Applying Population Ecology: Human Population and Urbanization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Applying Population Ecology: Human Population and Urbanization PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bf3ca-OThjZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Applying Population Ecology: Human Population and Urbanization

Description:

Applying Population Ecology: Human Population and Urbanization Chapter 7 Core Case Study: Ecocity in Brazil (1) Curitiba ecological capital of Brazil ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:187
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 100
Provided by: bergenEdu3
Learn more at: http://www.bergen.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Applying Population Ecology: Human Population and Urbanization


1
Applying Population Ecology Human Population and
Urbanization
  • Chapter 7

2
Core Case Study Ecocity in Brazil (1)
  • Curitiba ecological capital of Brazil
  • Inexpensive, efficient mass transit
  • High-rise apartments near bus routes, mixed-use
    structures
  • Bike and pedestrian paths

3
Core Case Study Ecocity in Brazil (2)
  • 1.5 million trees planted
  • Recycling
  • Build-it-yourself system for poor
  • Emphasis on ecological awareness, health, literacy

4
Curitiba, Brazil
Fig. 7-1, p. 123
5
7-1 How Many People Can the Earth Support?
  • Concept 7-1 We do not know how long we can
    continue increasing the earths carrying capacity
    for humans without seriously degrading the
    life-support systems for us and many other
    species.

6
Human Population Explosion
  • Exponential growth (J-curve) in past 200 years
  • Three major reasons
  • Ability to expand into diverse habitats
  • Emergence of agriculture
  • Sanitation systems and control of infectious
    diseases

7
How Long Can the Human Population Grow
  • Rate slowing, but still exponential
  • Uneven global growth
  • No population can grow indefinitely
  • 2050 global estimates 7.210.6 billion people
  • 97 growth in developing countries, least likely
    to cope

8
Human Alteration of the Environment
Fig. 7-2, p. 125
9
Case Study Are There Too Manyof Us? (1)
  • Resources for growing population?
  • Positive viewpoint
  • Technological solutions
  • Growing population a value resource
  • Negative viewpoint
  • 20 currently lack necessities
  • Declining conditions increase death rate
  • Resource use already degrade environment

10
Case Study Are There Too Manyof Us? (2)
  • Optimum sustainable population
  • Cultural carrying capacity

11
UN World Population Projections
Fig. 7-3, p. 126
12
7-2 What Factors Influence Population Size?
  • Concept 7-2A Population size increases because
    of births and immigration and decreases through
    deaths and emigration.
  • Concept 7-2B The average number of children born
    to women in a population (total fertility rate)
    is the key factor that determines the population
    size.

13
Population Change
  • Population change
  • (births immigration) - (deaths emigration)
  • Demographers look at birth rates and death rates

14
Number of Children
  • Fertility rates affect population size and growth
    rate
  • Replacement-level fertility rate
  • Total fertility rate (TFR)

15
Most Populous Countries
16
1.3 billion
China
1.5 billion
1.1 billion
India
1.4 billion
302 million
USA
349 million
282 million
Indonesia
271 million
169 million
Pakistan
229 million
189 million
Brazil
229 million
144 million
Nigeria
205 million
149 million
Bangladesh
190 million
142 million
Russia
128 million
128 million
Japan
119 million
Fig. 7-4, p. 127
17
Case Study The U.S. Population Is Growing
Rapidly
  • Quadrupled in 100 years, despite oscillations in
    TFR
  • Baby boom High TFR
  • Current births outnumbering deaths and legal
    immigration
  • Growing faster than other developed countries

18
Fertility Rate of the U.S. Population
19
Baby boom (194664)
Replacement level
Fig. 7-5, p. 128
20
Changes in the U.S. Population
21
47 years
Life expectancy
77 years
8
Married women working outside the home
81
High school graduates
15
83
Homes with flush toilets
10
98
Homes with electricity
2
99
Living in suburbs
10
52
Hourly manufacturing job wage (adjusted for
inflation)
3
15
Homicides per 100,000 people
1.2
5.8
Fig. 7-6, p. 129
22
Factors Affecting Birth Rates (1)
  • Importance of children as part of labor force
  • Cost of raising and educating children
  • Availability of retirement systems
  • Urbanization
  • Educational and employment opportunities for
    women

23
Factors Affecting Birth Rates (2)
  • Infant mortality rate
  • Average marriage age
  • Availability of legal abortion and reliable birth
    control methods
  • Religious beliefs, traditions, cultural norms

24
Factors Affecting Death Rates
  • Population growth also response to decline in
    crude death rate
  • Life expectancy and infant mortality rate
    important indicators of overall health
  • Average life expectancy increased
  • Infant mortality barometer of a societys
    quality of life

25
Migration
  • Migration driven by economic desires
  • Other reasons
  • Religious persecution
  • Political oppression
  • Ethnic conflicts
  • Wars
  • Environmental degradation

26
Case Study The United States (1)
  • Nation of immigrants
  • 18201960 Most immigrants European
  • Since 1960
  • Latin America 53
  • Asia 25
  • Europe 14

27
Case Study The United States (2)
  • Opponents of immigration
  • Stabilize population sooner
  • Reduce growing environmental impact
  • 60 of population favor reducing immigration
  • Proponents of immigration
  • Important historical role
  • Do menial jobs and pay taxes
  • Add cultural vitality
  • Replace retiring baby boomers

28
Legal Immigration
29
1907
1914 New laws restrict immigration
Great Depression
Fig. 7-7, p. 130
30
7-3 How Does a Populations Age Structure Affect
Its Growth or Decline?
  • Concept 7-3 The numbers of males and females in
    young, middle, and older age groups determine how
    fast populations grow or decline.

