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Stop Teaching the E R


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Title: Stop Teaching the E R

Stop Teaching the E R

Raising Student Achievement Conference 2009
Most students over third grade who have learning
difficulties serious enough for placement in
special programs do not have problems with basic
reading skills rather, these students lack
metacomprehension skills, and therefore are
unable to systematically construct meaning or
utilize strategies efficiently. (Pogrow, 1993
Caverly, Mandeville, and Nicholson, 1995)
  • Visualize make mental pictures or use the five
  • Make Connections what has happened in your
    life, the world, or other texts that helps the
    reader make sense
  • Question actively wonder and question the text
  • Infer to predict, hypothesize, interpret, draw

  • Evaluate to determine importance and make
  • Analyze to notice structures of text, the
    authors craft, vocabulary, purpose, theme, point
    of view
  • Recall to retell, summarize, remember
  • Self-monitor to recognize and act on confusion,
    uncertainty, and distractions

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Question Answer Relationship Taffy E. Raphael -
When QAR is taught to students and practiced in
class for as little as eight weeks reading
comprehension improves significantly, with
average and below-average students showing the
greatest improvement. (Miller, 1997 Richardson
and Morgan, 1994)
Day One
What is the most impressive man-made structure
that you have ever seen in person? What made it
so impressive?
RIGHT THERE What is the full name of this
statue? Who gave the statue to the United
States? THINK AND SEARCH What are some phrases
we could use to help others understand what the
Statue of Liberty looks like? AUTHOR AND ME
What types of reactions do you think people
might have the first time they see the Statue of
  • Day Two
  • Shared Reading Teacher Reads the poem as
    students follow along in text
  • Echo Reading Students echo the teacher
  • Pair Reading Students sit with a partner and
    take turns reading the poem aloud to each other.
    Teacher circulates and helps with difficult
  • A few students volunteer to read the poem to the

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Right There Who wrote The New Colossus? What is
Lazarus referring to when she says Colossus?
What other name does Lazarus give to the Statue
of Liberty? Think and Search What adjectives
does Lazarus use to describe the Colossus? What
adjectives does Lazarus use to describe the
Statue of Liberty? Author and Me What do you
see as major differences between the two statues
Colossus and Lady Liberty? How do you think Emma
Lazarus wanted people to feel when they first saw
the Statue of Liberty? How might the contrast of
these two statues Lady Liberty and Colossus -
affect the way people feel about the Statue of
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  • Day Three
  • Asked for volunteers to read the poem aloud to
    the class again.
  • Complete a graphic organizer as a team teacher
    carrying the work of turning spoken word into
    written word
  • Students worked in teams to complete a graphic
    organizer look at all the words not just the
    adjectives. Teacher circulates the room offering

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Restate the prompt Lazarus wanted people to feel
welcome when they saw the Statue of Liberty.
Key Idea She says the statue is a mighty woman.
Explain the key idea She is a woman not a man.
Make a connection Because she is a woman instead
of a man, she seems to be friendly.
Key Idea She is called the Mother of Exiles.
Explain the key idea Because she is called a
Mother, she seems to be friendly.
Make a connection Most people like their mom.
Key idea It says she gives a world wide welcome
Explain the key idea Because she is giving a
welcome, she seems friendly.
Make a connection We have a welcome mat at our
front door.
Repeat the prompt The poet wants people to feel
welcome when they see the Statue of Liberty.
Idea The poet wanted people to feel welcome when
they saw the Statue of Liberty.
Evidence She described it as the Mother of
Interpretation I think that means she wants
everyone to think of the Statue as their mother
and mothers are nice.
Evidence She said the statue gives a world wide
Interpretation I think that means that she is
kind and welcomes people from anywhere in the
Connection When I started at a new school, I was
scared. But my teacher reminded me of my mom.
Extension I didnt feel so scared and nervous
because I felt welcomed by the teacher who was
like my mom.
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do you think have you ever how might you feel
if what do you know about
From 2 to 24

Raising Student Achievement Conference
December 2009
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Sentence Patterns
  • Noun Verb
  • AKA Subject Predicate
  • The dragon roared.
  • Noun Verb Noun
  • AKA Subject Predicate Direct Object
  • The dragon breathed fire.

