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Ancient Grains – Back to the Future

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Ancient Grains Back to the Future Elizabeth A. Arndt ConAgra Foods, Inc. Just Food Foods from the Past - Trends Today - Foods of the Future – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Grains – Back to the Future


1
Ancient Grains Back to the Future
  • Elizabeth A. Arndt
  • ConAgra Foods, Inc.
  • Just Food
  • Foods from the Past - Trends Today - Foods of the
    Future
  • December 4-5, 2008, West Des Moines, Iowa

2
Overview
  • Consumers and the Changing Market
  • Grains Definitions
  • Ancient Grains
  • Finding and Using Ancient Grains
  • Labeling and Identification

3
Challenges for Whole Grain Foods
  • Consumption increasing
  • Labeling confusion consistency needed!
  • U.S. health status
  • Heart - Weight management
  • Digestive - Diabetes
  • Cancer
  • Gluten Free growing awareness
  • Increased desire for Clean Label

4
What do consumers want?
  • Convenienceprepared meals, quick and easy
    preparation, simple choices
  • Tasteethnic cuisine, unique flavors
  • Varietyvariety is good, but avoid overload
  • Healthneed clear, easy to understand messages
  • Value

5
How do whole grains fit?
  • Allows consumers to do something right for
    their health
  • Whole grain products have a healthy halo
  • Whole grains are hot timing right for new
    products

Sources wholegrainscouncil.org, mypyramid.gov
6
What consumers are saying aboutwhole grain foods
  • More than half of consumers say they buy whole
    wheat or wholegrain bread
  • 40 of consumers say whole grain is most
    important quality when purchasing bread
  • Almost half of consumers say they buy whole wheat
    or multigrain pasta
  • Purchase indices higher as cooking skills
    increase

Source Mintel Oxygen
7
Consumers say they purchase more whole grain bread
Source Mintel Reports Bread June 2008 - US
Types of bread purchased in the last year, by
age, May 2008
8
North America leads, followed by Europe
Wholegrain introductions, global, by region,
2001-2008
Source Mintel GNPD
9
US introductions show growth
Products with wholegrain positioning, US, by
category, 2001-2008
Source Mintel GNPD
10
(No Transcript)
11
Whole Grains enhance the nutritional composition
resulting benefits in product applications
  • Baked goods (including breads, tortillas,
    biscuits, muffins, quick breads)
  • Bars (granola, nutritional, fruit grain)
  • Hot RTE cereals
  • Snacks sweet and savory
  • Toppings/Stir-ins
  • Desserts
  • Breaded/battered products
  • Vegetarian patties
  • Pasta
  • Soups and Side Dishes
  • Beverages

12
Whole Grain Recommendations
  • Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for
    Americans and MyPyramid recommendations at least
    HALF of daily grain intake should be whole grain
  • Ounce equivalent new term describing a serving
    size of grain foods
  • Consume 3 or more ounce-equivalents of whole
    grain foods daily (2,000 calorie diet)
  • Examples of ounce-equivalents of whole grain
  • 1 slice of bread
  • 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal
  • ½ cup cooked rice, cooked pasta, or cooked cereal

13
Reference Dietary Guidelines for
Americans, pg 54, Appendix A-2, Note 2.
Sixteen grams is just over ½ an ounce about 2
tablespoons of flour.
14
U.S. Grain Consumption(USDA ERS)
  • 2004 per capita availability adjusted for loss
  • Grams/Day
  • Total Grain 167
  • Wheat 117.5
  • Corn 27
  • Rice 18.5
  • Oat 3.02
  • Barley 0.45
  • Rye 0.44
  • Opportunity Increase utilization of minor
    exotic grains

http//www.ers.usda.gov/data/foodconsumption/FoodA
vailIndex.htm
15
Grain Types A Comprehensive List(recommended
to FDA by AACCI Whole Grain Task Force 2006)
  • Cereal Grains
  • Wheat (includes spelt, emmer, farro, einkorn,
    Kamut, durum)
  • Rice - Millet
  • Corn (maize, popcorn) - Wild Rice
  • Oats - Triticale
  • Barley - Sorghum
  • Rye - Teff
  • Canary Seed - Jobs Tears
  • Fonio
  • Pseudocereal Grains
  • Amaranth - Buckwheat - Quinoa
  • Legumes, Oilseeds and Nuts are not Grains (e.g.,
    flax, sunflower, soybeans, chia)

