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Philippines

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Philippines Government/History 354 Campbell University Location of Philippines Introduction 7,107 Islands; 1000 populated. 100 local languages, 9 major. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Philippines


1
Philippines
  • Government/History 354
  • Campbell University

2
Location of Philippines
3
Introduction
  • 7,107 Islands 1000 populated.
  • 100 local languages, 9 major.
  • Little early history recorded.
  • Spanish colony 1571-1898.
  • U.S. colony 1898-1946.
  • Japanese occupation 1942-45
  • Muslim Christian conflict.
  • Spratly Island Oil

4
Early Settlement
  • Migration
  • Negritos
  • Malays
  • Barangay
  • Datu
  • Spanish Discovery.
  • 1521 Ferdinand Magellan Cebu Island.
  • Lapulapu vs. Humabon

5
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • 1565 - Permanent settlement at Cebu. Seized
    Manila in 1570. Already an established port.
  • Introduced private ownership of land.
  • Datu renamed cabeza de barangay and became tax
    collectors and owner of commonly held land.
  • Principalia composed of key families, usually
    landholders, called caciques.
  • Gobernadorcillo governed a pueblo of 500 tax
    payers.

6
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • The Friars
  • By 1594, there were 267 missionary priests.
  • Spain sought to avoid exploitation and establish
    a real Christian paradise.
  • Friars exercised considerable influence at local
    level.
  • Power of the Catholic Church and religion.
  • Only they spoke both Spanish and the local
    languages.
  • Large tracts of untaxed, virgin land given to
    support missions.
  • Inquilinos Functioned as a contractor to clear
    and improve land. Given concessions of tenancy
    rights and free rent.
  • Kasama Functioned as share croppers at 50 of
    yield.

7
Structure of Spanish Rule
  • Governor-General appointed by Madrid, but
    administered as part of Mexico through Acapulco.
  • Annual Manila Galleon began in 1573.
  • Manila hub of the Spanish China-trade. Chinese
    goods to Mexico Peruvian Silver back. 50
    profit. A Spanish crown monopoly intentionally
    limited to once a year. The church invested
    heavily.

8
Ethnic-Social Groups
  • Indios
  • Lowlanders (tao).
  • Uplanders
  • Chinese.
  • Mestizos
  • Chinese
  • Spanish
  • Filipinos
  • Ilustrados

9
Ilustrado
  • Development.
  • College of St. Thomas founded in 1611.
  • Occupation of Manila by Britain in 1762.
  • Opportunities for foreign education.
  • Expression.
  • The Propaganda Movement in Spain.
  • Mutiny at Cavite arsenal in1872.
  • Jose Rizal, Noli Me Tangere (1887).

10
Questions
  • Which country controlled the Philippines the
    longest, Spain, the U.S.A.or Japan?
  • When was the first Spanish settlement
    established? Where?
  • What was a small native community called?
  • The Filipinos had little concept of private
    property (True/False)
  • The Philippines were administered by the Spanish
    as part of what country?
  • What is a Mestizo?
  • Inquilinos functioned as _______ to _____ ______
    ____.
  • To qualify as an illustrado, normally a person
    would require a European ________.

11
Katipunan
  • Katipunan founded by Andres Bonifacio.
  • Manila uprising of 1896.
  • Jose Rizal executed.
  • In 1897, Emilio Aguinaldo leads revolutionary
    forces to victory against the Spanish at Cavite.
  • Spanish negotiate.
  • Aguinaldo accepts amnesty 800,000 pesos. Goes
    to Hong Kong.

Jose Rizal
12
Spanish - American War (1898)
  • A convergence of events.
  • (May 1) U.S. Asiatic Fleet under command of
    Admiral George Dewey destroys Spanish fleet in
    Manila Bay and lays siege to the city.
  • (May) Aguinaldo and arms brought back to
    Philippines and landed at Cavite. He recruits an
    army proclaims a revolutionary government.
  • Dewey negotiates surrender of Manila and transfer
    of colony to U.S. for 20 million.
  • (July) 11,000 U.S. troops arrive.
  • (August) M.G. Arthur McArthur lands at Cavite,
    occupies Manila and declares all under U.S.
    protection.