Pattern 1 Noun Verb
Pattern 1 Noun Verb
Yes, You Can Teach Poetry

Raising Student Achievement Conference Dec. 2009
ISAT Writing Features
  • Why write poetry?
  • Incorporates all 5 senses
  • Few words needed to make a meaningful message
  • De-emphasizes mechanics
  • Vocabulary development

  • Why write poetry?
  • Innovative use of language
  • Learn to use detail imagery
  • Effective openings closings
  • Personal voice expressed
  • Extends supports reading writing

I was dizzy as a dervish, as weak as a worn-out
washer, as low as a badgers belly, as timid as a
titmouse, and as unlikely to succeed as a ballet
dancer with a wooden leg. Little Sister by
Raymond Chandler Student samples She was as
clumsy as a three-legged horse, as skinny as
dental floss, as pale as Saran Wrap, and as
boring as a broken keyboard. On the basketball
court I was as fierce as a charging lion, as
fast as the winner at Daytona, as powerful as a
newly spawned hurricane, and as successful as a
salesman with laryngitis.
  • The Toaster by William Jay Smith
  • A silver-scaled dragon with
  • jaws flaming red
  • Sits at my elbow and toasts
  • my bread.
  • I hand him fat slices, and
  • then, one by one,
  • He hands them back when
  • he sees they are done.

My anger, a burning acid, destroyed my joy, my
pride, my life.
Intangible item (is/became/ seems to be) tangible
item ______________
My anger was an acid eating away at me. My anger
was an acid destroying the container called me.
Sentence Pattern 6 use an appositive Intangible
item, tangible item, _____________________________
______ ___________________________________
My anger, a burning acid, destroyed my joy, my
pride, my life.
Your Turn
  • Select one of the intangible items and one of the
    tangible items.
  • Feel free to use items that are not on the list.
  • Try to use Sentence Pattern 6 to create a
    metaphor use the intangible item as the subject
    and the tangible item as the appositive

  • The snow, a white blanket, covered everything I
    looked at.
  • The leaves, little ballerinas, danced in the
  • The oak tree, a soldier standing guard, grew by
    my bedroom window.
  • The birds, attacking jets, dive bombed my cat.

Alliteration Assonance
  • The Diatonic Dittymunch by Jack Prelutsky
  • The Diatonic Dittymunch
  • plucked music from the air,
  • it swallowed scores of symphonies,
  • and still had space to spare,
  • sonatas and cantatas
  • slithered sweetly down its throat,
  • it made ballads into salads,
  • and consumed them note-by-note.
  • It ate marches and mazurkas,
  • it ate rhapsodies and reels,
  • minuets and tarantellas
  • were the staples of its meals,
  • but the Diatonic Dittymunch
  • outdid itself one day,
  • it ate a three-act opera,
  • and loudly passed away.

Assonance Samples Hear the lark and harken to
the barking of the dark fox gone to ground - Pink
Floyd With the sound, with the sound, with the
sound of the ground. - David Bowie, "Law
(Earthlings on Fire)" I never seen so many
Dominican women with cinnamon tans - Will Smith,
Alliteration Creation
  • This is a turkle. Turkles take turns tickling
    turtles. They love the taste of trout, tuna, and
    tilapia. This turkle made a toupee from twine and
    attached it to his head with taffy. He traded ten
    tennis balls for a trampoline. He won a trophy
    for tooting a trombone while traveling on a
    tricycle to Tennessee. Turkles will lose their
    temper if you tap on the top of their trailers.

What makes this a good piece of writing?
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A 4 or 5 smiles B 3 smiles C 2 smiles
  • by Eve Merriam
  • The rusty spigot sputters, utters
  • a splutter, spatters a smattering of drops,
    gashes wider slash splatters scatters spurts
    finally stops sputtering and plash! gushes
    rushes splashes clear water dashes.

A Sound Lesson
  • My sister screamed when the mouse scurried across
    the kitchen floor.
  • Eeeek! My sister screamed when the mouse
    scurried across the kitchen floor.
  • The balloon burst.
  • Pop! The balloon burst.
  • The noisy clock irritated me.
  • The constant tick tick tick of the clock
    irritated me.
  • The doves serenaded me.
  • The cooing doves serenaded me.

Your Turn
  • The church bells called us to the funeral.
  • The bees swarmed around the hive.
  • Dad washed the pots and pans.
  • The sound of Willie Nelsons guitar filled the
  • The mud hit the wall.
  • The peg-legged pirate walked across the deck.

