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Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats & Sheep

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Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats & Sheep Short-term vs. Long-term Effects Mineral nutrition important for optimum production Macro & Micro Minerals Macro Salt ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats & Sheep


1
Mineral Supplementation for Beef, Goats Sheep
2
Short-term vs. Long-term Effects
3
Mineral nutrition important for optimum
production
4
Macro Micro Minerals
  • Macro
  • Salt (NaCl)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Phosphorous (P)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Sulfur (S)
  • Micro
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Iodine (I)
  • Nickel (Ni)

5
Legal?
  • Amount
  • Formula
  • Feed Mixing Mineral
  • Free-choice
  • Label claims
  • Ingredient

6
Legal?
  • Selenium
  • Antibiotics
  • Rumensin
  • Chelates
  • Organic selenium
  • FEB-200

7
Many feed companies and many different complex
formulas equals confusion
8
Major minerals in Micro (trace) minerals ,
mg/kg or ppm
9
Dont get confused
  • mg/kg equals ppm
  • Percentage to mg/kg (ppm)
  • Move decimal 4 places to the right
  • e.g. 0.3 3,000 ppm

10
General Functions of Minerals
  • Nutrient Metabolism
  • Reproduction
  • Immune Function
  • Nerve Function

11
Deficiencies
  • Difficult to assess. May be lower weight gains,
    reduced milk and/or decreased repro without
    visable signs. Also decreased immune function.

12
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13
Factors Influencing Mineral Utilization from
Forage
  • Dry matter intake
  • Forage mineral content
  • Forage mineral availability
  • Antagonists

14
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15
Beef Cow Req vs. Fescue ()
Varies with production High risk grass
tetany (22 g/d)
16
Beef Cow Req vs. Fescue (ppm or mg/kg)
CHAPA, 1996
17
Availability from Forage
18
Availability in Supplement
19
Mineral Antagonists
  • Feed
  • Water
  • Mineral supplement

20
Mineral Review
  • A look at individual minerals and their
    importance to cattle

21
Salt (NaCl)
  • Electrolyte balance
  • Need for sodium
  • (they will consume minerals to meet the need
    for salt)

22
Calcium (Ca)
  • Least likely to be deficient in forage
  • Legumes contain high level
  • Cheap
  • Dont use high levels in supplement for grazing
    cattle

23
Phosphorous (P)
  • May be def. esp. w/high production
  • Forage content decreases w/maturity
  • Grain is high in P
  • Expensive

24
Pasture
Higher Ca (esp. Clover) Lower P
25
CaP ratio
  • Dietary ratio 11 to 71
  • In supplement
  • 31 to 21 grass
  • 21 11 mixed
  • 12 clover

26
Magnesium (Mg)
  • Associated with Grass tetany
  • High K and N reduce absorption

27
Potassium (K)
  • Weaned or newly received calves need short term
    suppl.

28
Iron (Fe)
  • Assoc with RBC (hemoglobin)
  • Anemia unlikely unless parasite, disease
  • High levels can interfere with other minerals.


29
Sulfur (S)
  • Levels above 0.25 can be antagonistic to Copper


30
What about the water?
  • Consider mineral levels in water especially
    antagonists
  • Sulfur
  • Iron

31
Micro (Trace) Minerals

32
Copper (Cu)
  • Supplementation is needed
  • Affected by Mo, S, Fe, breed
  • Necessary for growth, repro, immunity
  • Varying availability in supplement
  • Simmental/Charolais have higher req.

33
Copper deficiency
  • Physical appearance
  • Reddish appearance on black animals behind
    shoulders and lower qtrs.
  • White ring around eyes
  • Liver biopsy best to assess

34
Copper Supplementation
35
Suggested Copper Levels (3-4 oz/da) Gill, UT
36
Selenium (Se)
  • Need in supplement
  • Se/Vit E interrelated
  • Regulated (3 mg/hd/da)
  • Increased sulfur will increase req.