13
Philippine War (1899-1902)
  • Revolution becomes insurrection.
  • 1898 (June) - Aguinaldo declares independence.
  • 1899 (February) Aguinaldo attacks Manila.
  • 1901-02 US. force levels reach 150,000
    goddamns reconcentrado tactics applied.
  • 1901 Aguinaldo captured insurgency continues
    at reduced levels until 1913.
  • Total Filipino deaths may have reached 600,000,
    one-seventh of population.

14
Why
  • Reasons for U.S. acquisition of Philippines.
  • New Imperialism composed of Manifest Destiny
    (John Fiske), White Mans Burden (R. Kiplin)
    sea power (A.T. Mahan).
  • Fear that China would be partitioned.(John Hay
    Open Door Policy)
  • Desirability as an advanced base and entrepot.
  • Belief that Germany would take it, if U.S.
    didnt.
  • (German naval squadron arrived at Manila Bay
  • o/a June 12, 1898 with that intent.)

15
American Tutelage
  • 1901- W. H. Taft as head of a 5 person commission
    becomes the first civil governor. Replaces
    McArthur.
  • 1902 The Organic Act. Basic rights protected.
  • 1907 First Philippine Assembly.
  • 1913 - Francis B. Harrison appointed
    governor-general by Pres. Wilson.
  • 1916 Jones Act. Goal to prepare for full
    autonomy.
  • Constitution structure comparable to U.S.
  • Filipinization of government plus reduced
    presence of U.S bureaucrats and teachers.
  • 1921- Period of retrenchment under Gov-Gen
    Leonard Wood Gov-Gen Cameron Forbes.

16
American Tutelage
  • 1934 Philippinese becomes a commonwealth under
    Tydings-McDuffie Act.
  • 1934 - Manuel Quezon elected first president
    Sergio Osmena first vice-president.
  • 1935 Commonwealth constitution drafted.
  • 1936 Douglas McArthur appointed a Philippine
    field marshal.

17
Questions
  • Who founded Katipunan?
  • Who wrote Noli Me Tangere?
  • Who was the first president of the Philippines?
  • Who was the first president and vice president of
    the Philippine Commonwealth?
  • Who commanded the U.S. Asiatic Fleet in 1898?
  • Why did the U.S. decide to take the Philippines?
  • Which McArthur retired as a Philippine field
    marshal?

18
World War II
  • Japanese commercial interest in Philippines
    expand during 1930s. Part of the Greater East
    Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.
  • December 8 9, 1941, Japanese destroy U.S.
    forces at Clark A.B. and Cavite. Two days later,
    they land at Lingayen.
  • 1942 - Gen MacArthur (plus Quezon Osmena) flee
    to Australia. Gen. Wainwright left to fight to
    the end on Bataan.
  • The Hukbalahap is formed under Luis Taruc.
    Largest guerrilla movement in Southeast Asia.

19
The Philippine Republic
  • 1943 Japanese establish Philippine Republic
    under Jose Laurel.
  • 1944 MacArthur returns.
  • July 4, 1946 U.S. grants the Philippines full
    independence with Manuel Roxas as president.

20
Colonial Score Card
  • Trade.
  • Treaty with Spain precluded preferential tariffs
    for U.S. for ten years, i.e., until 1909.
  • Goods from Spain, British, Sweden Germany
    subject to stiff tariffs after 1909.
  • Avoided evils of huge plantations, imported alien
    labor and opium concessions.
  • Investment limited to sugarcane, tobacco hemp
    plantations due to fear of early independence.
  • British controlled strong positions in shipping
    and rail.
  • U.S. only constructed 866 miles of track little
    else..

21
Colonial Score Card
  • Social welfare efforts outstanding.
  • Established 1,000 dispensaries and 40 hospitals.
  • Life expectancy rose from 14 to 40 years.
  • Established universal free education at primary
    level. Imported 600 U.S. teachers trained
    native teachers
  • Literacy rate reached 50 (/-) by 1940.
  • Instruction in English facilitated communication
    between linguistic groups.

