach team members as needed to improve their
    performance

29
The winning project team
  • Define purpose (Are we all committed to the same
    purpose?)
  • Agree team roles (How will we contribute to
    fulfilling our purpose?)
  • Clarify team rules and responsibilities (How will
    we manage our relationships?)
  • Integrate all team members? (How will we work
    together as a team?)
  • Manage team performance
  • Evaluate team performance

30
Dream team
  • There is a common and inspiring vision to which
    everyone is committed
  • Individual roles and goals are clear
  • People feel safe to say what they think and feel
  • People express themselves clearly without
    ambiguity
  • Everyones opinion is valued and respected
  • People get and give appreciation and praise
    Instead of criticism people give helpful advice
  • People say what they like about ideas and develop
    them rather than dismiss them

31
Dream team continued
  • Successes are celebrated and everyone enjoys
    being good at what they do
  • People are open minded and welcome change and
    innovation
  • The team is supportive and everyone is encouraged
    to take the initiative and lead
  • Conflict is handled up front
  • Things move briskly clear decisions are made and
    communicated its exciting

32
Nightmare team
  • There is no sense of purpose goals are not always
    agreed
  • People are cautious and hold back. Things are not
    said. Faces are enigmatic.
  • Its not much fun the atmosphere is heavy. Humour
    is at the expense of others
  • People overly self-critical and have no feeling
    of ownership even of their own jobs
  • New ideas are rejected. The status quo maintains.
    The general posture is no
  • There are rivalries competition is unhealthy and
    stems from internal politics

33
Nightmare team continues
  • A minority has a lot to say the majority says
    little some say nothing at all.
  • People dont listen to each other
  • Decisions take along time and most are imposed
    without any real consultation
  • There is a high degree of frustration and
    complaints are expressed outside meetings
  • People hate going to work

34
Projects Managers Responsibility to the team
  • Leadership
  • Team building
  • Team Motivation
  • Team Decision Making
  • Team Reward system
  • Conflict Management
  • Organisational Politics
  • Communicating with group

35
Project Managers Responsibilities to Individual
Members
  • Communicating with Individuals
  • Motivating
  • Counselling
  • Negotiating
  • Delegating
  • Problem Resolution
  • Personal rewards
  • Personal Recognition
  • Power/ Influence

36
Skills required in the management of people
  • Avoiding conflicts in advance
  • Motivation for the Right Candidates
  • Tracking Peoples satisfaction
  • Accessing Peoples Delivery in Terms of Benefits
    brought to the Project

37
Leadership some definitions
  • The first job of a leader is to define a vision
    for the organization.... Leadership is the
    capacity to translate vision into reality.
  • Leadership occurs when one person induces others
    to work toward some predetermined objectives.
  • The superior leader gets things done with very
    little motion. He imparts instruction not through
    many words but through a few deeds. He keeps
    informed about everything but interferes hardly
    at all. He is a catalyst, and though things would
    not get done well if he were not there, when they
    succeed he takes no credit. And because he takes
    no credit, credit never leaves him.
  • My definition of a leader . . . is a man who can
    persuade people to do what they don't want to do,
    or do what they're too lazy to do, and like it.
  • A leader is bestWhen people barely know that he
    exists,Not so good when people obey and acclaim
    him,Worst when they despise him.Fail to honor
    people,They fail to honor you.But of a good
    leader, who talks little,When his work is done,
    his aim fulfilled,They will all say 'We did
    this ourselves.'

38
Leadership composed of
  • The person leading
  • The people being lead
  • The situation

39
Leadership Types
  • Hereditary e.g. Family business, Royalty
  • Qualities positive qualities developed over
    years
  • Situational good in some situations
  • Functional (Doing things consistently well)

40
Project Leadership
  • Achieve the task
  • Build the team
  • Develop the individual

41
Effective Leadership Influenced by
  • Superiors expectations and behavior
  • Task Requirements
  • Peers expectations and behavior
  • Subordinates characteristics, expectations and
    behavior
  • Organisational climate and policies
  • Personality, past experience and expectations