16
Whole Wheat Kernel
15
82
Fiber B vitamins Minerals Phytonutrients
Carbohydrates Protein
2 - 3
Unsaturated Fats Vitamin E B vitamins
Phytonutrients
17
Whole Grains Have Key Nutrients
  • Dietary fiber helps to lower cholesterol and
    reduce heart disease risk, assists with digestion
    and fullness with fewer calories.
  • B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and
    folate) aids metabolism, releasing energy from
    macronutrients, nervous system, red blood cells.
  • Iron carries oxygen in the blood.
  • Magnesium helps build bones, helps release energy
    from muscles.
  • Selenium protects cells from oxidation, healthy
    immune system.
  • Manganese helps bone and connective tissue
    development.
  • Chromium assists in glucose and insulin
    regulation.

18
What is a Whole Grain?
  • Whole grains contain all the parts (and naturally
    occurring nutrients) of the entire grain seed
    kernel.
  • Grains have three parts
  • Endosperm
  • Bran
  • Germ
  • If the grain is processed (e.g., cracked,rolled,
    extruded, and/or cooked), it should contain the
    same amounts of endosperm, bran and germ before
    and after processing.

Source www.wholegrainscouncil.org
19
Whole Grain Definitions
  • 21 CFR 137.200 Whole wheat flour
  • (a) whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat
    flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned
    wheat, other than durum wheat and red durum
    wheat, that when tested by the method prescribed
    in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, not less
    than 90 percent passes through a 2.36 mm (No. 8)
    sieve and not less than 50 percent passes through
    a 850 microm (No. 20) sieve. The proportions of
    the natural constituents of such wheat, other
    than moisture, remain unaltered.
  • AACC International (1999)
  • "Whole grains shall consist of the intact,
    ground, cracked or flaked caryopsis, whose
    principal anatomical components - the starchy
    endosperm, germ and bran - are present in the
    same relative proportions as they exist in the
    intact caryopsis.
  • Whole Grains Council (2004)
  • Whole grains or foods made from them contain all
    the essential parts and naturally-occurring
    nutrients of the entire grain seed. If the grain
    has been processed (e.g., cracked, crushed,
    rolled, extruded, and/or cooked), the food
    product should deliver approximately the same
    rich balance of nutrients that are found in the
    original grain seed.

20
What is an Ancient Grain?
  • No official definition
  • Grains that have survived intact for centuries
  • Not altered by modern plant science practices
  • Commonly includes amaranth, millet, quinoa, spelt
    (wheat), Kamut (wheat)
  • Others sorghum, teff, farro (wheat), einkorn
    (wheat)
  • What is different/better about ancient grains?
  • Unique flavors
  • Visual interest seed size, shape and color
  • Balance of nutrients

21
Ancient Grains
  • Most ancient grains are positioned as whole grain
  • Consumer interest is increasing
  • Traditionally found in natural food stores
  • Increased use in fine dining
  • Now found in natural foods sections of
    supermarkets
  • Appealing to adventuresome consumers
  • Health wellness benefits of interest

22
Health Wellness TrendsGluten Free Foods
  • Growing awareness of celiac disease autoimmune
    disorder treatment is lifelong avoidance of
    gluten
  • Gluten containing grains - wheat (including
    spelt, einkorn, emmer, Kamut, durum, farro), rye,
    barley, triticale
  • Broad array of new products including breads,
    pasta, cereals, crackers, cookies
  • GF projected growth - 870mm to 1.7b by 2010
  • 2007 395 products
  • 2006 250
  • 2005 239
  • 2004 174

23
Ancient Grains global introductions
Ancient grain introductions, global, by type,
2004-2007
Source Mintel GNPD
24
Ancient grain claims
New global ancient grain food introductions, by
claim Jan 2004 Oct 2008
  • Strong presence of health and wellness claims
    associated with products made with ancient grains