22
Post WW II (1946-53)
  • Major problems following WW II rebuilding the
    economy, Philippine - U.S. relations the Huks.
  • U.S. aid tied to economic concessions and
    military installations, e.g., Clark AB (Angeles)
    and Subic Bay (Olongapo).
  • Huk discontent was feeding into the spread of
    indigenous Communism.

23
The Magsaysay Revolution
  • Ramon Magsaysay, 7th president.(1953-57)
  • Born in a bamboo hut.
  • WW II guerrilla leader.
  • As Sec. of Def.,
  • Military became involved in relief work (dual
    function).
  • Arrested Commust politburo en masse..
  • Military guaranteed 1951 elections
  • Wore a Barong Tagalog when sworn in as president.

24
The Magsaysay Revolution
  • As president
  • Blunted the Huk rebellion.
  • Settled landless in Mindanao.
  • Alleviated land pressure on Luzon.
  • Altered the Muslim-Christian balance.
  • Supported SEATO.
  • Died in a plane crash in 1957.
  • In 1963, Ferdinand Marcos appeared to fill the
    political void.

25
Questions
  • On which island is Lingayen?
  • Where did the Hukbalahap operate?
  • Who was president of the Philippine Republic?
  • The U.S. made a huge investment in the Philippine
    infrastructure? (True/False)
  • One source of discontent in U.S. Philippine
    relations was the connection between foreign aid
    and ________.
  • How did Raymond Magsaysay attempt to reduce the
    pressure for land on Luzon?

26
The Marcos Era
  • Ferdinand Marcos, 10th President (1965-86).
  • Born in Ilocos Norte.
  • Chinese Japanese ancestry.
  • Father a lawyer assemblyman.
  • Acquitted of murder.
  • Scored 100 on Bar.
  • WW II hero. (Questioned).
  • Served 3 terms in house 2 in Senate.
  • Married Imelda Romualdez

27
The Marcos Era
  • Early economic success
  • Unemployment dropped from 7.2 to 5.2 in 1971.
  • Developed infrastructure.
  • Intensified tax collection.
  • Liberalized trade.
  • Hastened industrialization.
  • Land reform green revolution.
  • Launched military campaign against Communist New
    Peoples Army and Moros.
  • GNP rose from P55 billion to
  • P193 billion in 1980.

28
Marcos New Society
  • Elected to second term in 1969.
  • Proclaimed martial law in 1972 after NPA bombings
    in Manila. By 1985, 20, 000 insurgents, growing
    at rate of 23 with Chinese arms.
  • Graf and corruption between 684 million and 10
    billion, conjugal dictatorship, crony capitalism,
    quintessential kleptocrat, notorious nepotist.
  • Ex 2.3 billion for Battaan Nuclear Power Plant.
  • Unemployment boomed to 12.55 in 1985.
  • Assassination of Benigno Aquino in 1983.

29
Marcos Challenged
  • As Marcos only viable rival, Benigno Aquino was
    imprisoned for 7 years and then exiled for 3 more
    in the U.S.
  • Aquino saw a chance to return from exile. Marcos
    was dying of cancer, the economy had collapsed,
    inflation was rampant. Imelda warned of danger.
  • On August 21, 1983 in front of the whole world,
    Aquino was shot in the back of the head as he
    exited his aircraft. He fell dead on the tarmac
    at the bottom of the steps. The murder sparked
    the EDSA Revolution.

30
The EDSA Revolution
  • Benigno Aquinos burial was a period of national
    mourning. Corazon became the heroin.
  • October 1983 inquiry results in Fabian Ver 25
    others being cleared.
  • Corazon becomes candidate for president in 1985
    snap election backed by Jaime Cardinal Sin.
  • Symbols yellow dress L for Laban hand sign.