42
Team Development
  • Forming
  • Little contact
  • No goals
  • Few Standards
  • Poor Communication
  • Storming
  • Conflict
  • Informal Leaders
  • Open discussion
  • Options explored
  • Feelings Expressed
  • Norming
  • Better methods
  • More confidence
  • Welcome ideas
  • Social Contact
  • Conflict Handled
  • Leadership Agreed
  • Open Discussion

43
Team Development 2
  • Performing
  • Flexibility
  • Situational Leadership
  • Broader vision
  • Basics Challenged
  • Better Methods
  • More Confidence
  • Welcome ideas
  • Social Contact
  • Conflict Handled
  • Leadership Agreed
  • Open Discussion
  • Options Explored
  • Feelings Expressed

44
Leadership Styles
  • Autocratic culture. Hierarchical decision making.
    Good for early stage of team (Forming)
  • Charismatic. Manager sells decisions by personal
    influence (Storming/Norming)
  • Democratic consulting with team but decision
    finally made by manager (Norming/Performing)
  • Empowering (Performing)

45
Stakeholder commitment audit
  • N No commitment (Not interested if project
    succeeds or not)
  • L Let it happen (Will not interfere but will
    not actively intervene)
  • Help it happen (Will support if involved or asked
    to help)
  • Make it happen (Will actively driver the project)

46
Leadership motivating the individual stakeholder
  • N wake them up
  • L motivate/vision
  • H directive leadership
  • M Give them their head

47
Leadership based on trust
  • Leaders do what they say and say what they mean
  • They admit when their wrong
  • They enlist the opinions and ideas of others in
    decisions that impact them
  • In this way they earn the trust of the people
    with whom they work
  • To a be good leader one has to find, build, earn
    and grant trust to others
  • Trust is earned through commitment
  • Trust is lost through inconsistent behavior

48
Types of power
  • Granted power
  • Most obvious form comes down through the
    hierarchy
  • Implied in job titles or other symbols of
    authority
  • Comes to someone through someone in a higher
    position of power
  • Usually gives someone clear authority to make a
    decision
  • Often does not influence behavior

49
Types of power
  • Earned power
  • Distributed organically
  • Dependent on subjective factors such as ability
    or reputation
  • Often relative and situation specific
  • May often influence behavior more than granted
    power

50
Types of power
  • Reward - the ability to grant people pay, bonuses
    etc.
  • Coercion having control over penalties and the
    ability to threaten punitive action
  • Knowledge Having expertise in a subject area,
    or having specific information that is relevant
    to a situation
  • Referent Who you know and how you know them
  • Influence Capacity to be influential is a
    capacity of communication skill, confidence,
    emotional awareness, and talents of observation

51
Motivational Theory
  • Maslow
  • Hertzberg
  • Theory X and Theory Y

52
Maslows hierarchy of needs
53
Maslow
  • Self actualisation (need to grow, to be
    fulfilled)
  • Esteem (Self respect, achievement)
  • Social needs (Affection, belonging, human
    contact)
  • Security (Safety, order, freedom)
  • Physiological (Air, food, water, sex)

54
Herzbergs Theory
  • Hygiene factors pay, attitude, working
    conditions
  • What it takes to maintain minimal health of the
    organisation
  • Poor hygiene factors may destroy motivation buy
    by improving hygiene factors under normal
    circumstances we are not likely to increase
    motivations
  • Motivators Positive motivation results from an
    opportunity to achieve and experience
    self-actualisation. The worker should have a
    sense of personal growth and responsibility

55
McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • Theory X (Management theory prior to world war s)
  • The traditional approach to the management of
    workers. Managers organise the elements of the
    productive enterprise- money, material,
    equipment, people in the interest of economic
    ends. Workers are seen as inherently
    self-centered, lazy, lacking ambition. A top-down
    view of how people should be managed

56
McGregors Theory X and Theory Y
  • Theory Y
  • People are not by nature resistant to
    organisational needs. They are willing and able
    to accept responsibility and are concerned with
    self-growth and self-fulfillment. Managers should
    try to create an environment where workers can
    achieve their own goals best by directing their
    own efforts towards organisational objectives

57
Project management and organisational change
  • Managing organisational change can often be one
    of the difficult tasks in a project
  • Projects often require that people and their
    behaviour change
  • Managing organisational change is a complex issue
    that involves motivational theory, leadership,
    psychology, understanding organisational culture
    within the framework of the project and
    communication and training
  • It the heart of managing the change is providing
    mechanisms to minimise and overcome resitance to
    change

