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Italian and German Unification


Italian and German Unification The End of a Balance of Power on the European Continent 1848 - 1871 If you are viewing this on-line, use your browser s back to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Italian and German Unification

Italian and German Unification
  • The End of a Balance of Power on the European
  • 1848 - 1871

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  • "The republic, as I at least understand it,
    means association, of which liberty is only an
    element, a necessary antecedent. It means
    association, a new philosophy of life, a divine
    Ideal that shall move the world, the only means
    of regeneration vouchsafed to the human race."
  • Giuseppe Mazzini

  • "The word 'Italy' is a geographical expression,
    a description which is useful shorthand, but has
    none of the political significance the efforts of
    the revolutionary ideologues try to put on it,
    and which is full of dangers for the very
    existence of the states which make up the
  • Austrian Minister Count Metternich, 1847

(No Transcript)
The First Steps After 1848
  • By 1852, most Italians were looking to the
    Kingdom of Piedmont/Sardinia for leadership
  • The King, Victor Emmanuel II had granted a
    liberal constitution
  • He also appointed the reformist Camillo di Cavour
    as Prime Minister

Vittorio Emmanuel II and the Prime Minister
  • Cavour was a wealthy aristocrat with the goal of
    uniting Italy under the King of Sardinia Victor
  • Mazzini did not trust him he saw Cavour not as
    an Italian unifier, but as someone out to expand
    the power of Sardinia

Count Camillo di Cavour
The Method
  • Cavour used all of the tools available to him to
    achieve unification
  • After Sardinian troops helped France and Britain
    in Russia, France agreed in 1858 to help Sardinia
    drive Austria out of the northern Italian states
    of Lombardy, and Venetia

The Editor at Work
  • Through some clever wording, "While respecting
    treaties we cannot remain insensitive to the cry
    of suffering that rises towards us from so many
    parts of Italy, the King managed to threaten
    Austria while appearing to be innocent.
  • The text had been approved in advance by both
    Cavour and Napoleon III.

On April 23, 1859 . . .
  • The Austrian Emperor demanded that Sardinia
    demobilize its forces within three days
    otherwise the Emperor would have no alternative
    but to declare war.
  • When Sardinia did not respond, the Austrians
    attacked, and France and Sardinia responded and
    won two very quick victories

Meanwhile . . .
  • There were revolts in the states of Tuscany,
    Parma, and Modena all of which demanded
    annexation to Sardinia
  • Oops . . . there is such a thing as too good to
    be true.
  • France was afraid that Sardinia with all of
    this new territory would become too powerful
    and prevent Frances playing games in Italy

Soooooo. . .
  • Napoleon III, afraid of Austrias northern ally
    Prussia, cut a separate deal with Austria
    without Sardinias knowledge
  • In the Treaty of Villafranca, only Parma and
    Modena were granted to Sardinia two territories
    that were not even subject to the war
  • Lombardy was ceded to France and then given to
  • Venetia was kept by Austria
  • Nice and Savoy were ceded by Sardinia to France

And . . .
  • Cavour felt betrayed by his own King, and
    resigned only to come back later
  • Another leader, Giuseppe Garibaldi, was even more
    upset he was from Nice
  • After much calming, he turned to the South and
    the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by French

Garibaldi, 1860
And as his recruiting slogan . . .
  • I offer neither pay, nor quarters, nor food I
    offer only hunger, thirst, forced marches,
    battles and death. Let him who loves his country
    with his heart, and not merely with his lips,
    follow me.

Giuseppe Garibaldi (18071882), Italian patriot,
soldier. Speech, July 2, 1849. Quoted in
Garibaldis Defence of the Roman Republic, G.M.
Trevelyan (1907-1911).
Conquest in the South
  • Leading 1,000 troops wearing Garibaldis Red
    Shirt (the cheapest uniform that he could find)
    he headed for Sicily
  • These Red Shirts overthrew the country in five
    months and took over

The Next Step possible conflict with the Pope
  • In October 1860, Garibaldi ceded control of the
    south to Victor Emmanuel II, giving
    Piedmont/Sardinia control over the north and the
  • He then created unrest in Romagna to ensure the
    intervention of Sardinian troops to restore

How to Keep France Out
  • The army went in and could have taken Rome
  • Cavour feared that if the Pope were directly
    threatened, the French would invade
  • Rome would not join the new Kingdom of Italy
    until 1870

That Leaves . . . Venetia (and Venice)
  • In the wars to unite Germany, Prussia got Austria
    to give the province to Sardinia in 1866
  • That finalized a country with the exception of
    territory in Dalmatia (which will be called
    Italia Irredenta or Italy Unredeemed, until
    1918), then it will be part of Yugoslavia

The Grand Canal in Venice
The New Italy
Italian National Anthem
  • Italian brothers,Italy has arisen,With Scipio's
    helmetbinding her head.Where is Victory?Let
    her bow down, For God has made herThe slave of
    Rome.Let us gather in legions,Ready to
    die!Italy has called!
  • We for centuriesHave been downtrodden and
    derided,Because we are not a people,Because we
    are divided.Let one flag, one hopeBring us
    togetherThe hour has struckFor us to join
    forces.Let us gather in legions,Ready to
    die!Italy has called!