  • Somebody Has To by Shel Silverstein
  • Somebody has to go polish the stars,
  • They're looking a little bit dull.
  • Somebody has to go polish the stars,
  • For the eagles and starlings and gulls
  • Have all been complaining they're tarnished and
  • They say they want new ones we cannot afford.
  • So please get your rags
  • And your polishing jars,
  • Somebody has to go polish the stars.

Let the rain kiss you Let the rain beat upon your
head with silver liquid drops Let the rain sing
you a lullaby The rain makes still pools on the
sidewalk The rain makes running pools in the
gutter The rain plays a little sleep song on our
roof at night And I love the rain. Langston
Like a swing dancer, the car danced down the icy
street to the rhythm of every bump and dip.
The telephone at my bedside offered me a silent
promise Yes, she will call.
The spaghetti on the end of my fork twirled
around like a ballerina.
The tired kitten on my lap slept like a baby.
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Personification First, the colors on the plains
and mountains take my breath away. I love to see
the green grassy plains swaying in the wind as if
the wind is playing a song. I especially like to
watch the mountains turn colors when the sun
shines down on them.
Metaphor Dont let this seemingly weak blob of
jelly fool you. The well-armed octopus is a
powerful and sneaky fighting machine. Simile I
love watching the Orcas jump to huge heights. It
enchants me to see how this whale can soar in the
air for a period of time like a cloud hovering
through the sky. I wonder what it feels like to
weigh 2 tons and have everyone stare at you as
you leap from the depths of the ocean. When I
look at the whales huge size, it thrills me to
wonder how it can leap from the water like that.
Onomatopoeia Personification In the first
place, my cat keeps me company. She snuggles up
and begs to be petted or scratched. I cant
resist that soft little purr when Puddin comes
looking for petting. My cat is also playful. I
can dangle a feather from a string and Puddin
will swat at it with her paws. Her other
favorite game is to chase a wind up mouse around
the house. She runs, darts around corners, and
pounces on the little mouse. Then she brings it
back to me and drops it at my feet. Its like if
shes saying, Do that again. Metaphor Big
brown eyes, a waggly tail, a little mop of fur
scooting through the house everybody loves a
puppy. Mom, Dad, I sure do wish you would let me
have a puppy. You know that I am responsible
and could take good care of a puppy. Not only
would I take good care of a puppy but it could
help to take care of me and make me more healthy.
Instead of watching TV, I could play with my
There once was a berry so blue That helped people
who hadnt a clue Full of good flavonoids It
filled a diet void It can help increase memory
for you.
I SEE The little one asleep in its cradle, I
lift the gauze and look a long time, and silently
brush away flies with my hand. The bride
unrumples her white dress, the minute-hand of the
clock moves slowly. I HEAR The snow-sleighs,
clinking, shouted jokes, pelts of snow-balls, The
wild gander leads his flock through the cool
night, Ya-honk he says, and sounds it down to me
like an invitation. The human heart beating with
terrible throes under its ribs The whispering
stars of heaven I BELIEVE The running blackberry
will adorn the parlors of heaven, The cow
crunching with depressd head surpasses any
statue, I UNDERSTAND The large hearts of
heroes The courage of present times and all
times. I DO NOT UNDERSTAND The hounded slave
that flags in the race, leans by the fence,
blowing, coverd with sweat The twinges that
sting like needles his legs and neck, the
murderous buckshot and the bullets I SMELL The
white roses sweet-scented and growing.
I understand Why technology is taking over the
world The thrill of hitting a home run The
excitement of the Cardinals winning the pennant.
I dont understand Why English is so difficult
for me Why the pigeons lounge around school I
see A math teacher frazzled furious frustrated
Another teacher puzzling over someones
conduct I feel The dew on the wet roses in early
morn The cold metal of a yellow school bus The
whispering wind hitting my face
I hear The screeching bell calling me To another
day of school I breathe in and smell The
excellent scent of strawberries The scent of
Michael Jordan cologne The fresh air The fresh
smell of soap I taste The delicious cherry
pit The cherry roll A mouth-watering piece of
Bubble Yum By Eric
I Live by Amanda I taste ice cream slithering
and sliding down my throat, hot, cheesy pizza
burning my sensitive tongue, the melting
chocolate of an almond Hershey bar. I breathe
in and smell the sweet perfume of blooming
flowers, the disgusting stench of a burning
cigarette, the relief of fresh rich country air.
I see new born birds craving a juicy worm, a
glistening waterfall splashing into a
lake, Jackie Kennedys clothing drenched in
blood, students struggling with a writing
assignment, the spirit dances of Native
Americans, crashing waves in Picos de Europa, a
wind surfer struggling to stay on his
board, smoke rising from a burning grill.
I see a lumberjack cutting down an old oak
tree, dolphins playing tag in salty ocean
water, a river running through Isles of the
Caribbean, a family welcoming home their son from
the war, running water in the Grand Canyon, a
mosaic paving the way for kindergartners as they
head toward a carefully reserved Renaissance
house decorated with graffiti. I hear blood
running down and shots ringing in the air, the
taunt of a drug dealer tempting innocent youth
with drugs. I hear the laughter of children
playing, rumors swirling around
school, blood-curdling screams of slaves being
whipped, wind rattling the leaves of
trees, animals hooves clopping down the
road, campfires crackling as the campers drift
off to sleep, combines harvesting corn, a bird
drinking from a leaky faucet, the silent growth
of flowers, the yipping of puppies taken away
from their mother. I taste, I breathe. I see, I
hear. I live.
From 2 to 24 Noun - Verb
The dragon roared.
The dragon roared. (1) Did the dragon roar?
(3) Ferociously, the dragon roared. (4) In the
morning, the dragon roared. (5) The dragon, one
of the kings pets, roared. (6) Because his
dinner arrived late, the dragon roared. (7)
The dragon roared because his dinner arrived
late. (8) The dragon roared, growled, and
hissed.(9) Angry, the dragon roared. (11) Grumpy
because of a hangnail, the dragon roared. (12) To
frighten the tourists, the dragon roared. (13)
Glaring at the knight, the dragon roared.
(14) Frustrated, the dragon roared. (15) Having
burnt dinner again, the dragon roared. (16) The
dragon that lives next door roared.(17) The
dragon, who normally loves company, roared. (18)
The dragon roared, and the knight retreated.
(19) The dragon roared the knight whimpered.
(20) The dragon roared nevertheless, the knight
approached his lair. (21) The dragon, desperate
for attention, roared. (23) Tired, cold, and
hungry the dragon roared. (24)
Basic Pattern 2 Noun Verb Noun
  • The stallion leaped the fence.
  • My brother bought a Corvette.
  • The elephant chased the clown.
  • The snow blanketed the city.
  • The quarterback launched the football.

