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PRINCIPLES OF COOKING

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Title: PRINCIPLES OF COOKING


1
PRINCIPLES OF COOKING
2
Principles of Cooking
  • Cooking can be defined as the transfer of energy
    from a heat source to a food
  • Energy alters the foods molecular structure,
    changes its texture, flavor, aroma, and
    appearance
  • When food is cooked, the process destroys
    microorganisms and makes food easier to ingest
    and digest

3
Cooking Methods
  • Broiling
  • Poaching
  • Grilling
  • Simmering
  • Roasting
  • Boiling
  • Baking
  • Steaming
  • Sautéing
  • Braising
  • Pan-frying
  • Stewing
  • Deep-frying

4
Heat Transfer
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Natural
  • Mechanical
  • Radiation
  • Infrared cooking
  • Microwave cooking

5
Heat Patterns
6
Effects of Heat
  • Proteins coagulate
  • Starches gelatinize
  • Sugars caramelize
  • Water evaporates
  • Fats melt

7
Cooking Methods
  • Dry-heat
  • Moist-heat
  • Combination

8
Dry-Heat Cooking Methods
  • Broiling
  • Grilling
  • Roasting
  • Baking
  • Sautéing
  • Stir-frying
  • Pan-frying
  • Deep-frying

9
Dry Heat Cooking Methods
  • DefinitionAny cooking method that does not use
    moisture as a cooking medium
  • Methods
  • Roasting
  • Sauteing
  • Grilling
  • Deep-frying

10
Deep Frying
11
Oils for Deep-frying
  • In the past, chefs used rendered beef suet for
    deep fat frying. Today, commercially
    manufactured shortenings specifically for
    deep-frying are recommended.
  • Most of these shortenings are vegetable based ,
    the most popular types are made from soy bean oil
    and canola oil.

12
Smoke point
  • Smoke Point - the temperature at which an oil or
    fat visibly begins to smoke and chemically begins
    to break down
  • Canola Oil - smoke point - 425 ?F
  • Many commercial fryer shortenings are fully or
    partially hydrogenated. Hydrogenation is the
    process of adding hydrogen to oil, which makes it
    solid (fully hydrogenated) or creamy (partially
    hydrogenated) and resistant to oxidation and
    chemical breakdown.

13
Enemies of Fat
  • Fat can be damaged by
  • Salt (oxidation)
  • Corrosive metals (oxidation)
  • Water (hydrolysis)
  • Heat (polymerization)
  • Burnt Food Particles

14
Maintaining Fat
  • Store in tightly sealed containers away from
    light. Cover fryer when not in use.
  • Skim food particles during frying.
  • Dont salt food over the fryer.
  • Food to be fried should be free of excess
    moisture.
  • Dont pre-heat fryer too soon before frying.
    Turn off when done frying. The longer fat is
    exposed to heat the shorter its life.
  • Dont mix fats, saturated fats break down more
    quickly.
  • ( dont fry bacon in the deep fryer)

15
Deep fryers
  • Fuel can be gas or electric
  • Fryers are classified by the amount of shortening
    they can hold.
  • Capacities range between 15 - 82
  • Temperature Range 200 - 400? F
  • Most deep- frying is done between 325 and 375?F
  • Most fryers are designed to maintain a ratio of
    8 fat to 1 food product being fried. This
    ratio is key to a quick recovery time
  • Recovery time is the length of time it takes for
    fat to return to desired cooking temperature
    after food is submerged in it.

16
Coating Methods
  • à la Francaise - dredged in flour
  • à lAnglaise Standard Breading Procedure
    Flour ? Egg Wash ? Bread Crumbs
  • à lOrly - battered (beer batter, tempura, egg
    batter) 
  • The purpose of coating or breading food to be
    deep fried is twofold
  • To keep the moisture in the product.
  • To keep the fat out of the product.

