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Democratic Politics, Religious Revival, and Reform

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Title: Democratic Politics, Religious Revival, and Reform


1
Chapter 10
  • Democratic Politics, Religious Revival, and
    Reform
  • 1824-1840

2
Introduction
  • 1.) How was American politics democratized
    between 1800 and 1840?
  • 2.) Why was Andrew Jackson so popular with
    voters?
  • 3.) How and why did the Democratic and Whig
    parties emerge?
  • 4.) What new assumptions about human nature did
    religious reform leaders of the 1830s make?

3
The Rise of Democratic Politics, 1824-1832
  • Introduction
  • In 1824, only one political party existed
  • Republican
  • It was fragmenting
  • Pressures produced by the industrialization of
    the Northeast
  • The spread of cotton growing in the South
  • Westward expansion
  • 2 new political parties developed
  • Democrats
  • Whigs

4
Introduction (cont.)
  • Democrats
  • Retained Jeffersons distrust of strong federal
    government
  • Preferred states rights
  • Whigs
  • Favored an active federal govt.
  • Encourage economic development
  • Both Democratic and Whig politicians had to adapt
    to the democratic idea of politics as the
    expression of the will of the common man
  • Rather than an activity that gentlemen conducted
    for the people

5
Democratic Ferment
  • Politics became more democratic
  • property qualifications for voting were
    eliminated
  • Written ballots replaced voting aloud
  • Appointive offices became elective
  • Presidential electors were chosen by the people

6
Democratic Ferment (cont.)
  • This broadening of suffrage was often brought
    about by competition between Republicans and
    Federalists in the 1790s and early 1800s
  • Each party sought to increase its voter base
  • Increasing the number of eligible voters in the
    process

7
The Election of 1824
  • 4 Republicans ran for office
  • Each represented a faction of the Republican
    Party
  • Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William
    Crawford, Henry Clay

8
The Election of 1824 (cont.)
9
The Election of 1824 (cont.)
  • Jackson received the most popular and electoral
    votes but not a majority
  • Therefore, as the Constitution requires, the
    House of Representatives had to choose among the
    three top candidates (Jackson, Adams, Crawford)
  • Clay (who was 4th) used his considerable
    influence with Congress to gain the selection of
    Adams

10
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11
The Election of 1824 (cont.)
  • President Adams in turn appointed Clay as his
    secretary of state
  • Jackson supporters charged that a corrupt
    bargain had been made
  • That charge hung like a cloud over the Adams
    administration

12
The Election of 1824 (cont.)
13
John Quincy Adams as President
  • President Adams tried to encourage economic
    growth through federal internal improvement
    projects
  • He remained aloof to the political games of the
    age
  • His programs suffered a lack of support
  • Idealistic view
  • Single-term presidency

14
The Rise of Andrew Jackson
  • Andrew Jacksons victory over the British in the
    Battle of New Orleans in 1815 made him a popular
    hero
  • It was a time of vague but widespread
    discontent with Washington
  • In part because of the Panic of 1819

15
The Rise of Andrew Jackson (cont.)
  • Jacksons position as a political outsider
    endeared him to the public and supporters
  • Began to build a strong political organization
  • Called themselves the Democratic Party
  • Also led by Martin Van Buren
  • In 1828
  • the Democrats nominated Jackson for president
  • Those who remained loyal to Adams called
    themselves National Republicans and renominated
    Adams

16
The election of 1828
  • Democrats portrayed Jackson as a man of the
    people (even though he was a wealthy farmer)
  • And they portrayed Adams as the aristocrat
  • Jackson won the election with the common-man
    appeal
  • His victory also showed a clear sectional split
  • South and Southwest for Jackson
  • New England mostly for Adams

17
The election of 1828 (cont.)
18
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19
Jackson in Office
  • Spoils system
  • Jackson immediately fired 1/2 of the civil
    servants on the federal payroll
  • Most in the Northeast
  • Replaced them with supporters
  • Jackson did not initiate the spoils system
  • He defended it and practiced it
  • Frequent rotation in office gave more people a
    chance to serve

20
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21
Jackson in Office (cont.)
  • He also opposed federal support for internal
    improvements
  • Maysville Road veto
  • Veto of providing federal govt. to build and
    expand state roads
  • 1st of 8 vetoes by Jackson on public works
    projects
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • Southerners liked the Maysville Road veto and the
    Indian Removal Act

22
Jackson in Office (cont.)
  • Southerners though resented his lack of action
    against the 1828 Tariff of Abominations
  • Protected northern manufacturers and western
    farmers from foreign competition
  • But raised the price that southerners had to pay
    for finished products

23
Nullification
  • That tariff issue prepared the way for a break
    between Jackson and his VP John C. Calhoun
  • Calhoun was becoming the chief spokesman for the
    southern planter class

24
Nullification (cont.)
  • Calhoun wrote and circulated the South Carolina
    Exposition and Protest
  • In opposition to the Tariff of 1828
  • Argued protective tariffs were unconstitutional
  • States had the right to nullify federal laws that
    violated the U.S. Constitution