31
Age Structure
  • Distribution of population
  • Prereproductive
  • Reproductive
  • Postreproductive
  • Country with many young people grows rapidly
  • Country with many older people will decline
  • Developing countries gt30 under 15 years old

32
Population Age Structures
33
Male
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Female
Declining Germany Bulgaria Russia
Stable Japan Italy Greece
Expanding Slowly United States Australia China
Expanding Rapidly Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia
Fig. 7-8, p. 131
34
Global Connections
Fig. 7-9, p. 132
35
Age Structure Predicts the Future
  • 50 of U.S. population baby boomers
  • Graying of America
  • 2043 25 of population over 65
  • Changes the economy

36
Tracking the Baby Boomers
Fig. 7-10, p. 132
37
Stepped Art
Fig. 7-10, p. 132
38
Declines Occur in Aging Populations
  • Baby bust or birth dearth TFR below 1.5
    children per couple
  • Labor shortages
  • Strain on governments for public services
  • Fewer taxpayers

39
Rapid Population Decline
Fig. 7-11, p. 133
40
Rising Death Rate The AIDS Tragedy
  • Disrupts social, economic structure
  • Removes productive young adults
  • Next 50 years, 278 million will die (mostly
    African)
  • Eight African countries 1639 infected adults
  • Life expectancy 3040 years

41
7-4 How Can We Slow Population Growth?
  • Concept 7-4 Experience indicates that the most
    effective ways to slow population growth are to
    invest in family planning, to reduce poverty, and
    to elevate the status of women.

42
Stages of Demographic Transition
  • Preindustrial
  • Transitional demographic trap
  • Industrial
  • Postindustrial

43
Stages of Demographic Transition
44
Stage 1 Preindustrial
Stage 2 Transitional
Stage 3 Industrial
Stage 4 Postindustrial
Population grows rapidly because birth rates are
high and death rates drop because of improved
food production and health
Population growth slows as both birth and
death rates drop because of improved
food production, health, and education
Population growth levels off and then declines as
birth rates equal and then fall below death rates
Population grows very slowly because of a high
birth rate (to com-pensate for high
infant mortality) and a high death rate
Total population
Birth rate
Death rate
Fig. 7-12, p. 134
45
Family Planning (1)
  • Birth spacing, birth control, health care
  • Increased availability of contraception
  • 55 drop in TFR of developing countries
  • Developing countries
  • Almost half pregnancies unplanned
  • Lack access to family planning

46
Family Planning (2)
  • Replacement-level fertility achievable within
    decades
  • Invest in family planning
  • Reduce poverty
  • Elevate the social and economic status of women

47
Empowering Women Can Slow Population Growth
  • Educated women have fewer children
  • Illiterate woman 64 of worlds population, 70
    of the poor
  • When daughters considered less valuable, not sent
    to school
  • Poor conditions for women leads to environmental
    degradation

48
Case Study Slowing Population Growth in China (1)
  • Half birth date and drastically reduce TFR
  • Improved quality of life
  • Strict family planning
  • Sons still preferred gender imbalance

49
Case Study Slowing Population Growth in China (2)
  • Population rapidly aging
  • Rapidly growing economy
  • Larger middle class increases resource
    consumption and waste
  • Sustainable economic plan needed to avoid
    environmental degradation

50
Case Study Slowing Population Growth in India
  • Tried to slow population growth for five decades
  • Most populous country in 2015
  • Problems increase with growing population
  • Poverty
  • Malnutrition
  • Environmental degradation
  • Growing middle class resource consumption

51
7-5 What Are the Major Population and
Environmental Problems of Urban Areas?
  • Concept 7-5 Cities can improve individual lives,
    but most cities are unsustainable because of high
    levels of resource use, waste, pollution, and
    poverty.

52
Urban Living
  • Half the world lives in urban areas
  • 80 of Americans in cities
  • Urban areas continue to grow
  • Natural increase
  • Immigration

53
Major Trends in Urban Growth
  • Proportion of urban global population growing
  • Number and sizes of urban areas mushrooming
  • Rapid increase in urban populations in developing
    countries
  • Urban growth slower in developed nations
  • Poverty increasing

54
Urban Areas and Megacities
Fig. 7-13, p. 138
55
Case Study Urbanization in the United States
  • 18002007, increased population 580 in urban
    areas
  • Migration patterns
  • Better working and housing conditions compared to
    the past
  • Problems in urban areas

56
Major Urban Centers in the United States
Fig. 7-14, p. 139
57
Urban Sprawl
  • Gobbling up countryside
  • Causes
  • Prosperity
  • Ample and affordable land
  • Automobiles
  • Cheap gasoline
  • Poor urban planning

