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Title: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK : BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION


1
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK BEGINNING READING
INSTRUCTION
  • Jee-Ann O. Borines
  • Division Coordinator Grade II

2
THE CHALLENGE?
  • How does a teacher teach a child to read and
    develop love for reading?

3
  • If we are always arriving and departing. It is
    also true that we are eternally anchored. One's
    destination is never a place, nut rather a new
    way of looking at things.

4
  • If we are always arriving and departing. It is
    also true that we are eternally anchored. One's
    destination is never a place, but ?rather a new
    way of looking at things.

5
  • If we are always arriving and departing. It is
    also true that we are eternally anchored. One's
    destination is never a place, nut rather a new
    way of looking at things.
  • If we are always arriving and departing. It is
    also true that we are eternally anchored. One's
    destination is never a place, but ?rather a new
    way of looking at things.

6
Core Understandings About Learning to Read
  • Reading is a construction of meaning from written
    text. It is an active, cognitive and affective
    process.
  • Background knowledge and experience are critical
    to the reading process.
  • Social interaction is essential in learning to
    read.
  • Attitudes, motivation, interests, beliefs,
    feelings, and values influence childrens
    decisions to read and write.
  • Environments rich in literary experiences,
    resources and models facilitate reading
    development. Children need the opportunity to
    read, read and read.

7
  • Engagement in the reading task is key in
    successful learning to read.
  • Successful learners are motivated, strategic,
    knowledgeable and interactive.
  • Children develop phonemic awareness and knowledge
    of phonics through variety of literacy
    opportunities, models and demonstrations.
  • Children learn best when teachers employ variety
    of strategies to model and demonstrate reading
    knowledge, strategy and skills.
  • Monitoring the development of reading processes
    is vital to student success.

8
What Reading Is
  • ? Reading is a complex, interactive process
    using basic skills and advanced strategies to
    make meaning.
  • ?Reading is not merely a skill it is an
    engagement of the person in a conceptual and
    social world. Engaged readers are strategic,
    knowledgeable, motivated and social in their
    approach to learning and using literacy.
  • ?Reading is the process of constructing meaning
    through the dynamic interaction among the
    readers existing knowledge, the information
    suggested by the written language, and the
    context of the reading situation.

9
Imagine what difference it makes if a child loves
to read . . .
10
Increases confidence in expressing something
Opens doors
Develops imagination
Widens experience and understanding
Improves vocabulary
Helps develop interests
Improves thinking
Enables interactive communication
11
Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and
San Antonio, 2005 Adapted from The
Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read SEDL
2001
12
2C2IA
BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION MODEL
C
COGNITIVE
Reading Comprehension
I
Language Comprehension
Decoding
INTERACTIVE
Lexical Knowledge
INTEGRATIVE
Cipher Knowledge
Linguistic Knowledge
Background Knowledge
Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle
Letter Knowledge
Phonology
Phoneme Awareness
Syntax
Semantics
Pragmatics
Concepts About Print
AFFECTIVE
CONSTRUCTIVE
13
C
COGNITIVE
CONSTRUCTIVE
Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and
San Antonio, 2005 Adapted from The
Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read SEDL
2001
14
INTERACTIVE
I
INTEGRATIVE
15
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16
Language Comprehension
Linguistic Knowledge
Background Knowledge
Pragmatics
Phonology
Semantics
Syntax
Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and
San Antonio, 2005 Adapted from The
Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read SEDL
2001
17
Decoding
Lexical Knowledge
Cipher Knowledge
Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle
Letter Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Concepts About Print
18
Reading Comprehension
AFFECTIVE
19
2C2IA
BEGINNING READING INSTRUCTION MODEL
C
COGNITIVE
Reading Comprehension
I
Language Comprehension
Decoding
INTERACTIVE
Lexical Knowledge
INTEGRATIVE
Cipher Knowledge
Linguistic Knowledge
Background Knowledge
Knowledge of the Alphabetic Principle
Letter Knowledge
Phonology
Phoneme Awareness
Syntax
Semantics
Pragmatics
Concepts About Print
AFFECTIVE
CONSTRUCTIVE
Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and
San Antonio, 2005 Adapted from The
Cognitive Foundations of Learning to Read SEDL
2001
20
2 C 2 I A
INSTRUCTIONAL FRAMEWORK
  • Activating Prior Experience/Knowledge
  • Building Background Knowledge
  • Developing/Previewing Vocabulary
  • Setting the Purpose for Reading Predicting