25
Nullification (cont.)
  • Nov. 1832, South Carolina nullified the Tariff of
    1828 and the Tariff of 1832
  • SC forbade the collection of customs duties at
    its ports
  • Acted on Calhouns doctrine
  • Jackson denounced the states defiance
  • threatened to use the army and navy to enforce
    federal laws

26
Nullification (cont.)
  • Compromise of 1833
  • Prevented a military fight between the federal
    govt. and SC
  • Proposed by Henry Clay
  • SC rescinded it nullification
  • Congress passed a new tariff law that gradually
    lowered duties over the next 9 years

27
The Bank Veto and the election of 1832
  • Jackson disliked all banks and the issuance of
    paper money
  • He particularly hated the Second Bank of the
    Untied States
  • Controlled the nations credit
  • Depository for federal govt. monies
  • Run by its private stockholders
  • Monied Capitalist
  • Little control from the federal govt.
  • Jackson regarded it as a privileged monopoly

28
The Bank Veto and the election of 1832 (cont.)
  • In 1832, Nicholas Biddle (pres. of the Second
    Bank) applied for its recharter
  • The recharter bill passed Congress
  • Jackson vetoed it
  • Denouncing the bank for making the rich richer
    and the potent more powerful

29
The Bank Veto and the election of 1832 (cont.)
  • 1832 election
  • Democrats nominated Jackson and Van Buren for
    president and VP
  • National Republicans nominated Henry Clay
  • Clay opposed Jacksons record
  • Clay advocated instead his American System of
    protective tariffs, recharting of the national
    bank, and federally supported internal
    improvements
  • Jackson won easily
  • Jackson was ready to complete his destruction of
    the Second Bank

30
the election of 1832 (cont.)
31
The Bank Controversy and the Second Party System,
1833-1840
  • The War on the Bank
  • Jackson quickly tried to bankrupt the Second Bank
    by removing govt. deposits
  • He distributed them to accounts in
    state-chartered banks
  • The pet banks that received the deposits
    extended much more credit and issued many more
    bank notes (paper money)
  • They had no restraints on them from the defunct
    national bank

32
The War on the Bank (cont.)
  • Soon the number of state depositories ballooned
    beyond Jacksons expectations
  • This loosening of credit touched off a period of
    headlong economic expansion, reckless
    speculation, and rapid inflation

33
The Rise of Whig Opposition
  • During Jacksons 2nd term, the National
    Republicans changed their name to Whigs
  • Began to attract broader support
  • Southerners angry over Jacksons denunciation of
    nullification
  • Temperance reformers
  • Public-school reformers
  • Anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic Protestants
  • Followers of the Anti-Masonry movement
  • The commercial community of merchants,
    manufactures, and bankers

34
The Election of 1836
  • Democrats nominated Martin Van Buren
  • Whigs ran 4 candidates (unable to agree on a
    single nominee)
  • The Democrats claimed the Whigs did this so that
    no man would receive a majority of the electoral
    votes
  • Putting the choice into the House of Rep.
  • Where one of the Whigs nominees may win
  • Van Buren won a clear majority

35
The Election of 1836 (cont.)
36
The Panic of 1837
  • Just as Van Buren was inaugurated, the countrys
    economy went into a serve depression
  • Causes were international and national
  • Jacksons bank policies had produced a wave of
    speculation and inflation
  • In July 1836, Jackson issued the Specie Circular
    that barred the purchase of govt.-owned land with
    anything but gold
  • This move burst the speculative bubble
  • Contributed to the panic and depression of 1837

37
The Panic of 1837 (cont.)
  • President Van Buren dealt with the depression by
    divorcing the federal govt. from banking
  • Antibank, hard-money stand
  • In 1840, he signed the Independent Treasury Bill
  • Provided that federal govt. money would be kept
    in its own treasury instead of being deposited in
    banks

38
The Election of 1840
  • Democrats renominated Van Buren
  • Whigs chose William Henry Harrison (hero of
    Tippecanoe) as president and John Tyler as VP
  • Whigs used the appeal-to-the-common-man campaign
  • Van Buren was unpopular because of the depression
  • Harrison won the election

39
1840 Election
40
The Second Party System Matures
  • Between 1836 and 1840, the number of people who
    voted increased by 60
  • This rapid increase in voter interest was caused
    by
  • Popular campaign techniques
  • Strong contrast and competition between rival
    parties
  • Controversial issues like tariffs and banking
  • All of which characterized the mature second
    party system

41
The Rise of Popular Religion
  • Introduction
  • In the 1820s and 1830s, Americans turned to
    preachers who rejected Calvinist beliefs in
    predestination
  • Just as politics was becoming more democratic, so
    was religious doctrine
  • The primary message was that any individual could
    be saved through his or her own efforts and faith
  • This democratic transformation was produced in
    part by a series of religious revivals known as
    the Second Great Awakening

42
The Second Great Awakening
  • From New England, the Second Great Awakening
    moved rapidly to frontier areas
  • Thousands gathered at religious camp meetings
  • These frontier revivals helped to promote law and
    order
  • