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The Science of Marine Biology

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UNIT 1 Intro video What is Marine Biology Scientific study of organisms of the seas Marine bio video What is Oceanography? Scientific study of the oceans Covers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Science of Marine Biology


1
The Science of Marine Biology
  • UNIT 1
  • Intro video

2
What is Marine Biology
  • Scientific study of organisms of the seas
  • Marine bio video

3
What is Oceanography?
  • Scientific study of the oceans
  • Covers geology, chemistry, meterology, biology
  • A biological oceanographer focuses on organisms
    in the deep while marine biologists tend to study
    organisms close to shore

4
Why study Marine Biology?
  • Oceans hold a variety of life- adventurous to
    study
  • Provides clues to Earths past
  • Source of human wealth
  • Food, medicines, raw materials, recreation
  • Marine life helps to determine the nature of our
    planet- make oxygen
  • To solve problems created by marine organisms-
    barnacles

5
History of Marine Biology
  • Aristotle considered one of the first marine
    biologists
  • He described many forms of marine life
  • Recognized gills as the breathing organisms of
    fish
  • The Greeks used mathematical principles for
    seafaring and created more accurate maps
  • Knew Earth was a sphere

6
Latitude/longitude system
  • Developed by Greeks
  • Latitude east-west
  • Longitude north-south
  • In degrees
  • 1 degree60 minutes
  • 1 minute 60 seconds
  • Latitude lines never intersect so called
    parallels- 0parallel equator
  • Longitude lines called meridians- 0 meridian
    goes through the Royal Naval Observatory in
    Greenwich, England (the prime meridian)

7
  • Other cultures such as Egyptians, Pacific
    Islanders, the Vikings and Arab traders also
    studied the oceans as well
  • Early explorer video
  • Polynesians underwent the earliest known regular
    long-distance, open-ocean out of sight of land
    voyages

8
Middle Ages (800 A.D -1400)
  • A time of intellectual darkness
  • Become an illiterate society
  • Believed Earth was flat
  • Only European voyages were Vikings

9
Viking Explorations (790 A.D. 1100)
  • Established trade routes with Britain, Ireland,
    Southern Europe, North Africa, and Central Asia.
  • Discovered Iceland, Greenland and North America
    (Newfoundland, Canada)
  • Contributed to European ship design

10
Chinese Explorations
  • Invented the magnetic compass (1125)
  • Traded with Korea, Japan, and Australia
  • Contributed central rudders and watertight
    compartments to ship building

11
European Explorations (1400-1700)
  • Renaissance period- centered in Italy
  • Ocean expeditions were conduced for economic,
    political and religious reasons

12
James Cook and the Birth of Marine Science
  • An English sea captain
  • One of the first to make scientific observations
    on his travels and to include a full time
    naturalist
  • Beginning in 1768, he explored all of the oceans
  • Used the chronometer- an instrument that helped
    to determine his longitude and latitude and make
    accurate charts

13
  • First European to see the Antarctic and to land
    in Hawaii, New Zealand, Tahiti and other Pacific
    islands.
  • Killed in 1779 in a fight with native Hawaiians
    at Kealakekua Bay Hawaii
  • James Cook video

14
Charles Darwin
  • English Naturalist on the Beagle -1831
  • Described atolls- rings of coral reef
  • Studied plankton and barnacles

15
United States Exploring Expedition
  • 1838-1842
  • The Wilkes Expedition
  • 2 out of 6 ships returned
  • Confirmed Antarctica was a continent
  • Explored 280 islands
  • Collected 2,000 unknown species
  • video

16
Matthew Maury- Father of Physical Oceanography
  • US Naval Officer
  • 1834-1841 3 world tours
  • 1842 appointed superintendent of Dept of Charts
    and Instruments of the Navy department
  • Began publishing his work
  • His system for recording oceanic data was adapted
    worldwide especially his studies of currents and
    winds

17
The Challenger Expedition- British
  • First expedition entirely devoted to marine
    science- 1872 to 1876
  • Sailed 80,778 miles
  • Report took 23 years to complete
  • Discovered the Mid-Atlantic ridge and the
    Marianas Trench

18
  • Took the first soundings deeper than 4000 meters
  • Discovered marine organisms in the deepest part
    of the ocean
  • Sampled and illustrated plankton
  • Catalogued and identified 715 new genera and 4717
    new species
  • NASA named space shuttle after it
  • video