17
Frying Methods
  • Basket method - Product is placed in the basket
    and lowered into the fat in the basket.
  • Double basket method- Same as 1., but a second
    basket is placed over the the product to keep it
    from floating.
  • Swimming method- product is dropped directly into
    the fat and allowed to float freely usually done
    with with battered foods that might stick to the
    basket

18
Grilling and Broiling
19
Grilling and Broiling
  • Grill - to cook with heat from below
  • Broil - to cook with heat from above
  • Both utilize very hot - radiant heat, therefore
    only tender cuts should be used.

20
Grilling and Broiling
  • Fuels used
  • Broilers and Salamanders - Gas and Electric
  • Grills - Electric (closed)
  • - Gas with metal heat deflectors
  • - Gas with lava rock
  • - Charcoal-compressed and natural
  • - Wood-hard woods

21
Grilling Procedures
  • 1. Preheat the grill. 
  • 2. Clean the grill with a wire brush. 
  • 3. Brush item to be grilled with oil or clarified
    butter. Season product. 
  • 4. Place the item on a hot area of the grill.
    Allow grill marks to form.
  • 5. Turn the product 90 and allow cross marks to
    form.

22
Grilling Procedures
  • 6. Flip the product and finish cooking over
    moderate heat. After searing the second side
    larger or pieces to be more well done may be
    finished in the oven.
  •   
  • Some fish and other delicate products may be
    seared on only one side and then finished in the
    oven.

23
Grilling Fish
  • - The most important consideration in factor in
    grilling fish is the texture of the product to be
    grilled.
  • - Firm fleshed fish with an adequate oil content
    are best
  • Salmon Swordfish Tuna
  • Sturgeon Mahi Mahi Redfish
  • Shark Halibut Wahoo
  • Grouper Catfish

24
Grilling Fish
  • - Fish filets or steaks are most commonly grilled
  • - Smaller whole dressed fish may also be grilled
  • Mackerel Sardines Sole
  • Snapper Sea bass
  • - Shellfish and crustaceans can also be grilled
  • Lobster Shrimp Sea Scallops
  • Abalone Octopus

25
Broiling Fish
  • Any fish regardless of texture can be broiled
  •  
  • 1. Place fish filet on a buttered sizzle plate
  • 2. Season and brush with butter
  • 3. Cook under broiler until filet is flaky.
  •  
  • - Generally oilier fish hold up best in the dry
    heat of the broiling process.

26
Roasting
27
Roasting
  • Dry heat method of cooking - use tender cuts
  • - Method of heat transfer - convection
  •  

28
Roasting
  • Two Methods
  • A. Searing method - Red meats are seared first to
    seal in the juices and give color by means of
  • 1. Browning in a small amount of fat on top of
    the stove
  • 2. Starting the roast at a high temp. (450-500)
    in the oven then finished at lower temperature.
  •  
  • Advantage - meat is well caramelized - good
    appearance
  • Disadvantage - higher shrinkage - less yield

29
Roasting
  • B. Low temperature or constant heat method
  • - Meat is cooked at a moderate temperature
    throughout
  • Advantage - Better yield - less shrinkage
  • Disadvantage - Longer cooking time
    caramelization may not be as pronounced

30
Roasting
  • Determining Doneness
  • A. Touch - experience needed
  • B. Time / Weight / Temperature
  • C. Insert a metal skewer
  • 1. Temperature of skewer (vs. body
    temperature)
  • 2. Observing the color of juice that flows out
  • D. Thermometer

31
Roasting
  •  Carry-over Cooking - the cooking that occurs
    after a food has been removed from the heat
    source. It is accomplished by the residual heat
    remaining in the food.
  •  
  • In roasting, the larger the piece of meat, the
    more heat energy it holds. Therefore the larger
    the piece of meat the more carry-over cooking
    will take place. Carry-over cooking can account
    for as much as 20F.

32
Roasting
  •  Resting - after removing them from the oven,
    roasted meats should be allowed to rest 20 min.
    before carving to
  • 1. Finish carry-over cooking
  • 2. Allow meat fibers to relax. Juice will flow
    back to outer tissue from the center of the
    roast.
  • Meat carved too soon will lose its color,
    moisture and flavor and will appear to be
    overcooked.