Source Mintel GNPD
25
Ancient grains product introductions
  • Natural Ovens Bakerys Organic Bread, USA, made
    with organic spelt flour Natures Path
  • Foods Synergy Organic 8 Whole Grains Cereal,
    Americas, made with millet and quinoa

Source Mintel GNPD, Mintel Menu Insights
26
Ancient grains product introductions
  • Hain-Celestial Groups Arrowhead Mills Ancient
    Grain Cereal, USA, made with spelt, quinoa,
    barley, amaranth, and millet
  • The Food Doctors Flame Grilled Chicken Quinoa
    Pilau, UK
  • Safeways Eating Right Ancient Grains Bread, USA,
    with amaranth, teff, millet, quinoa, and kamut

Source Mintel GNPD, Mintel Menu Insights
27
Ancient Grains
  • Amaranth
  • Quinoa
  • Millet
  • Sorghum
  • Teff
  • Whole Grain Nutrition
  • Unique Flavors
  • Light Seed Coat Color
  • Gluten Free

28
Amaranth(Amaranthus spp.)
  • Classification Pseudocereal Grain
  • Family Amaranthaceae
  • Genus Species Amaranthus cruentus (relative of
    pigweed)
  • History Amaranth was a staple of the Aztec
    culture.
  • Growth Habit Tolerates poor soil
  • Features Very small seeds (lt1/16 in.) light
    earthy flavor
  • Uses Popped snack food, cereals, breads
  • (particularly for gluten free), muffins,
    pancakes,
  • crackers higher water binding capacity than
  • wheat starch
  • Nutritional Higher quality proteincomparativel
    y higher overall mineral content calcium, iron,
    magnesium gluten free

29
Millet
  • Classification Cereal Grain
  • Family Poaceae
  • Genus Species Panicum miliaceum (proso is
    common millet)
  • Millets include pearl millet, finger millet,
    proso millet, foxtail millet, Japanese millet
  • History A staple in India and common in Africa,
    domesticated more than 4,000 years ago from a
    wild West African grass
  • Growth Habit Tolerates hot, dry climates will
    yield a crop even during severe drought
  • Features Small round seeds (resembles mustard
    seed), white, gray, yellow or red mild flavor
  • Uses More common in animal foods in USfound
    in some cereals, baked goods
  • Nutritional Notable for B vitamins, along with
    other nutrientsgluten free

30
Teff (Tef)
  • Classification Cereal Grain
  • Family Poaceae
  • Genus Species Eragrostis tef
  • History An important food source in Ethiopian
    diet used to make injera flatbread
  • Growth Habit Tolerates poor soil, dry
    conditions still largely unknown outside of
    Ethiopia, India and Australia
  • Features Very tiny seeds (1/150th the size of
    wheat) red, brown ivory
  • Uses Sweet molasses-like flavor used in baked
    goods, porridge, polenta
  • Nutritional Comparatively higher overall mineral
    content calcium, magnesium, manganese
    B-vitamins thiamin folate gluten free

31
Quinoa
  • Classification Pseudocereal Grain
  • Family Amaranthaceae, Subfamily Chenopodiodeae
  • Genus Species Chenopodium quinoa a relative
    of swiss chard beets
  • History Originated in Andes, cultivated by the
    Incas
  • Growth Habit Will grow at high altitudes
  • Features Small, slightly flattened round seeds,
    can be white, yellow, red, purple or black
    nutty, earthy flavor
  • Uses Soups, side dishes, baked goods rinsed to
    remove bitter saponin coating
  • Nutritional Higher quantity and quality of
    proteinComparatively higher overall mineral
    content calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron
    gluten free

32
Sorghum (Milo)
  • Classification Cereal Grain
  • Family Poaceae
  • Genus Species Sorghum bicolor
  • History Origin believed Ethiopia Grown in
    Egypt 2200 B.C. Staple in Africa and India.
    Worldwide 5th most important cereal. Staple food
    crop for arid and semiarid parts of the world.
    Also commonly referred to as kafir corn, milo,
    sorgos, durra and guinea millet
  • Growth Habit Tolerates poor soil, dry
    conditions grown in U.S. midwest
  • Features Medium, round seeds yellow, red,
    purple or black mild flavor
  • Uses Side dishes, baked goods, popped as
    snackgluten-free mixes and baked goods
  • Nutritional Includes whole grain nutrients
    vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, gluten free