31
The EDSA Revolution
  • Both Marcos and Aquino claimed victory in a
    blatantly fraudulent election. Both took the oath
    of office as president on the same day.
  • On Feb 22, 86, Juan Ponce Enrile (Min. of Def.)
    General Fidel Ramos (Vice Chief) lead a
    military coup by R.A.M. supporting Aqjuino. They
    take control of Camps Aguinaldo and Crane.
  • Jaime Cardinal Sin broadcasts appeal over Radio
    Veritas for the faithful to gather on the
    Epifanio de los Santas Ave. to protect Enrile and
    Ramos from Fabian Vers troops. Tens of thousands
    respond some laying down in front of the tanks
    sent to crush the uprising.

32
Aquinos Administration
  • Corizon Aquino inaugurated president on Feb 25,
    1986. President Reagan provided refuge for the
    Marcoses, Ver and supporters in Hawaii.
  • Immediate tasks Aquino proclaimed Freedom
    Constitution, abolished Marcos legislature
    judges, created a constitutional commission
    replaced thousands of political appointees.
  • Next Aquino sought to deal with the insurgency
    but found that the greatest threat was from
    military coups attempts.

33
Coup Attempts
  • The Aquino administration survived 7 coup
    attempts. The more notable ones were
  • July 6, 1986 Arturo Tolentino, a 1986 Vice Pres
    candidate, seized the Manila Hotel and declared
    himself president. He was backed by several
    hundred troops, but folded in 3 days.
  • January 24, 1987 Colonel Oscar Canlas seized a
    TV station. Led to a 3 day standoff involving 6
    officers and 136 soldiers.
  • August 28, 1987 Colonel Gregorio Honasan
    attacked the presidential residence Manila air
    base. He had several hundred soldiers under his
    command. Fifty-

34
  • three persons were killed and hundreds wounded
    including Aquinos son.
  • - December 1, 1989 Greorio Hanosan and RAM
    struck again. Three thousand rebel troops
    including the Scout Rangers seized military
    headquarters, 2 TV stations the commercial
    airport. Launched air attacks against the
    presidential palace from Villamore AB. The U.S.
    provided combat patrols to keep the Filipino
    aircraft on the ground. The rebels then seized
    parts of Makati City trapping thousands of
    foreigners.

35
Aquinos Score Card
  • Restructured the massive debt left by Marcos.
    Became the beneficiary of a 1.3 IMF bailout and
    a 10 Billion mini-Marshall Plan.
  • Successfully encouraged foreign investment until
    the 1989 coup attempt.
  • Failed to produce an adequate land reform program
    or cope with the worst poverty in S.E.Asia.
  • Failed to renew the agreement for U.S military
    bases in the Philippines. The eruption of Mt.
    Pinatubo in 1991 closed Clark. The Philippine
    Senate would not ratify the Subic Bay agreement.
    The U.S. withdrew Naval assets to Singapore.

36
Aquinos Score Card
  • Valiantly struggled to negotiate an end to Moro
    insurgency. Achieved a cease-fire with Mur
    Misuari (who was in Libya).
  • Established people power as a real force.
  • Restored democracy, honest and fair judiciary,
    freedom of speech and democratic succession.
  • The 1992 election involved 82,450 candidates and
    17,205 posts.
  • 26 million voted in peaceful honest elections.

37
Questions
  • Which statement is false about Ferdinand Marcos?
  • He was a mestizo.
  • He was accused of cheating on the bar exam.
  • He assassinated Benigno Aquino.
  • He was convicted of murder.
  • He achieved great economic success during his
    first term as president.

38
More Questions
  • During the EDSA Revolution, what highly placed
    religious figure appealed to the people over
    Radio Veritas to support Corazon Aquino? What
    song did the people sing when the siege was over?
  • What individual and organization was responsible
    for at least two coup attempts against Corazon
    Aquino?
  • The Philippine senate refused to ratify the
    agreement for the U.S. to continue to use Clark
    A.B. because it had been used to intervene in
    internal Philippine politics? (True/False)
  • What was the greatest accomplishment of the
    Aquino administration?

39
Fidel Ramos Presidency
  • Twelfth President (1992-98)
  • Father was a served as Minister of Foreign
    Affairs.
  • Graduate of West Point.
  • Served in Korea Vietnam.
  • First Protestant to be elected as president.