33
Roasting
  •   Pan Gravies
  • Principle - to dissolve drippings left in
    roasting pan (fond) to make a sauce
  • A. Apply low heat to roasting pan to clarify fat.
    Meat drippings that are suspended in the fat
    will cling to the bottom of the pan.
  • B. Fat is removed from the pan or degreased
  • C. Deglaze roasting pan with stock to prepare
  • 1. Jus clair (natural juice, au jus)
  • 2. Jus lié - jus clair thickened with cornstarch
    or arrow root
  • 3. Gravy - jus clair thickened with roux
    (degreased fat from the roast is sometimes used
    to make the roux)

34
Sautéing Sauté (Fr. ) - to jump
35
Sautéing Proteins
  • The key to sautéing proteins is to sear the meat
    to create color and preserve moisture.
  • Procedure
  • Hot pan, small amount of fat (just enough to coat
    the bottom of the pan.
  • White meats are dredged in flour, dark meats are
    not.
  • Only use tender cuts of meat
  • Cooked to order, not held

36
Sautéing Proteins
  • Deglazing
  • Excess fat is removed from the pan
  • Liquid is added to the pan
  • The liquid washes the deglazed drippings
    (fonds) which are then used to make a sauce.

37
The 1 problem in sautéing is moisture.
  • If moisture is allowed to accumulate, meat will
    boil and toughen.
  • Remedies to avoid excess moisture
  • Heat pan and fat before adding meat.
  • Make sure meat is dry.
  • Dont overload the pan.
  • Once meat is added to a hot pan, do not stir or
    shake until heat is recovered.
  • If sauce is made from the deglazing, the meat may
    be added back to the pan to mix it, but do not
    return it to a boil or the meat will toughen and
    lose moisture.

38
Stir-frying
  • Always high heat
  • Use a wok or sauteuse
  • Product is always cut in small pieces
  • Used for either cooking or finishing

39
Stir-frying
  • Some products in the stir-fry may be pre-cooked
    partially or fully as the situation requires.
  • Most of the concerns that apply to sauté also
    apply to stir fry.

40
Pan-Frying
  • Larger or portion size pieces are used in pan
    frying (chops, steaks, filets etc.)
  • Use enough fat to cover the product by half.
  • Food does not jump.

41
Pan-Frying
  • Items are cooked for a longer time than sautéed
    items, in some cases they are finished in the
    oven.
  • Usually there are no drippings in the pan to make
    a sauce.

42
 Fat Considerations when Sautéing
  • The fat used in frying and sautéing plays a
    large part in determining the quality of the
    finished product.
  • Smoke pointThe temperature at which a fat
    breaks down and begins to smoke. Smoke point is
    mainly determined by the amount of free fatty
    acids in the fat.
  • As a rule, Animal fats are high in F.F.A. and
    vegetable fats are low in F.F.A.s.

43
Smoking Point of Fats Source Escoffier-Le
Guide Culinaire
  • Whole butter 250 F
  • Clarified butter 270-280 F
  • Animal fats 290 - 320F
  • Lard 400F
  • Goose Fat - 430F
  • Coconut oil - 480F
  • Vegetable oil - 520F
  • Olive oil - 550F

44
Determining Doneness for Red MeatsTerm
Appearance TemperatureBlue-Center is red and
cool Less than 140(extra rare)Rare-Center is
red and warm 140F  Medium rare-Center is
red-pink hot 150F  Medium-Center is pink
hot 155-160 F  Medium well-Center is slightly
pink 165 F Well done- Center is brown 170 F
45
Determining Doneness for Red Meats
  • When cooking red meats using dry heat cooking
    methods, they should never be poked or broken to
    check doneness. This will cause a considerable
    amount of color and moisture to be lost.
  • With practice, touch is used to determine
    doneness of protein. The firmer the protein is
    to the touch, the more well done it is.