Basic Pattern 2 Noun Verb Noun
  • The horse leaped the fence.
  • My brother bought a Corvette.
  • The elephant chased the clown.
  • The snow blanketed the city.
  • The quarterback launched the

From 2 to 24 Noun Verb - Noun
The astronaut repaired the Hubble.
The astronaut repaired the Hubble. (2) Did the
astronaut repair the Hubble? (3) Carefully, the
astronaut repaired the Hubble. (4) On day three,
the astronaut repaired the Hubble. (5) The
astronaut, Dr. Megan McArthur , repaired the
Hubble. (6)
Because the bolts had frozen, the astronaut
repaired the Hubble. (7) The astronaut repaired
the Hubble because its bolts had frozen. (8) The
astronaut repaired the Hubble, collected data,
and conducted a demonstration.(9/10) Confident,
the astronaut repaired the Hubble. (11) Nervous
because of the fire, the astronaut repaired the
Hubble. (12)
To insure clear photographs of the galaxy, the
astronaut repaired the Hubble. (13) Struggling
with the frozen bolts, the astronaut repaired the
Hubble. (14) Worried, the astronaut repaired the
Hubble. (15) Having diagnosed the problem, the
astronaut repaired the Hubble. (16) The astronaut
that waved to me at lift off repaired the
The astronaut, who was on her fifth mission,
repaired the Hubble. (18) The astronaut repaired
the Hubble, and mission control monitored the
event. (19) The astronaut repaired the Hubble
the other crew members assisted her. (20) The
astronaut repaired the Hubble therefore, NASA
received clear pictures of the galaxy again.
(21) The astronaut, determined to succeed,
repaired the Hubble. (23) Tired, cold, and hungry
the astronaut repaired the Hubble. (24)
Adding the Jewelry
Select 3 or 4 of the patterns and teach only
those. Then use them for revision and short
writing activities. Challenge the students to use
vivid verbs in the patterns.
Adding a Prepositional Phrase
  • Send one person from your group to pick up the
    following supplies
  • One paper plates for each person
  • One piece of colored paper for each person
  • One tongue per person
  • Draw a face on the plate
  • Add hair
  • Tape on the tongue
  • Write a prepositional phrase on the tongue
  • see next slide for suggested phrases