PREREADING
  • Interacting with the Text
  • Teacher/student generated Questions
  • Cognitive, Metacognitive and Affective Strategies
  • Self-Monitoring and Fix-up Strategies

ACTIVE
READING
DISCOVERING THE MAGIC OF READING
STRATEGIC READING
DEVELOPING ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES
CONSTRUCTING MEANING
  • Integration
  • Language Structures / Functions
  • R-W Link
  • Content Areas
  • Multiple Intelligences
  • Deciphering and Decoding Strategies and Skills
  • Word Recognition
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Morphemic Analysis
  • Word Analysis in Context
  • Sight Words
  • Reading Sub-skills

POST READING
FLEXI GROUPS DIFFERENTIATED
Giron, Labrador, Visaya, Flojo, Cuanzon and San
Antonio, 2005
Shared/Whole Class
Small Groups
Independent
21
The 2C2IA Instructional Framework
  • I. Objective / s
  • A. Skills
  • B. Strategies
  • C. Value / s
  • II. Subject Matter
  • A. Story
  • B. Comprehension Skills / Strategies
  • C. Language Structure
  • D. Deciphering and Decoding
  • E. Writing
  • F. Reference / s
  • G. Materials
  • III. Learning Activities
  • A. Discovering the Magic of Reading ( DMR )
  • 1. Pre Reading
  • 1.1. Motivation and Building Background
  • 1.2. Unlocking of New Words
  • 1.3. Motive Question

22
  • B. Constructing Meaning ( CM )
  • 2. Active Reading
  • 2.1. First Reading
  • ( Teacher reading the story showing each
    page with the illustrations to the pupils )
  • 2.2. Second Reading
  • ( Give pupils a chance to interact with the
    text. After reading a page or several pages,
    ask questions to help pupils predict and
    monitor their comprehension )
  • 3. Post Reading
  • 3.1. Answering the motive question
  • 3.2. Group Activity / Discussion
  • C. Developing English Language Competencies (
    DELC )
  • 1. Preparatory Activities
  • 1.1. Drill
  • 1.2. Review
  • 1.3. Motivation

23
  • 2. Lesson Proper
  • 2.1. Presentation
  • 2.2. Oral Practice
  • 2.3. Generalization
  • 2.4. Guided Practice
  • 2.5. Independent Practice
  • 2.6. Application
  • 2.7. Evaluation
  • D. Deciphering and Decoding Strategies and
    Skills ( DDSS )
  • 1. Presentation of the Beginning and Ending
    Sound
  • 1.1. Sound Presentation
  • 1.2. Practice Exercises
  • 1.3. Writing Activity
  • 1.4. Generalization
  • 1.5. Application
  • 1.6. Further Practice
  • 1.7. Differentiated Activities for Group Work
  • 1.8. Evaluation

24
  • READING
  • Vocabulary
  • Use pictures, realia, and demonstrations to get
    the meaning of words.
  • Comprehension
  • Answer wh- questions. Sequence events.
    Interpret feelings of characters. Predict
    outcomes.
  • Decoding
  • Identify and produce beginning and ending sound
    of Mm. Isolate and blend sounds