46
Moist Heat Methods of Cooking
  • Poaching
  • Simmering
  • Boiling/Blanching
  • Steaming

47
Moist Heat Methods of Cooking
  • Used for a wide range of products (vegetables,
    meats, eggs, fish)
  • Used to both tenderize tough pieces of meat and
    gently cook delicate fish and vegetables.

48
Poaching 160 - 185F (71 -82C)
  • to gently cook in a flavored liquid
  • relatively low temperature applied to tender or
    delicate products
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Young Poultry

49
Poaching
  • Shallow poaching - small pieces of meat fish or
    poultry cooked in very little liquid. The
    poaching liquid is usually used to make a sauce
    for the finished product.
  • Deep poaching - for large pieces, liquid to
    cover. A court bouillon is commonly used for
    deep poaching.
  • Court Bouillon Water Acid (to coagulate
    proteins) Aromats

50
Simmering 185 - 205F (85 -96C)
  • Often mistakenly called boiling
  • As water is a much better conductor of heat than
    air, moist heat cooking is generally applied to
    tougher cuts of meat. Moist heat is very
    effective in breaking down connective tissue
  • Used for meats that require wet methods
  • Broth is sometimes used for soups or sauces
    Examples Pot au Feu or Chicken Dumplings

51
Boiling / Blanching - 212F (100C)
  • Cooking quickly in rapidly boiling liquid for the
    purpose of
  • Par-cooking (vegetables)
  • Removing impurities (offal meats and bones)
  • Removing bitterness from vegetables (greens and
    cabbage)

52
Steaming above 212F (100 C)
  • The act of using steam, not water vapor, as a
    heat transfer agent.
  • Three types
  • High pressure
  • Low pressure
  • No Pressure
  • Adding pressure accelerates the cooking process

53
Steaming
  • Due to the fact that high heat toughens proteins,
    this method is rarely used with meats.
  • Steam is best for
  • Shellfish
  • Starches (rice and potatoes)
  • Vegetables (except fresh green)
  • Certain reheating operations

54
Steaming
  • High pressure usually 10 15
  • Good for cooking vegetables fast esp. frozen
  • Good for fast cooking of meats that require wet
    methods
  • Low pressure usually about 5
  • For every 1 of pressure you gain about 3F
  • No Pressure steaming does not work well for green
    vegetables.

55
Combination Cooking Methods
  • Stewing
  • Braising

56
Marinades
  • Two types of marinades
  • Oil based - used for tender cuts and dry cooking
    methods.
  • Acid based - used for tough cuts. Acid helps to
    break down collagen.
  • Vacuum tumbling marinading - meat products and
    marinade ingredients are tumbled in a vacuum
    drum. Absence of air means greater penetration
    of the marinade and less time marinating.

57
Ideal Items to be Braised
  • Typically tough pieces of meat that require long,
    slow cooking.
  • Collagen-rich meats contribute gelatin.
  • Examples shoulder, leg, breast, and shank cuts.

58
Larding
  • To insert strips of fat into a piece of meat with
    a special needle. These strips of fat, called
    lardons, are usually salt pork, slab bacon,
    pancetta or fat back. The lardons may be
    marinated before larding and are inserted with
    the grain of the meat.

59
Combination Cooking
  • Braising and some stewing of meats are considered
    combination cooking methods because they employ
    both dry and moist heat
  • Dry heat to sear the meat (sealing in the juices)
  • The addition of liquid to continue the cooking
    process (simmering) and break down connective
    tissue.

60
Braising
  • Braising can be done with
  • large pieces (Pot Roast
  • portion size pieces (Swiss Steak)
  • small pieces (stews)

61
Procedure for Braising
  • Meat must be seared by browning it at high heat
    in a small amount of fat.
  • After searing mirepoix is added and placed on the
    bottom of the pan
  • meat is placed on top.
  • Red meats - mirepoix is browned
  • White meat - mirepoix is sweated

62
Procedure for Braising
  • Tomato product is added (red meats only) Usually
    meat is seared in the pan it is to be braised in,
    if not the pan should be deglazed.
  • Liquid is added - stock, wine, marinade, beer,
    light sauce , or water. The amount of liquid
    added is in direct relation to the amount of
    sauce needed for the finished product.
    Recommended ratio is to cover the meat by 1/3 to
    2/3.