Prepositional phrase
Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional phrase
Adding a Participle
  • Have students search through novels for
    participial phrases
  • Categorize those phrases
  • Add a participial phrase to a base sentence
  • Be sure to anchor the phrase to the noun it

IMAGE HUNT Maniac Magee by Jerry Spinelli
  • Cindy surprised us.
  • The old man searched for the lost diamond ring.
  • The burglar waited for his opportunity.

  • Add a participial phrase to the sentences on the
    following slide
  • Try to help the reader make an inference or

Add a Participial Phrase
  • The dentist drilled my bottom molars.
  • The florist designed a bouquet for my sisters
  • The students rewrote their expository essays for
    the 5th time.
  • The bus driver swerved around trash cans, parked
    cars, trees, and stop signs.
  • My sister cleared the table and washed the
  • 6. My neighbor hobbled from the recliner to the
    dinner table.

Adverb Clauses - Subordinators
Sentence Combinations
  • The lookout sat high above the ship in the crows
    nest. He searches the waters for possible danger.
  • The lookout realizes the Titanic is heading
    toward a huge iceberg. He sounded an alarm.
  • The giant iceberg scrapes the side of the ship.
    The sailors hear a grinding noise.

The lookout sat high above the ship in the crows
nest. He searched the waters for possible danger.
  • The lookout sat high above the ship in the crows
    nest so that he could search the waters for
    possible danger.
  • Until the lookout sat high above the ship in the
    crows nest, he searched the waters for possible
  • Even though the lookout sat high above the ship
    in the crows nest, he searched the waters for
    possible dangers.

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Visualize Higher ISAT Scores

Raising Student Achievement Conference
December 2009
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Grade 5 Conventions Check List

Floodlight - Flashlight
  • Look at the picture on the following slide.
  • Remember 1 thing from the picture.
  • What did everyone see?

Floodlight / Flashlight
  • Homer combed his dark curly hair while his mother
    rooted through her purse.
  • He pushed the red button marked STOP but the
    clang of the motors continued.
  • He was confused.
  • Mrs. Callahan sewed a thousand silver spangles
    onto the angel costume.
  • She was so hungry she could hardly stand it

Floodlight / Flashlight
  • I jumped out of bed, went upstairs, took a
    shower, got dressed and ate breakfast.
  • The cardboard box wobbled and a scratching noise
    came from inside.
  • Ramona squirmed on the chair then turned toward
    me and stuck out her tongue.
  • He told everyone exactly how he felt about the

Floodlight / Flashlight
  • The cows are surprised by the Eiffel Tower. It
    is larger than they had expected. One cow
    thinks it looks like a giant letter A made out of
    iron bones. The cows had expected it to be
    silver, but it is really brown, the rich color of
    the earth back in the fields.
  • The Cows Are Going to Paris by David Kirby
    Allen Woodman

A few Roman wedding traditions are still visible
in todays wedding celebrations. Roman women
wore a ring on the third finger of the left hand,
the ring finger. People believed that a vein
in that finger led straight to the heart. After
the wedding ceremony, there was a procession to
the grooms house. People in the procession
threw nuts at the bridal couple, just like people
today throw rice or confetti. The bride carried a
torch through the procession. At the end of the
procession, the groom carried the bride over the
threshold of their home. The bride then used her
torch to light a fire for warmth and light. She
the threw the torch to the people waiting outside
the house, much the way todays bride throws her
wedding bouquet. Great Source Reading
Advantage Travel the World. When in Rome.
Grade 3 Support Score 4
Support 4 Little depth is provided in the
details of this response. Support consists of
some specifics with extension (get a lot of sleep
so you are not tired in the morning and it is
good to get a lot of sleep at lest 8 hours) . . .
In order to achieve a higher score, greater depth
and specificity in the details would be required.
(What does it look like if you are not tired in
the morning?)
Do the details prove the point? Can the readers
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Grade 3 Support Score 4
What is the proof?
Do the details prove the point? Can the reader
What is the proof?
Grade 5 Expository Support Score 4
Does any of this help us to visualize? How could
this writer help the readers to visualize
seashells exotic fish or swimming practice?