Italian National Anthem
  • Let us unite and love one anotherFor union and
    loveReveal to peoplesThe way of the LordLet us
    swear to freeOur native soilIf we are united
    under God,Who can conquer us?Let us gather in
    legions,Ready to die!Italy has called!
  • From the Alps to Sicily,Everywhere it is
    LegnanoEvery man has the heart and hand of
    Ferruccio.The children of ItalyAre all called
    BalillaEvery trumpet blastSounds the
    (Sicilian) Vespers.Let us gather in
    legions,Ready to die!Italy has called!

And the last verse . . .
  • Mercenary swordsAre feeble reeds,And the
    Austrian eagleHas lost his plumes.This eagle
    that drunk the bloodof Italy and
    Poland,together with the Cossack,But this has
    burned his gut.Let us gather in legions,Ready
    to die!Italy has called!

The Real Deal and the Balance Breaker - Germany
  • In 1848 Germany was made up of many, many small
  • The largest were Austria, Prussia, and Bavaria
  • The strongest of these was Prussia, with Berlin
    as its capital
  • It had the largest and strongest army and the
    most industrialized economy

The King of Prussia . . .
  • Was the powerful William I of the house of
  • William had little sympathy with the liberals of
    1848 especially when they would not let him do
    what he wanted to

The Kings Plan
  • Was to unite all of Germany except Austria itself
    under Prussian leadership
  • Clearly this would not impress Austria but they
    had severe nationalism issues to deal with
  • The Kings first priority was to strengthen the
    military except that the Reichstag, or
    parliament, refused to grant him the funding to
    do it

So he appointed . . .
  • Otto von Bismarck as Minister-President of
  • After having a round with the Reichstag, Bismarck
    declared that he would rule without a legal
    budget, and raise money without the consent of
    the Reichstag

  • A thorough Darwinian, he said at one point that
    it was the destiny of the weak to be devoured by
    the strong. Nietzschean philosophy would soon
    adopt the same tenor.

  • The term means, literally, the politics of
  • No idealism, no guesswork what you see is what
    you get
  • With the Kings approval, he proceeded to collect
    illegal taxes, and strengthen the military
  • It was in justification of this policy that he
    coined his famous quote,

  • The great questions of the day will not be
    decided by speeches or majority decisions that
    was the mistake of 1848 and 1849 but by blood
    and iron.
  • Clearly, not a fan of discourse and peaceful

The First Step
  • In 1864, the kingdom was ready
  • He signed an alliance with Austria and picked a
    fight with Denmark
  • Why Denmark???
  • To set up a situation that could easily be
    exploited against Austria

War with Denmark - Settlement
  • The two German powers quickly won the war with
    Denmark, and annexed its two southern provinces
    Holstein for Austria and Schleswig for Prussia
  • Please note that Prussian troops had to cross
    Austrian territory to get to Schleswig

Calculated Aggravation
  • Prussian troops soon began to aggravate Austrian
    troops march through the territory, take over
    trains, allow German nationals to break Austrian
    law, etc. while on passage
  • This quickly led to another war in 1866, this one
    with Austria
  • Dubbed the Seven Weeks War, it was over quickly
    with Austria losing badly

Seven Weeks Results
  • Not wanting to make Austria too mad, Prussia only
    took away Holstein and made Austria give up
    Venetia to Italy
  • The states of northern Germany united to form the
    North German Confederation with the Prussian
    King as the President

(No Transcript)
The Next, and Final Step
  • This left Bavaria and the southern states who
    were more afraid of Austrian and French reaction
    than of being left out.
  • Bismarck felt that Austria was no threat and he
    had to make the southern states more afraid of
    France than of being dominated by Prussia
  • So guess what yep, you guessed it, he picked a
    fight with France

  • In the nineteenth and even somewhat now,
    diplomatic language is very precise and must be
    used carefully
  • When a diplomatic message was being sent to
    France in reply to an enquiry by Napoleon III,
    Bismarck did a little alteration falsifying an
    account of a meeting held between the leaders
    and then published the result in the papers
    rather than send the telegram