63
Procedure for Braising
  • Herbs and spices are added.
  • Pan is brought to a simmer. A lid is placed on
    it and it is placed in the oven.
  • Meat should be turned or basted occasionally
    during the braising process to produce a nice
    glaze.
  • Test for doneness fork tender insert a meat
    fork, if it pulls off easily the meat is done.

64
Procedure for Braising
  • After the meat is done, a sauce can be made from
    the degreased cooking liquid (cuisson).
  • - Served as is
  • - Reduced to thicken and/or intensify flavor
  • -Thickened with corn starch or with roux to
    make a sauce (jus lié)
  •  

65
White Braising
  • Different from standard braising in that the
    items are either lightly colored (seared) or not
    colored at all.
  • Done with some poultry items and occasionally
    with large pieces of fish.

66
Stewing
  • Stew - a liquid food containing meat, poultry,
    fish or vegetables or any combination.
  • Stewing is a moist cooking method carried out
    with smaller cuts of meat by
  • - Braising
  • - Simmering

67
Stewing
  • Stews can be divided into two classifications
  • Brown stews (red meats)
  • White stews (white meats)
  • Blanquettes
  • Fricassees

68
Stews
  • Ragout - a general term referring to white or
    brown stews.
  • Fricassee - a white ragout usually made from
    white meat or small game, seared without browning
    and garnished with small onions and mushrooms.
  • Chili (con carne) - a ragout of diced or ground
    meat, cooked with chilies, onions and spices.
    Served with beans in the stew or on the side.

69
Stews
  • Navarin - a brown ragout generally made with
    lamb, turnips, peas, onions and other root
    vegetables
  • Blanquette - a white stew in which the meat is
    first blanched, then added to a stock or sauce to
    complete cooking. Blanquettes are finished with
    an egg and cream liaison.
  • Goulash/paprikash - a Hungarian stew made with
    red meat, onions and paprika.

70
Principles of Vegetable Cookery
  • Why are vegetables cooked?
  • To break down cellular structure or make them
    more digestible
  • To make them more palatable

71
Cellulose
  • Microscopic fibrils of cellulose form the cell
    walls of plants and make plant tissue rigid.
    They are invulnerable to human digestive enzymes.
    The amount of cellulose in vegetables helps
    determine the cooking time and method.
  • For example spinach cooks much faster than
    carrots.

72
Chemistry of Cooking Vegetables
  • Colors change by cooking method and chemical
    reactions. Since most vegetables are cooked in
    water, the condition of the water or pH
    (Acidity / Alkalinity) is responsible for these
    changes.
  • Alkali medium for cooking vegetables should be
    salted water. Stronger alkali such as baking
    soda break down the vegetables texture too
    quickly. Never use ammonia.
  • Acid media include water with the addition of
    lemon juice, vinegar, wine, or milk

73
Chemistry of Cooking Vegetables
  • Covered or Uncovered ?
  • Vegetables are naturally acidic and their acids
    are released during cooking.
  • These volatile acids evaporate in the steam of
    the boiling water. Therefore, if an acid medium
    is required cook covered. If an alkali medium is
    required, cook uncovered.

74
Cooking Vegetables by Color
Green Vegetables
  • Green vegetables get their pigment from
    chlorophyll. Acid and heat will destroy
    chlorophyll rapidly, making it yellow or brown.
    They should be cooked in large amounts of salted
    water uncovered, as quickly as possible .

75
Cooking Vegetables by Color
White Vegetables
  • White vegetables get their pigment from flavones
    that are water soluble. When cooked in highly
    alkaline water they turn yellow. To prevent this
    add acid and cook covered.

76
Cooking Vegetables by Color
Red Vegetables
  • Red vegetables owe their pigment to anthocyanins.
    Red color is enhanced with the addition of an
    acid. If cooked in a highly alkali medium they
    can turn blue!
  •  

77
Cooking Vegetables by Color
Orange / Yellow Vegetables
  • Orange / Yellow vegetables get their color from
    carotenes. The condition of the water has little
    effect on these pigments which are not water
    soluble, but can be released by sweating or
    sauteeing.