LANGUAGE Name animals Make animal sounds Use
the structure The _____ says _____ WRITING Write
capital and small letter Mm
GMRC Respect for the rights of others.
MIMI and the MOUSE
MATHEMATICS Tell the concept of cardinal numbers
SCIENCE Identify pets Identify animal
sounds Take care of pets
MUSIC Sing songs such as Catch the Mouse and
Old McDonald Had a Farm
ART EDUCATION Color mugs/bowls Finger paint
animals Draw a pet animal
PHYSICAL EDUCATION Play the game, Catch the
Mouse. Make animal movements
25
Cluster 1 Lesson 1 THE BEGINNING AND ENDING
SOUND OF Mm. I. Objectives A. Skills 1. Give
the meaning of new words through pictures,
actions and realia. 2. Answer wh- questions in
the story listened to. 3. Interpret feelings of
the characters. 4. Sequence events as they
happened in the story. 5. Predict outcomes.
26
6. Respond to the story through the following
engagement activities. Group 1 Draw pictures of
the animals in the story. Group 2 Act out
portions of the story. Group 3 Illustrate main
characters feelings Group 4 Sequence events in
the story. 7. Identify animal sounds. 8.
Identify/ Recognize and produce beginning and
ending sound of Mm. 9. Isolate and blend sounds
in words. 10. Write big and small letter Mm.
27
B. Strategies 1. Read aloud 2.
Questioning 3. Predicting 4. Summarizing 5.
Phoneme Isolation and Blending C.
Value/s Respect for the rights of others.
28
II. Subject Matter A. Story Mimi and the
Mouse Author Perla H. Cuanzon Illustrator
Larry A. Diolola B Comprehension Skills/
Strategies Answering wh- questions,
predicting, sequencing events, retelling. C.
Language Structure The __________ says
__________.
29
D. Deciphering and Decoding Beginning and
ending sound of Mm. E. Writing Writing big and
small Mm F. Reference/s BEC PELC Grade I,
Listening 1.3, p.7 Speaking G. Materials Big
Book, flipcharts, cut- outs, real objects,
pictures, songs, charts.
30
III. Learning Activities A. Discovering the Magic
of Reading (DMR) 1. Prereading 1.1 Motivation
and Building Background a. Ask Do you have
pets at home? What is your pet? What does your
pet do?
Activating Prior knowledge
31
Showing the picture of a boy with a cat, say,
Mico has a pet cat. Let the pupils describe
Micos cat. Then have them tell what they think
his cat does. Write the words that the pupils
give in the word map.
32
b. Introduce the big book. Display the cover.
Point to the title explaining that these words
are called title and that a title is the name of
the story. Say The title of the story is Mimi
and the Mouse. Point to and read the authors
and illustrators names, explaining to the
children that an author is a person who writes
the story and an illustrator is one who draws the
pictures for the story. Say This story is
written by Perla H. Cuanzon and illustrated by
Larry A. Diolola.
33
Talk about the title and ask the pupils to
predict what the story might be about. Preview
the books illustration on page 1 to help
children make their predictions. Ask Would
you really want to know what the story is about?
I will read to you the story. But there are some
words which may be new or which you may not
understand.
34
1.2 Unlocking of New/ Difficult Words a. bowl,
fresh milk Using real objects/ pictures, unlock
the words bowl and fresh milk. Say I have here
a bowl. Mother puts milk in the bowl. Ask
What is a bowl? Do you use a bowl, too? Do you
drink milk? What milk do you drink? Show the
picture of a man milking a cow or carabao. Say
The milk from this cow or carabao is fresh milk.
You can buy fresh milk in the supermarket.
35
b. trips, hits, spills Present the
illustration on page 10 and unlock the words
trips, hits, and spills. Ask What can you say
about this? What happens to the milk? (spills)
Why? Show how Mimi trips and hits the bowl.
