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Early River Civilizations 3500 BC to 450 BC

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Early River Civilizations 3500 BC to 450 BC Review Rise of Civilizations 5000 BC Neolithic Revolution & 3000 BC Bronze Age Mesopotamia = City States – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early River Civilizations 3500 BC to 450 BC


1
Early River Civilizations 3500 BC to 450 BC
  • Review Rise of Civilizations
  • 5000 BC Neolithic Revolution 3000 BC Bronze
    Age
  • Mesopotamia City States
  • Egypt Upper Lower Egypt
  • Indus Planned Cities
  • China Dynasties

2
Learn
  • Role of geography
  • Earliest civilizations
  • Main characteristics for each
  • Dynasties Empires (and leaders)
  • Hammurabis Code other laws
  • Science Technology
  • Religion

3
Africa Asia
Did you know?
  • The earliest civilizations formed along the river
    valleys of the Fertile Crescent, Egypt, India,
    and China. Each of these societies had to
    overcome environmental challenges in order to
    create a stable social organization.
  • These people experimented with new government
    institutions, from city-states and kingdoms to
    early empires. They also developed breakthroughs
    in science and technology. They spread their
    ideas and innovations to distant lands through
    trade.

4
Early River Valley Civilizations
Environment
  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or
    buildings

Meso-potamia
  • Flooding of the Nile predictable Gift of the
    Nile
  • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypts
    villages
  • Deserts were natural barriers.

Egypt
Indus Valley
  • Indus flooding unpredictable
  • Monsoon winds. Rains ½ the year. Drought ½ the
    year.
  • Himalaya mountains deserts were natural barriers
  • Huang He flooding unpredictable River of
    Sorrows.
  • Yangtze River flooding unpredictable.
  • Mountains, deserts natural barriers
  • Geographically isolated from other ancient
    civilizations

China
5
Early River Valley Civilizations
Power Authority
  • Independent city-states, often warring
  • City-states governed first by priests, then by
    generals who became kings
  • City-states eventually united to first empires by
    conquerors

Meso-potamia
  • Kingdom with strong government organization
  • Theocracy, with pharaohs ruling as gods
  • Flexible social system talent rewarded with
    advancement

Egypt
Indus Valley
  • Strong centralized government
  • Planned cities
  • Social divisions not significant.
  • Community and family more important than
    individual
  • Sharp divisions between nobles and peasants
  • Inflexible social system. Once a peasant

China
6
Early River Valley Civilizations
Science Technology
  • Irrigation
  • Cuneiform
  • Bronze
  • Wheel, sail, plow

Meso-potamia
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Pyramids Tombs not used on everyday basis
  • Mathematics, geometry, astronomy
  • Medicine

Egypt
  • Writing (not yet deciphered)
  • Cities built on precise grid
  • Plumbing and sewage systems

Indus Valley
  • Writing
  • Silk
  • Coined money
  • Cast iron

China
7
Early River Valley Civilizations
Legacies/Additional info
  • Ziggurat-temples/city centers used every day
  • Epic of Gilgamesh oldest novel
  • Hammurabis Code first legal system set down in
    stone.
  • Home to many civilizations over time.

Meso-potamia
  • Egyptians polytheistic/immortality/life after
    death.
  • Civilization survived for longest period of time
  • Knowledge of hieroglyphics died out for
    centuries.
  • Not sure how pyramids/etc. built.

Egypt
  • Writing (not yet deciphered)
  • Cities built on precise grid. Plumbing and sewage
    systems
  • Trade with Mesopotamia, accurate weights
    measures

Indus Valley
  • Long distance trade w/Rome drained Romes wealth.
  • Great Wall may have pushed Huns into Europe.
  • Emperors trying to isolate China ended up
    weakening it.
  • Emperors sought immortality. Terra-cotta army.

China
8
Ancient Middle East
  • Babylonians Hammurabis Code, astrology,
    polytheism
  • Hittites Iron tools, Chariots, less severe laws
  • Hebrews Judaism, monotheism, 10 commandments
  • Phoenicians sailors, traders, the alphabet
  • Assyrians effective government, library at
    Nineveh
  • Chaldeans Hanging Gardens, astronomy
  • Persians better government, roads, cultural
    diffusion, Zoroaster

9
Sum It All Up
  • Due to Agricultural/Neolithic Revolution man
    transitioned from Hunting-Gathering to settled
    agricultural societies.
  • The most logical places for these civilizations
    to arise is along rivers which provided water for
    crops, mud for building materials and
    transportation.

10
Sum It All Up
  • Four civilizations arose around 6 rivers.
  • The geographic circumstances of the rivers and
    surrounding lands played a huge part in shaping
    the cultures that lived in/on them.

11
Sum It All Up
  • Lack of natural barriers (Mesopotamia) allows for
    constant invasions but easier trade of goods and
    ideas.
  • Formidable natural barriers (India, China, Egypt)
    kept civilizations safe, but isolated, possibly
    vulnerable.
  • Friendly geographic conditions (Egypt) help
    civilization survive for centuries.
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