78
Procedure for Blanching Vegetables
  • Wash, peel, trim and cut the vegetables into
    uniform shapes and sizes.
  • Bring an adequate amount of liquid to a boil.
    The liquid should cover the vegetables and they
    should be able to move freely.
  • Add vegetables to the boiling liquid. Vegetables
    with different cooking times or colors should be
    cooked separately.

79
Procedure for Blanching Vegetables
  • Cook vegetables to desired doneness.
  • Drain vegetables from boiling water.
  • Refresh or shock vegetables in ice water to stop
    the cooking process. Drain and reserve until
    needed.

80
Finishing Vegetables
  • Blanched vegetables may be finished (notenot all
    vegetables need be blanched)
  • Sautéed in butter
  • In a sauce
  • Au gratin
  • Mashed or pureed
  • Served cold
  • Deep fried

81
 Other Methods of Cooking Vegetables
  • Braising
  • Glazing
  • Steaming
  • Stewing
  • Sautéing / Stir-frying
  • Pan Frying / Deep Frying
  • Baking / Roasting
  • Grilling / Broiling

82
Determining Doneness
  • Avoid over cooking vegetables. The term al
    dente or firm to the bite is often used to
    describe proper doneness. Generally vegetables
    are done when they are tender when pierced with a
    fork or the tip of a paring knife. Properly
    cooked vegetables are not crunchy.

83
Preserving Nutrients in Vegetables
  • Use vegetables that are as fresh as possible.
  • Store in a cool place with minimum exposure to
    light.
  • Wash vegetables whole, before cutting, as near to
    cooking time as possible.

84
Preserving Nutrients in Vegetables
  • Peel and cut as near to cooking time as possible.
    Some nutrients are destroyed by oxygen and light.
  • Cook as quickly as possible.
  • Drain vegetables when cooked. Avoid storing them
    in liquid. Water soluble B and C vitamins are
    especially vulnerable.
  • Serve as soon as possible

85
Starches and Grains
86
PotatoesOrigins
  • Potatoes are native to the Andes Mountains of
    Peru. They were first brought to Spain in the
    early 1500s. Its use spread throughout Europe,
    but wasnt a common food source in Europe until
    the 1700s.
  •  

87
PotatoesOrigins
  • Antoine Parmentier (1737-1817)
  • wrote numerous works proving the potato was a
    safe and nutritious food source to the French who
    scorned it before his time. Therefore, the
    classic name for an item garnished with potatoes
    is Parmentier.

88
PotatoesComposition
  • 80 Water
  • 18 Starch Sugar (Carbohydrates)
  • 2 Protein 

89
PotatoesCategories
  • Mealy (starchy ) - high starch content and thick
    skin. Best for baking and often referred to as
    bakers. Low sugar content makes them good
    for deep frying, giving a crisp texture and even
    color.
  • Waxy - low starch content, usually with more
    sugar and a thin skin. Best for boiling. They
    do not become fluffy when baked, and tend to
    become streaky (caramelized sugar ) when deep
    fried.

90
PotatoesCategories
  • Mealy
  • Russet
  • Idaho
  • White rose
  • Burbank
  • Waxy
  • Cobbler
  • Red
  • Maine
  • Yellow Fin

91
PotatoesCooking Methods
  • Boiling
  • in the skin - jacket potatoes
  • peeled
  • in stock or bouillon - pommes fondant
  • Pureed
  • boiled first, drain completely, puree while still
    hot
  • Mashed or whipped - addition of milk, cream or
    butter
  • Duchess (doo SHEHS) - add yolks and pipe