40
Ramos Administration
  • Achieved peace agreement with Mur Misuari of the
    Moro National Liberation Front MNLF) in 1996. The
    agreement specifies a Special Zone for Peace and
    Development
  • Reformed tax collection. Between 1.2 and 2.5
    billion uncollected annually.
  • Reformed banking by reducing power of domestic
    cartels and interest rates. (6 spread vs. Asian
    average of 2.)
  • Deregulated telecommunications and metro water
    sewer.
  • Through private investment, replaced the Bataan
    nuclear plant so that Manilla has adequate
    electrical power.
  • Left office after one six-year term, although
    tempted to do otherwise.

41
Current Administration
  • Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo, 14th president.
  • Father was 9th president, Diosdado Macapagal.
  • Initially elected first woman V.P. in 1998.
  • Sworn as president in 2001 following EDSA II
    removal of Joseph Estrada. Elected in own right
    in 2004.
  • Survived Oakwood Mutiny in 2003 and an attempted
    coup in 2006 by declaring a state of emergency.

42
Questions
  • From what U.S. school did Fidel Ramos graduate?
  • What were the accomplishments of Ramos
    administration?
  • Which president did Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
    succeed? Against whom did she run in 2004.
  • What qualifications did Arroyo have to be
    president?
  • What was EDSA II?
  • What led to the declaration of a state of
    emergency in 2006.

43
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Constitutions. The 1987 Aquino Constitution is
    the most democratic in S.E.Asia.
  • Political Parties.
  • The traditional parties were the Liberal
    Nacionalista (1946-72).
  • Marcos established one party dominance under the
    KBL (New Society movement).
  • Aquinos party was Labam (Fight), founded by her
    husband. She campaigned under the UNIDO
    umbrella. UNIDO was founded by Salvador Laurel,
    her V.P.

44
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Military.
  • The Philippine military has for the most part
    been subordinated to civilian leaders. Marcos
    expanded the military to 154,000 but
    deprofessionalized it thru cronyism (Ex Fabian
    Ver).
  • RAM (Reform the Armed Forces Movement) was a
    reaction to Marcos policies, but took on a life
    of its own. RAM conducted a series of coups, one
    to put Aquino in power and 7 to depose her. Key
    players were Juan Ponce Enrile (Min of Def.),
    Salvado Laurel (V.P.) and Colonel Gregorio
    Honasan.

45
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Women.
  • Traditionally women have played only a minor role
    in Philippine politics, demurely allowing men to
    lead.
  • Powerful women such as Imelda Marcos and Corazon
    Aquino have been anomalous, their power largely
    dependent on their husbands positions.
  • Aquinos refusal to let V.P. Salvador Laurel run
    her government, her strength, popularity and
    commitment to democratic principles were one
    cause of the coups against her.

46
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Insurgents.
  • The CPPs military arm is the NPA. At one time
    it had 20,000 fighters and controlled 20 of the
    land.
  • Under Ramos, it dwindled in significance.
    However, Abu Sayyaf Muslim guerrillas became a
    force in the Mindanao area under President
    Arroyo. (Gracia Burham, In The Presence of My
    Enemies.)
  • Church.
  • 84 Catholic, 12,000 priests and nuns.
  • The church was a key factor in EDSA Revolution.

47
Institutions and Social Groups
  • Democratization.
  • Formal institutions are a model of democracy.
  • A relatively few family dynasties control the
    economy and politics.
  • Ex The Osmena in Cebu.
  • Rich families function as patrons for the poor,
    but expect loyalty in return.
  • Ex God parents (compadre).
  • Sense of national inferiority from colonial
    period.

48
Questions
  • How democratic is the 1987 Aquino constitution?
  • Name Aquinos two political parties.
  • What is Marcos legacy for the Philippine
    military?
  • What has been the traditional role of women in
    politics? How has this effected the acceptance of
    Aquino and Arroyo?
  • What proportion of the Philippine population is
    Catholic?
  • What are the greatest barriers to true democratic
    government in the Philippines?

49
The End
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