33
Whole GrainsMacronutrient Comparison
34
Amaranth, Millet, Quinoa, Sorghum, Teff
Comparison to Wheat
  • B-Vitamins
  • Millet gt or to Wheat
  • Thiamin Teff 2.5x higher
  • Folate Millet Teff 2-3x Wheat
  • Niacin All lt Wheat
  • Minerals - Amaranth, Quinoa, Teff generally
    higher overall
  • Calcium Quinoa 2x, Amaranth 4.5x, Teff 5x
  • Iron Amaranth Quinoa 2x
  • Copper 2x, except sorghum (lt)
  • Selenium All lt Wheat

35
Antioxidant Capacity
  • Whole Grain Type ORAC, umole TE/100 g
    (hydrophilic)
  • Sorghum whole flour 1800
  • Quinoa seed, white 3200
  • Quinoa seed, black 4800
  • Quinoa seed, red 3900
  • Teff whole flour, ivory 3600
  • Teff whole flour, brown 3400
  • Amaranth seed, white 900
  • Source Brunswick Laboratories, Norton, MA (2006)

36
Finding and Using Ancient Grains
37
Breakfast
whole sorghum flour, rice flour, tapioca starch,
evaporated cane juice, salt vitamins and minerals
water, whole wheat flour, enriched flour, canola
oil, fructose, inulin, dried honey (honey, wheat
starch, corn syrup), leavening, soy flour, salt,
barley, rye, oats, corn grits, millet, buckwheat,
flax seed, oat fiber, soy lecithin
Hard red spring wheat, oats, barley, rye,
triticale, soft white wheat, spelt, and extra
wheat bran
38
Breads
Enriched wheat flour, water, whole, durum wheat
flour, ...contains 2 or less of the following
rye, oats, barley, corn, millet, triticale, rice
flour, flax meal, buckwheat, .spelt, amaranth
flour
enriched wheat flour, stone ground 100 whole
wheat flouramaranth bran flour
tapioca flour, whole grain teff flour, whole
grain millet flour
Costco
Organic whole wheat flour, water, organic whole
grains seeds mix (crushed wheat, oats, barley,
triticale, corn, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds,
spelt, rye, bulgur wheat, kamut, quinoa, brown
rice, buckwheat, millet, amaranth)
39
Mixes
Whole grain cornmeal, potato starch, whole grain
sorghum flour, evaporated cane juice sugar, whole
grain corn flour, tapioca flour, baking powder
(sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium bicarbonate,
corn starch, monocalcium phosphate), sea salt,
xanthan gum
Garbanzo bean flour, potato starch, tapioca
flour, white sorghum flour, fava bean flour
40
Snacks
Enriched flour, soybean oil, whole grain wheat
flour, whole grain rolled oats, whole grain
triticale, whole grain millet, whole grain rye,
whole grain barley flakes
organic amaranth, organic quinoa
Sorghum flour
32 g whole grain
Whole wheat flour, wheat flourwhole oat
flourwhole rye flourwhole brown rice, millet
flour, whole barley flour, whole buckwheat flour
Enriched flour, soybean oil, whole grains
(barley, millet, triticale, sorghum, rye), whole
wheat flour
41
Sides
100 whole (wheat, rye, buckwheat, kamut, spelt,
millet, barley, brown rice
42
Main Dishes
Enriched bleached wheat flour, vegetable oil,
multigrain blend (wheat, rye, triticale, barley,
yellow corn, millet, soy, flaxseed), whole wheat
flour
Multigrain pasta (organic durum semolina flour,
organic whole grain durum flour, organic whole
grain kamut flour, organic whole grain spelt
flour)
43
Creating Productswith Ancient Grains
  • Product Development Considerations
  • Base Grain(s) traditional red or ultrafine
    white whole wheat flour other grains multigrain
    mixtures gluten free
  • Inclusion levels to achieve target product
    attributes nutrition/claims
  • Other clean label, natural, gluten free,
    allergen
  • Adjustments to formula process
  • Shelf life
  • Cost
  • Food safety
  • Label/Identify Foods with Whole Grains to
    communicate benefits