58
Urban Sprawl Around Las Vegas
Fig. 7-15, p. 139
59
Stepped Art
Fig. 7-15, p. 139
60
Undesirable Impacts of Urban Sprawl
Fig. 7-16, p. 140
61
Consequences of Urban Sprawl
  • Inadequate mass transportation
  • Need to drive everywhere
  • Decreased energy efficiency
  • Traffic congestion
  • Destruction of prime cropland, forests, wetlands

62
U.S. Megalopolis Bowash
Fig. 7-17, p. 140
63
Advantages of Urbanization
  • Economic development
  • Innovation
  • Education and jobs
  • Technological advances
  • Recycling more economically feasible
  • Longer life spans

64
Disadvantages of Urbanization (1)
  • Unsustainable systems
  • Lack of vegetation
  • Water problems
  • Pollution and health problems

65
Disadvantages of Urbanization (2)
  • Noise pollution
  • Climate and artificial light
  • Urban heat islands
  • Light pollution

66
Urban Areas Are Rarely Sustainable
67
Inputs
Outputs
Energy
Solid wastes
Waste heat
Food
Air pollutants
Water
Water pollutants
Raw materials
Greenhouse gases
Manufactured goods
Manufactured goods
Noise
Money
Wealth
Information
Ideas
Fig. 7-18, p. 141
68
Noise Levels
69
Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure
Noise Levels (in dbA)
Earphones at loud level
Normal breathing
Quiet rural area
Rainfall
Vacuum cleaner
Lawn mower
Rock music
Boom cars
Military rifle
Normal conversation
Chain saw
Air raid siren
Whisper
Quiet room
Average factory
Thunderclap (nearby)
Fig. 7-19, p. 142
70
Urban Poor in Developing Countries
  • Slums
  • Shantytowns and squatter settlements
  • Lack of basic services

71
Living in a Shantytown
Fig. 7-20, p. 143
72
Case Study Mexico City (1)
  • Large population
  • Severe noise, water, and air pollution
  • 50 unemployment
  • gt33 live in barrios
  • 100,000 premature deaths per year

73
Case Study Mexico City (2)
  • 3 million without sewer
  • Fecal snow
  • Geography contributes to air pollution
  • Progress tree planting and lower air pollution

74
7-6 How Does Transportation Affect Urban
Development?
  • Concept 7-6 A combination of plentiful land,
    inexpensive fuel, and an expanding network of
    highways results in dispersed cities that depend
    on motor vehicles for most transportation.

75
Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Compact cities
  • Transportation by walking, biking, or mass
    transit
  • Hong Kong, Tokyo
  • Dispersed cities
  • Transportation by automobile
  • Most American cities

76
Automobiles in the United States
  • lt10 of worlds population own 1/3 of cars
  • Gas guzzlers
  • 40,000 people per year die from auto accidents
  • Largest source of air pollution
  • Lead to urban sprawl and congestion

77
Reduce Automobile Use
  • User-pays system
  • Full-cost pricing
  • Tax revenues to finance mass transit, bike paths,
    sidewalks
  • High gasoline tax unlikely
  • Need to discourage automobile use

78
Alternatives to Cars
  • Bicycles
  • Mass transit systems in urban areas
  • Bus systems
  • Rapid rail

79
Trade-offs Bicycles
Fig. 7-21, p. 145
80
Trade-offs Mass Transit Rail
Fig. 7-22, p. 145
81
Trade-offs Buses
Fig. 7-23, p. 146
82
Trade-offs Rapid Rail
Fig. 7-24, p. 146
83
7-7 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and
Livable?
  • Concept 7-7 An ecocity allows people to choose
    walking, biking, or mass transit for most
    transportation needs recycle or reuse most of
    their waste grow much of their food and protect
    biodiversity by preserving surrounding land.

84
Environmentally Sustainable Cities
  • Smart growth
  • Ecocities
  • Build and design people-oriented cities
  • Use energy and matter efficiently
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
  • Recycle, reuse, and compost
  • Protect and encourage biodiversity

85
Smart Growth and New Urbanism
Fig. 7-25, p. 147
86
Animation Current and Projected Population Sizes
by Region
PLAY ANIMATION
87
Animation Demographic Transition Model
PLAY ANIMATION
88
Animation Resources Depletion and Degradation
PLAY ANIMATION
89
Animation Habitat Loss and Fragmentation
PLAY ANIMATION
90
Animation SF Bay Region Growth
PLAY ANIMATION
91
Animation Examples of Age Structure
PLAY ANIMATION
92
Animation U.S. Age Structure
PLAY ANIMATION
93
Animation Economic Types
PLAY ANIMATION
94
Animation Formation of Photochemical Smog
PLAY ANIMATION
95
Animation Thermal Invasion and Smog
PLAY ANIMATION
96
Video Easter Island
PLAY VIDEO
97
Video Bonus for a Baby
PLAY VIDEO
98
Video Cahuachi Excavation
PLAY VIDEO
99
Video World AIDS Day
PLAY VIDEO
About PowerShow.com