Say Mimi trips and hits the bowl
36
1.3. Motive Question Present the cover of the
big book again showing Mimi and the Mouse. Ask
What questions about the story come to mind when
you see this picture? Expected questions Why
is the mouse with the cat? Will they fight with
each other? Which of the two animals will drink
the milk in the bowl?
37
2. Active Reading 2.1. First Reading Open the
book and read the story showing each page with
the illustrations to the pupils. 2.2 Second
Reading Give pupils a chance to interact with
the text. After reading a page or several pages,
ask questions to help pupils predict and monitor
their comprehension.
38
MIMI AND THE MOUSE Mimi sits on a mat one
morning. Meow! Meow! Meow! says Mimi Theres
fresh milk in the bowl. Mmmmm.Mmmm..MMmmmm!
says Mimi. Suddenly, a mouse comes
out. Squeak! Squeak! Squeak! says the
mouse. Meow! Meow! Meow! My milk! My milk!
shouts Mimi. Mimi runs after the mouse. The
mouse runs around the bowl. My milk! My milk!
shouts Mimi Mimi trips and hits the bowl. The
milk spills on the mat. Oh my! Oh my! My milk
on the mat! Meow, meow, meow.
I N T E R A C T I N G W I T H T E X T
Why do you think Mimi says meow?
What do you think will the mouse do?
What do you think will Mimi do?
What do you think will happen?
What happens to the milk? How does Mimi feel
about it?
39
3. Postreading 3.1. Lead the class to answer the
motive questions. 3.2. Divide the class into 4
groups and give each group an activity. The
discussion of the story follows and the small
group activities are presented as the
discussion goes on.
40
Group 3How does Mimi feel at the beginning of
the story? at the end? In circle1, draw Mimis
face when she sees the bowl of fresh milk. In
circle 2, draw Mimis face when the milk is
spilled.
41
C. Developing English Language Competencies
(DELC) 1. Preparatory Activities Say All
around us we hear different sounds. What sounds
do you hear now? What sounds do you hear in the
morning? In the afternoon? At night?
42
Show pictures of the words in the box. Let the
pupils look at the pictures and call on
individual pupils to select one. Paste the
picture in Circle A if it produces a sound.
Paste the picture in Circle B if it doesnt
produce a sound. Select one object from Circle
A. (The teacher may modify this activity when
needed.)
ball bell apple cellphone TV table car alarm
clock
A
B
43
2. Lesson Proper 2.1. Presentation a. Go back
to the story, Mimi and the Mouse. Ask What are
the animals in the story? (cat and mouse) Show
the picture of Mimi in the big book. Ask What
sound does the cat make? What does the cat say?
(The cat says meow, meow, meow.) Show the
picture of a mouse. Ask What does the mouse
say? (The mouse says squeak, squeak,
squeak.) b. Let the pupils listen to the song,
Old McDonald Had a Farm. Then ask them what
animals are mentioned in the song. Ask the
pupils to sing the song while substituting
numbers 2, 3 and 4.
44
Old McDonald Had a Farm 1. Old McDonald had a
farm, E-I-E-I-O. And on his farm he had a cow,
E-I-E-I-O. With a moo-moo here and a moo-moo
there, Here a moo, there a moo Everywhere a
moo-moo. Old McDonald had a farm,
E-I-E-I-O. 2. Duck quack-quack 3. Horse
neigh-neigh 4. Other animals and their sounds.
45
c. Show pictures of the following animals and ask
the pupils to give the sounds of the animals in
the pictures
d. Conduct a question-and-answer exercise.
Introduce the function words to be used in the
sentence structure. The (animal) says
(sound). Ask What sound does the dog make? The
cow? The goat? The __________ says (bow, wow,
wow) (moo, moo, moo) (mee, mee, mee)
46
  • 2.2. Oral Practice
  • a. Show the class pictures of animals in the box
    below. Call on some pupils to choose the animals
    that they would like to have as pet.