92
PotatoesCooking Methods
  • Deep fried
  • From a pureed appariel (ah pahr AY)
  • Croquette (kroh KEHT)-shaped, breaded ,
    deep-fried
  • Dauphine (doe FEEN)-appariel with pate au choux
  • Lorette (lohr EHT)- dauphine with grated cheese)
  • From raw
  • Pommes frits (pohm FREET) - French fries
  • Pont neuf (pohnt NOOF) - Steak fries
  • Pomme paille (pohm PIE) - Shoe string
  • Cottage fries -rondelle cut

93
PotatoesCooking Methods
  • Pan - fried
  • Hash browns cooked or raw, chopped or shredded
  • Home fried -par-cooked rondelles
  • Lyonnaise -home fried with onions
  • Potato pancakes (shredded raw)
  • Rissolé --- tournéed, various sizes
  • Parisienne
  • Château
  • Cocotte

94
RiceCategories
  • Categorized by seed size
  • long grain
  • medium grain
  • short grain

95
RiceCategories
  • Categorized by processing
  • Brown rice
  • Bran intact
  • White rice
  • endosperm pearled or polished
  • Converted rice
  • par-boiled to remove surface starch (most
    popular in foodservice)
  • Instant
  • fully cooked and freeze dried
  • Categorized by seed size
  • long grain
  • 6 mm. long
  • medium grain
  • 5-6 mm. long
  • short grain
  • 2.5 mm. long

96
Rice Varieties
  • Arborio - medium grain starchy rice for risotto
  • Basmati - rich flavorful long grain rice used in
    East Indian Cuisine
  • Pecan rice - nutty flavored rice from South
    Louisiana
  • Wild rice - Actually an aquatic grass originally
    harvest by Native Americans in Minnesota and
    Wisconsin

97
Grains
  • Corn
  • Cornmeal, hominy, grits, masa harina
  • Wheat
  • Wheat berries, bulgar, semolina, cous cous
  • Barley
  • Buckwheat / Kasha / Groats
  • Oats
  • Exotic Grains
  • Quinoa
  • Millet
  • Amaranth
  • Kamut

98
Cooking Rice Grains
  • SIMMERING METHOD
  • (3 parts liquid to 1 part rice by volume)
  • Bring liquid to a boil.
  • Stir in grains and seasoning.
  • Return to a boil. reduce to a simmer and cover.
  • Simmer until grains are tender and liquid is
    absorbed.
  • Remove from heat
  • Drain if necessary. Keep covered and allow excess
    liquid to absorb. Fluff.

99
Cooking Rice Grains
  • II. PILAF METHOD
  • (2 parts liquid to 1 part rice by volume) 
  • Heat fat in sauce pan, sweat aromats (onion,
    garlic, mirepoix etc.)
  • Add rice and stir to coat grains with fat.
  • Add liquid (usually seasoned stock).
  • Bring to a simmer.
  • Cover and place in oven (350 for 20 30 min.).
  • When liquid is absorbed and grains are tender,
    uncover and fluff.

100
Cooking Rice Grains
  • III. RISOTTO METHOD
  • ( 3 parts liquid or more to 1 part rice by
    volume)
  • Bring cooking liquid to a simmer.
  • Heat fat in sauce pan, sweat aromats (onion,
    garlic, other ingredients).
  • Add rice and stir to coat grains with fat.
  • Add a small amount of hot liquid , stirring
    continually until absorbed.
  • Repeat step 4 until all liquid is absorbed and
    grains are tender.
  • Finish with whole butter and parmesan cheese.

101
Cooking Pasta
  • PROPER RATIO
  • 1 gal. rapidly boiling water to 1 pasta
  • DRY PASTA
  • Requires a longer cooking time as cooking is also
    rehydration.
  • 1 dried pasta 2-3 cooked
  • 2 oz. dry pasta is an average entree portion
  • FRESH PASTA
  • Delicate, requires a very short cooking time no
    re-hydration required

102
Cooking Pasta
  • Bring salted water to a boil (1 gallon per 1
    pasta)
  •  Add pasta and stir to separate pieces
  •  Cook pasta uncovered at a rolling boil until al
    dente
  •  Drain pasta immediately and serve at once or
    shock in ice water to stop the cooking.
  • To hold cooked pasta, toss with oil.
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