58
The successful development and implementation of
a project management methodology requires
  • Identification of the most common reasons for
    change in project management
  • Identification of the ways to overcome resistance
    to change
  • Application of the principles of change
    management to ensure that the desired project
    managment environment will be created and
    sustained

59
Resistance to change will occur unless
  • People believe that change is possible
  • People believe that they will somehow benefit
    from the change

60
Mechanisms to overcome change include
  • Explaining the reasons for the change and
    soliciting feedback
  • Explaining the desired outcome and rationale
  • Championing the change process
  • Empowering the appropriate individuals to
    institutionalise the change
  • Investing in the necessary training to support
    the changes

61
Individual resistance to change can stem from
  • Potential changes in work habits
  • Potential changes in social groups
  • Embedded fears
  • Potential changes in the wage and salary
    administration program
  • Potential changes in work processes

62
Resistance work habits
  • Cause of Resistance
  • New guidelines/ processes
  • Need to share power
  • Creation of a fragmented work environment
  • Need to give up established work patterns
  • Change in comfort zone
  • Ways to overcome
  • Dictate mandatory conformance from above
  • Create new comfort zones at an acceptable pace
  • Identify tangible/intangible benefits

63
Resistance social groups
  • Cause of Resistance
  • Unknown new relationships
  • Multiple bosses
  • Multiple temporary assignments
  • Severing of established ties
  • Ways to overcome
  • Maintain existing relationships
  • Avoid culture shock
  • Find an acceptable pace for change

64
Resistance embedded fears
  • Cause of resistance
  • Fear of failure
  • Fear of termination
  • Fear of added workload
  • Fear or dislike of uncertainty/unknowns
  • Fear of embarrassment
  • Fear of a we/they organisation
  • Ways to overcome
  • Educate workforce on benefits of change to the
    individual/corporation
  • Show willingness to admit/accept mistakes
  • Show willingness to pitch in
  • Transform unknowns in opportunities
  • Share information

65
Resistance salary and wage administration
  • Causes of resistance
  • Shifts in authority and power
  • Lack of recognition after the changes
  • Unknown rewards and punishments
  • Improper evaluation of personal performance
  • Multiple bosses
  • Ways to Overcome
  • Link incentives to change
  • Identify future advancement opportunities/ career
    path

66
Organisational change on knowledge management
projects
  • For knowledge to induce change, it must be acted
    upon.
  • If we accept that people are integral to the
    knowledge management process we must also
    recognize that there will be confusion and
    consternation about any process an organization
    introduces to manage knowledge
  • This is not because people will dislike the
    concept of knowledge management, rather because
    people will resist change in all of the various
    forms it takes
  • ntroducing a knowledge management program without
    paying attention to the prevailing attitudes,
    beliefs, and practices, is recipe for failure,
    even when everyone fully appreciates the benefits
    of such a program

67
Change management factors that should be
considered on knowledge management projects
  • Leadership and role models If the organizational
    leaders support the knowledge management program,
    it has a much greater chance of success.
  • Success stories By sharing success stories,
    buy-in occurs more easily.
  • Consequences and incentives If knowledge
    management makes life easier and people have
    incentives to engage in the knowledge management
    processes, they are more likely to welcome the
    change.
  • Value proposition Specific and defendable
    propositions as to how knowledge management will
    add lasting value to all parts of the
    organization should be prepared. The greater the
    specificity, the more likely buy-in will occur.
  • Level of participation Engage those who will use
    the knowledge management system to be a part of
    the design.

68
Change management factors that should be
considered on knowledge management projects
  • People must understand that though a knowledge
    management program may initially require a lot of
    effort, it will ultimately save them time and
    effort.
  • Understand that the concerns of people may be
    legitimate and may come from previous experience
    where similar initiatives have failed. Engage
    these people to the extent possible.
  • A knowledge management system will be far more
    likely to succeed if it is perceived as being not
    only a high priority, but also as having a high
    likelihood of success.
  • Over coming fear of technology There are still
    many people who fear new technology. New
    technology used in the knowledge management
    system should be deployed long before people have
    to start using it. People need time to learn and
    adapt to the new technology.