37
Selenium Deficiency
  • Increase in early, embryonic death
  • Retained placentas
  • Weak calves at birth
  • Compromised immune system

38
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39
Manganese (Mn)
  • Very poorly absorbed
  • Involved in enzyme systems
  • High Ca and P can increase req.
  • Deficiency
  • Deformed calves knuckle-over
  • Increase in cystic ovaries
  • Abortions, delayed estrus

40
Zinc (Zn)
  • Enzyme function
  • Effects repro esp. males
  • Late stage spermatozoa

41
Iodine (I)
  • Component of thyroid hormones
  • Goitrogenic compounds may increase need
  • Foot Rot

42
Consumption
  • Salt level (dont feed separately)
  • MgO level
  • Water in forage
  • Location
  • Man!

43
FAQs
  • Do they need minerals on grass?
  • Is white salt adequate?
  • Is red salt better?
  • Should I mix my own?
  • What extras are needed? (vitamins, additives,
    chelates)
  • What should I feed?

44
FAQs Answers
45
FAQs Answers
  • Is mineral supplementation needed on grass?
  • YES

46
FAQs Answers
  • Is white salt adequate?
  • NO

47
FAQs Answers
  • Is red salt better?
  • NO
  • Yellow salt?
  • NO

48
FAQs Answers
  • Can I mix my own?
  • Probably not! (Dealing with parts per million.)

49
FAQs Answers
  • What extras are needed?
  • Vitamins? A
  • Additives? Maybe
  • Chelates? Maybe

50
Organic vs. Inorganic Minerals
  • Absorbed by a different system
  • Use in the presence of antagonists
  • Better at immune stimulation

51
FAQs Answers
  • What should I feed for grazing beef cattle?

52
Beef Formula
  • Not intended for
  • Goats
  • Sheep
  • Dairy (especially Jerseys)

53
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54
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55
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56
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57
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58
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59
Cow/Herd Mineral Supplement
60
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61
CTC ??
  • Only one approved formula for free-choice feeding
    - an outside company owns the rights to that
  • Anaplaz - use commercially available products

62
Minerals for Meat Goats
  • Minerals
  • (Ca, P) (Cu, Zn, Se)
  • Vitamins
  • (A, D, E)

63
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64
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65
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66
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67
Vitamin
  • A 400,000 IUs/lb
  • D 400 IUs/lb
  • E 400 IUs/lb

68
Copper Toxicity In Goats
  • Meat goats may be more susceptible than dairy
    goats.

69
Toxicity Levels of Dietary Intake
  • Cattle dietary levels gt 100 ppm
  • Goats (?)
  • Sheep dietary levels 20-25 ppm

70
Toxicity Symptoms
  • Acute anorexia
  • Severe hemolytic anemia (brownish blood)
  • Respiratory distress
  • Jaundice (yellowing eyes and membranes
  • Dark and pasty fecal material animal may look
    dirty
  • Ok yesterday, but dead today

71
Types of Toxicity
  • Acute
  • usually mistake in feed or mineral mix
  • goats found old bag of Cu-pesticide
  • Chronic -
  • Occurs due to slow accumulation for 2 weeks to 1
    year

72
How does this happen?
  • Fat, over fed goats are most susceptible
  • Complete feeds based on 2.5 lbs/day intake
  • 2.5 lbs 90 ppm
  • 50 absorption 45 ppm/d
  • But they eat more than that mineral (fc)

73
Minerals for Sheep
  • Specifically for sheep
  • Free-choice, year-round

74
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75
Minerals for Sheep
  • Spring Summer (high quality clover)
  • Trace Mineral Salt (TMS) w/ Selenium
  • Rest of Year
  • Complete mineral mix

76
Minerals for Sheep
  • Concern Copper Toxicity
  • Sheep more sensitive than cattle
  • Result of accumulation in liver over time
  • Generally Sheep require about 5 ppm Copper (Cu)
    in diet toxicity at levels above 25 ppm in diet
  • CuMO ratio is important
  • If MO is low (lt1ppm) sheep are more susceptible

77
Minerals for Sheep
  • Problem
  • Distillers grains and Soybean Meal (SBM) can be
    variable in Cu
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