19
Oceanography Explosion
  • Due to Industrial Revolution and the advancement
    of technology
  • Rise of steam engines and iron ships
  • Development of the diesel engine, electric motor
    and lead-acid battery lead to the development of
    submarines
  • Wealthier countries more research therefore
    applied research increased dramatically as well
    as pure research
  • The Cold War and global conflict fueled
    scientific discovery

20
Important 20th Century Expeditions
  • German Meteor expedition- 1925
  • One of 1st modern oceanographic research cruises
  • Crossed Atlantic 14 times in two years
  • Mapped Atlantic seafloor with echo-sounding
    technology- 1st one of its kind

21
  • Atlantis expedition- U.S.- 1931
  • 1st ship built specifically for ocean studies
  • Confirmed and mapped the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  • Space shuttle named after it

22
  • New H.M.S. Challenger II- 1951
  • 2 year voyage to the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian
    oceans
  • Found deepest part of ocean (the Challenger Deep)
    in the Marianas Trench- 10, 838 meters

23
SUBMERSIBLES AND SELF-CONTAINED DIVING
24
Submersibles
  • 3 basic types
  • 1. Bathysphere- developed by William Beebe and
    Otis Barton in the 1930s
  • Steel ball with a window and an umbilical
  • Only went vertically- attached by a cable to a
    ship
  • 1932 Beebe and Barton reached 661 meters

25
The bathysphere (1930)
26
  • 2. Bathyscaphe
  • Similar to bathysphere except it was attached to
    a large float instead of to a cable and ship
  • Limited horizontal motion because of propellers
  • Deepest diving submersibles ever made
  • Trieste traveled to the bottom of the Challenger
    Deep

27
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28
  • 3. Deep-Diving submersibles
  • 2-3 person vessels
  • Moderate to deep depths
  • Good horizontal movement
  • No float tanks
  • Less fragile
  • Robotic arms
  • Alvin most famous-discovered the Titanic-Jason
    Project- operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic
    Institute (US Navy)

29
Johnson Sealink Submersible
30
  • Advantages of submersibles
  • Great depths
  • Duration of dives are longer
  • Disadvantages of submersibles
  • Very expensive
  • Need of support vessels and diving teams
  • Very large, so not able to have access to many
    places

31
Self-Contained Diving
  • 1st was hard-hat (helmet) diving- Englishman
    named Augustus Siebe- 1840
  • Good for underwater labor, not good for research
    because it was heavy and required a support team
    and vessel

32
  • Englishman Henry Fleuss introduced the first
    workable scuba in 1878
  • Recirculated pure oxygen which is only usuable to
    a depth of 10 meters or 33 ft
  • Frenchman Jacques Cousteau and engineer Emile
    Gagnan developed the scuba system used today in
    1943
  • Delivers compressed air and only provides it when
    the diver inhaled
  • Easy to use, lightweight, simple, little support
    needed

33
  • Advantages of SCUBA
  • Less expensive
  • Very simple- dont need a team
  • Portable and small
  • More dexterity
  • Disadvantages of SCUBA
  • Usually limited to about 40-50 m (130-165
    ft)-compressed air and to about 150 m with
    synthetic breathing gases
  • Duration is smaller due to cold, pressure, and
    fatigue

34
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35
Hardsuits - 1913
  • In between a submersible and scuba
  • More protection from temp. and pressure
  • More mobile than submersibles
  • Deeper dives
  • Expensive
  • Also need some team support as well

36
ROVs, AUVs, Electronic Navigation, and Satellites
37
ROVs
  • Remotely operated vehicle
  • Small unmanned submarine with propellers, video
    camera and an umbilical
  • Operator at surface
  • Can have arms, claws and other tools

38
AUVs
  • Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
  • Untethered robotic device
  • Self-contained power systems
  • Controlled by an attached computer
  • Maneuverable in 3 dimensions

39
Electronic navigation
  • 1st was LORAN (Long Range Navigation)- 1960s
  • Developed into Loran-C- based on radio signals
    from the coast- needed to triangulate to get
    ships position
  • Accurate within a few meters
  • But only worked where Loran transmitters were
    located
  • Accuracy depended on distance from transmitter

40
GPS
  • Global Positioning System- 1990s
  • Developed by U.S. Military
  • Receives signals from satellites
  • Accurate within 1-2 meters
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