b. Divide the class into the different categories
of animals that they chose. Ask What sound does
the dog make? The Dog group says The dog says,
bow wow wow. Do this until all the groups were
asked and have answered using the structure. The
(animal) says (sound).
47
2.3 Generalization Ask What sound does the dog
make? Guide the pupils to say Animals make
different sounds. 2.4 Guided Practice a. Let
the pupils sing the following song to the tune of
Incy, Wincy Spider. The little dog says,
Bow,wow,wow. The little cat says, Meow, meow,
meow. The little duck says, Quack, quack,
quack. And they all sound it loud. Oh listen,
oh listen Theyre all talking now.
48
b. Ask the pupils to substitute the names of the
animals and the sounds that they make. bird-
tweet tweet tweet goat mee, mee, mee monkey
kraa, kraa, kraa
49
c. Divide the class into groups. Then assign an
animal for each group. When the teacher calls
the name of the animal, the group will make the
sound as they perform movements imitating the
animals.
2.5 Independent Practice Let the pupils do a
dyad. Say Get a partner. One will give the
sound of an animal and the other will say the
sentence. The (animal) says (sound).
50
2.6 Application Have the class play a game of
naming sounds produced by animals. Start by
throwing a ball to a pupil and asking, What
sound does the __________make? The pupil who
catches the ball answers the question by saying.
The __________ says __________. Then he throws
the ball to another pupil and asks about the
sound another animal makes. Continue playing the
game until almost all pupils have answered the
question using the given structure.
51
2.7 Evaluation Show pictures of the following
animals. Listen as I say each animal sound. On
your paper, write A, B, or C to identify the
animal that makes the sound. (Teacher reads
the choices and pupils write A, B, or C on their
answer sheets.) 1. Quack! Quack! A B
C 2. Meow! Meow! A B C
duck
chicken
horse
dog
cat
snake
52
3. Moo! Moo! A B C 4. Squeak!
Squeak! A B C 5. Hiss!
Hiss! A B C
horse
cow
goat
lizard
mouse
bird
snake
goat
carabao
53
  • D. Deciphering and Decoding Strategies and
    Skills (DDSS)
  • 1. Presentation of the Beginning and Ending Sound
    of Mm.
  • 1.1 Say Listen to some words taken from the
    story.
  • Mimi meow mat
  • milk my mug
  • mouse me morning
  • 1.2 Ask What sound do you hear at the beginning
    of the words? /m/ Say Repeat the words after
    me. (Read each word to them again as they repeat
    after you.) This time, I am going to say the
    first sound and the remaining sound in the word.
    Repeat after me. If I say /m/ .at, say mat.
    Blend these word parts.
  • /m/.ilk milk /m/ouse mouse /m/ y my
  • /m/ug mug /m/e me /m/eow meow
  • Help the children hear how the word parts are
    blended by extending the first sound such as
    m-m-m-m-m-m-mat.