The Original From King William to Napoleon III
  • Count Benedetti intercepted me on the promenade
    and ended by demanding of me in a very
    importunate manner that I should authorize him to
    telegraph at once that I bound myself in
    perpetuity never again to give my consent if the
    Hohenzollerns renewed their candidature. I
    rejected this demand somewhat sternly as it is
    neither right nor possible to undertake
    engagements of this kind for ever and ever.
    Naturally I told him that I had not yet received
    any news and since he had been better informed
    via Paris and Madrid than I was, he must surely
    see that my government was not concerned in the

Bismarcks Edited Version
  • After the news of the renunciation of the Prince
    von Hohenzollern had been communicated to the
    Imperial French government by the Royal Spanish
    government, the French Ambassador in Ems made a
    further demand on His Majesty the King that he
    should authorize him to telegraph to Paris that
    His Majesty the King undertook for all time never
    again to give his assent should the Hohenzollerns
    once more take up their candidature. His Majesty
    the King thereupon refused to receive the
    Ambassador again and had the latter informed by
    the adjutant of the day that His Majesty had no
    further communication to make to the Ambassador.

The Franco-Prussian War
  • This edited result looked like a royal insult to
    the French Emperor
  • France declared war on July 19, 1870 Napoleons
    single stupidest move
  • Prussia crushed France in two months (Paris made
    it another two months.)

The Cause is Complete
  • Among the prisoners captured (80,000) at the
    battle of Sedan was Emperor Napoleon III himself
  • Nationalism took over the southern German
    states rallied to the cause
  • The German Empire was declared at a ceremony in
    the Palace of Versailles on January 18, 1871,
    with the crowning of Kaiser Wilhelm I

(No Transcript)
Franco-Prussian Settlement
  • Unlike the settlement with Austria, Bismarck
    sought to destroy France
  • The terms were among the harshest yet seen
  • France would cede the territories of Alsace and
    Lorraine to Germany
  • They would pay an indemnity of 1B (Ff 5 Billion)
  • German troops would occupy France until the bill
    was paid
  • This sowed the seed of hatred that would spring
    into World War I but that is for another day

The Resulting Country
  • Was one of the largest in Europe
  • Was the second most powerful industrial country
    in the world
  • Had the most powerful army in the world
  • Was almost self-sufficient in industrial
    resources and food production

The Royal Seal
To give you an idea about the prevailing attitude
. . . The German National Anthem
  • Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Germany,
    Germany above/over all/everyone)
  • Über alles in der Welt, (Above/over everyone in
    the world)
  • Wenn es stets zu Schutz und Trutze (When always,
    for protection)
  • Brüderlich zusammenhält (We stand together as
  • Von der Maas bis an die Memel (From the Maas to
    the Memel)
  • Von der Etsch bis an den Belt (From the Etsch to
    the Belt)
  • Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (Germany,
    Germany above/over all/everyone)
  • Über alles in der Welt (Above/over all/everyone
    in the world.)

Verse 2
  • Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue (German women,
    German loyalty)
  • Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang (German wine
    and German song)
  • Sollen in der Welt behalten (Shall retain in the
  • Ihren alten schönen Klang (Their beautiful old
  • Uns zu edler Tat begeistern (To inspire us to
    noble deeds)
  • Unser ganzes Leben lang (Our whole life long.)
  • Deutsche Frauen, deutsche Treue, (German women,
    German loyalty)
  • Deutscher Wein und deutscher Sang (German wine
    and German song.)

Verse 3 (Verse 3 alone is todays German national
  • Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit (Unity and law
    and freedom)
  • Für das deutsche Vaterland! (For the German
  • Danach lasst uns alle streben (Let us all strive
    for that)
  • Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand! (In brotherhood
    with heart and hand!)
  • Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit (Unity and law
    and freedom)
  • Sind des Glückes Unterpfand (Are the foundation
    for happiness)
  • Blüh' im Glanze dieses Glückes (Bloom in the glow
    of happiness)
  • Blühe, deutsches Vaterland (Bloom, German

Verse 4 added 1923
  • Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (Germany,
    Germany above/over all/everyone)
  • Und im Unglück nun erst recht. (And in misfortune
    all the more.)
  • Nur im Unglück kann die Liebe (Only in misfortune
    can love)
  • Zeigen, ob sie stark und echt (Show if it's
    strong and true)
  • Und so soll es weiterklingen (And so it should
    ring out)
  • Von Geschlechte zu Geschlecht (From generation to
  • Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (Germany,
    Germany above/over all/everyone)
  • Und im Unglück nun erst recht (And in misfortune
    all the more.)