44
Snack Crackers Effect ofGrain Color and Flour
Particle Size
45
Ancient Grain Ingredient Considerations
  • Flavor
  • Color
  • Texture
  • Functionality
  • Nutrition
  • Macronutrients (fiber, fat, etc)
  • Protein level amino acid profile
  • Micronutrients antioxidants
  • Gluten/Allergens
  • Shelf Life

46
Ancient Grain Ingredient Considerations
  • Flavor
  • Color
  • Texture
  • Functionality
  • Nutrition
  • Macronutrients (fiber, fat, etc)
  • Protein level amino acid profile
  • Micronutrients antioxidants
  • Gluten/Allergens
  • Shelf Life
  • Availability
  • U.S. grown vs. imported
  • Forms available seed, flour, flakes, etc.
  • Price
  • Support Data
  • Nutritional information
  • Testing/certification for allergens, gluten,
    organic
  • Sanitation and quality programs

47
Product Development Considerations
  • Baked Goods Breads, Muffins, Pancakes, Cookies,
    etc.
  • Side Dishes
  • Main Dishes
  • Inclusion level (nutrient contribution, sensory
    impact, system compatibility)
  • Minimal inclusion for label appeal
  • 15 - 30
  • 51 - 100
  • Multigrain mixes
  • Liquid requirements
  • Cook times
  • Mixing requirements
  • Additional functional ingredients may be necessary

48
Pasta with Ancient Grain BlendsAll are ConAgra
Food Ingredients estimates
Reference Amount Customarily Consumed (RACC)
for dry pasta is 55 g
49
Whole Grain Foods Labeling Identification
50
Labeling IdentifyingWhole Grain Foods
  • Product Name
  • Amount of Whole Grain
  • Grams or Ounce Equivalents Factual Statements
  • Symbols Whole Grains Council Stamp
  • FDA Approved Whole Grain Health Claim
  • Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant
    foods, and low in total fat, saturated fat and
    cholesterol may reduce the risks of heart disease
    and certain cancers.
  • Product must conform to claim criteria (at least
    51 of product weight is whole grain meets
    other composition criteria)
  • Ingredients
  • Look for whole grain ingredients as first or
    predominant in ingredients list

51
Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant
foods, and low in saturated fat and cholesterol,
may help reduce the risk of heart disease.
52
Whole Grain Claims
  • FDA Draft Guidance (Feb 2006)
  • Factual Statements Allowed, Examples are
  • X grams of whole grain (X can be any number)
  • 1/2 ounce of whole grain
  • Whole wheat Product Name (eg. pizza/bagel)
    recommended only if entirely whole grain or
    conforms to standard of identity
  • Whole grain health claim (must conform to claim
    criteria)
  • USDA/FSIS Interim Policy Guidance (Oct 2005)
  • Factual Statements Allowed, Examples are
  • X grams whole grain per serving (X is at least
    8 g)
  • Product Name made with whole grain OR Made
    with whole wheat Product Name (at least 8 g per
    serving per RACC 51 of grain ingredients or
    conforms to standard of identity)

53
Whole Grain Ingredients
  • Ingredient Legend/Product Label
  • Avoid use of common terms that dont specifically
    indicate whole grain
  • Designate whole grain ingredients as Whole or
    Whole Grain
  • Rolled Oats Whole Rolled Oats
  • Brown Rice Whole Brown Rice
  • Millet Whole Millet
  • Sorghum Flakes Whole Sorghum Flakes
  • Clarify ambiguous terms
  • Multigrain Doesnt guarantee whole grain
  • Bundling Whole Grain Ingredients in Legend
  • Helps consumers identify foods with whole grains
  • Helps determine compliance for programs such as
    HealthierUS School Challenge

54
Approaches to Increasing Whole Grain Intake with
Ancient Grains
  • Customize product appearance and texture
  • Grain seed coat color
  • Flour particle size, particulates, whole seeds
  • Choose grain type / mixtures to optimize flavor,
    texture and appearance
  • Use ancient grains in blends to minimize impact
    to product and manage cost
  • Embrace ancient grains with innovative and novel
    whole grain recipes and products

55
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