54
  • 1.3 Teach a song to the tune of London Bridge is
    Falling Down. Write the song on a chart. Sing
    the song and track the print as you sing. Sing
    the song several times to encourage the children
    to sing the song.
  • Teachers Version Pupils Version
  • Whats the first sound /m/ is the first sound
  • That you hear (3x)? That we hear (3x).
  • Whats the first sound /m/ is the first sound
  • That you hear That we hear
  • In milk, milk, milk? In milk, milk, milk
  • Tell the pupils to substitute these words
    mouse, mat, meow, my, me for milk and I for we
    when responding individually.

55
1.4. Say Listen to the story about monkeys.
Look at this picture that shows Mother Monkey and
the young monkeys. Write the story on a chart.
Find out what happened in the story.
Mother Monkeys Guessing Game Three monkeys were
waiting for someone at home. Soon, Mother Monkey
came with a basket in her hand. So, the monkeys
ran to meet her. Mother Monkey said, Guess what
I have for you. Listen. It begins with
/m/. And it ends with /ilk/. Put them
together, What is it? (Its milk.)
56
1.5 Repeat the chant for mug, mask and
match. 1.6 Ask What did Mother Monkey have for
the three monkeys? (mat, milk, mug, mask, match).
What is the first sound you hear in each word?
/m/. Mother Monkey made the monkeys guess the
other things in the basket. She said It
begins with /h/. It begins with /j/ And it
ends with /am/ And it ends with /am/ Put them
together. Put them together. What is it? (Its
ham.) What is it? (Its jam.)
57
1.7 Apply the song London Bridge is Falling
Down for the words ending in /m/ to answer the
question Whats the last sound that you
hear? 1.8 Teach a song to the tune of Happy
Birthday. Can you say the last sound?
(2x) Its the last sound in ham. Can you say
the last sound? Substitute the words jam, drum,
broom, cream for ham.
58
  • 2. Writing Letter Mm
  • 2.1 Presentation of the Big and Small Letter Mm.
  • Ask What sound did we learn today? /M/. This
    is a small letter m. It is also sounded as /m/.
  • 2.2 Writing of Mm
  • Demonstrate how to write Mm on the blackboard.
    Guide the writing in the air, on ones palm, on
    ones seat or table or on a classmates back.
  • 2.3 Have the pupils trace the dots to form Mm on
    the blackboard and on their worksheet. Have them
    show their work to their seatmates and to the
    class.

59
3. Further Practice 3.1 Show pictures of the
words in the box. Name each picture. If the
picture name begins with /m/, write B. If the
picture name ends with /m/, write E. Do this
exercise on your paper.
3.2 Read the directions for the exercise, Messy
Mushroom in the flip chart. Say Get your paper
and draw a line to divide it into 2 columns.
Copy the picture names that begin with Mm on the
left side of your paper and the picture names
that end with m on the right side of your paper.
60
4. Enrichment Activity Show pictures of the ten
words below. Ask the class to listen as you name
each picture. If the name begins with /m/, write
B on your paper. If the name ends with /m/,
write E.
61
  • 5. Differentiated Activities for Group Work

man
magnet
milk
mushroom
mitten
mouse
mask
map
mug
mat
moon
mop
62
moon
mask
medal
map
mug
man
magnet
mouse
net
man
bag
mouse
mask
flower
mushroom
fan
mop
box
63
34 7
mushroom
64
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  • B. Provide a worksheet with the following
    pictures. Encircle the beginning sound of the
    pictures.
  • milk m r n
  • mask r m n
  • Mico M N H
  • moon n m l
  • mop m h k
  • Seatwork 2
  • A. Provide a worksheet with the following
    pictures.
  • jam 3. sum
  • ja __ su __
  • map 4. drum
  • ma__ dru __

67
  • B. Coloring pictures whose names end with /m/.
  • 1. ham 5. jam
  • 2. map 6. palm
  • 3. moon 7. Sam
  • 4. milk 8. mouse

68
N
M
H
M
W
m
r
n
m
h
69
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70
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71
money
ham
mask
72
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74
GIVE
EVERY KID
A HAND
75
  • GIVE EVERY KID A HAND

The first six years of a childs life are
critical, the experts tell us. Thats
when their characters are formed. Thats
when learning is slowly making a mark.
76
GIVE EVERY KID A HAND
Thats when caring counts. Someone
just to hold them. Unfortunately, for many
of the worlds children thats just what they
dont get..
77
And society suffers as a result. Because
a deprived child has a lot less chance of growing
up as an adjusted adult - a reader, a thinker, a
life-long learner, ready to face the world.
Some of us believe we can change things or at
least try And we need your help
GIVE EVERY KID A HAND
78
GIVE EVERY KID A HAND
Maybe youll help one to learn - to
read and write to laugh, to love, to live --
Maybe youll just be the hand that holds
out a little hope.
79
GIVE EVERY KID A HAND
To give a kid a hand is to give a gift
that lasts forever The gift of reading.
80
THANK YOU GOD BLESS ALL YOUR EFFORTS !!
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