69
Change management factors that should be
considered on knowledge management projects
  • Allow for some time to let the concept of
    knowledge management to sink-in. Avoid
    introducing a new knowledge management system
    without warning. Communicate early and often and
    consider offering one-on-one demonstrations.
  • One of the most vital element of managing the
    change associated with implementing any knowledge
    management program is the training program.
    Focusing on the user experience and providing
    ample real-life scenarios will increase the
    effectiveness of the training.
  • Ongoing support Change management often begins
    and ends with the roll-out. This should not
    happen Ongoing support should be provided so that
    people feel as though they have ready-resource
    when it comes to training, technical support, or
    other knowledge management related topics.

70
Conflict on projects
  • Conflict is "a situation of competition in which
    the parties are aware of the incompatibility of
    potential future positions and in which each
    party wishes to occupy a position which is
    incompatible with the wishes of the other."
  • Conflict can be constructive and healthy for an
    organisation. It can aid in developing
    individuals and improving the organisation by
    building on the individual assets of its members.

71
Types of conflict on projects
  • Manpower resources
  • Equipment and facilities
  • Capital expenditures
  • Costs
  • Technical opinions and trade offs
  • Priorities
  • Administrative procedures
  • Scheduling
  • Responsibilities
  • Personality clashes

72
Approaches to managing project conflict
  • Confronting
  • Comprising
  • Smoothing
  • Forcing
  • Avoiding

73
Confronting
  • Confronting is also described as problem solving,
    integrating, collaborating or win-win style.
  • It involves the conflicting parties meeting
    face-to-face and collaborating to reach an
    agreement that satifies the concerns of both
    parties
  • This style involves open and direct communication
    which should lead the way to solving the problem.

74
Confronting should be used when
  • Both parties need to win.
  • You want to decrease cost.
  • You want create a common power base.
  • Skills are complementary.
  • Time is sufficent.
  • Trust is present.
  • Learning is the ultimate goal.

75
Comprising
  • Compromising is also described as a "give and
    take" style
  • Conflicting parties bargain to reach a mutually
    acceptable solution.
  • Both parties give up something in order to reach
    a decision and leave with some degree of
    satisfaction.

76
Comprising should be used when
  • Both parties need to win.
  • You are in a deadlock.
  • Time is not sufficient.
  • You want to maintain the relationship among the
    involved parties.
  • You will get nothing if you do not compromise.
  • Stakes are moderate.

77
Conflict Management -Smoothing
  • Smoothing is also referred to as accommodating or
    obliging style.
  • In this approach, the areas of agreement are
    emphasized and the areas of disagreement are
    downplayed.
  • Conflicts are not always resolved in the
    smoothing mode. A party may sacrifice it's own
    concerns or goals in order to satisfy the
    concerns or goals of the other party.

78
Smoothing should be used when
  • Goal to be reached is overarching.
  • You want to create obligation for a trade-off at
    a later time.
  • Stakes are low.
  • Liability is limited.
  • Any solution is adequate.
  • You want to be harmonious and create good will.
  • You would lose anyway.
  • You want to gain time.

79
Conflict Management -Forcing
  • Forcing is also known as competing, controlling,
    or dominating style.
  • Forcing occurs when one party goes all out to win
    it's position while ignoring the needs and
    concerns of the other party.
  • As the intensity of a conflict increases, the
    tendency for a forced conflict is more likely.
  • This results in a win-lose situation where one
    party wins at the expense of the other party

80
Forcing should be used when
  • A "do or die" situation is present.
  • Stakes are high.
  • Important principles are at stake.
  • Relationship among parties is not important.
  • A quick decision must be made.

81
Conflict Management -Avoiding
  • Avoiding is also described as withdrawal style.
  • This approach is viewed as postponing an issue
    for later or withdrawing from the situation
    altogether.
  • It is regarded as a temporary solution because
    the problem and conflict continue to reoccur over
    and over again.

82
Avoiding should be used when
  • You can not win.
  • Stakes are low.
  • Stakes are high, but you are not prepared.
  • You want to gain time.
  • You want to maintain neutrality or reputation.
  • You think problem will go away.
  • You win by delaying.
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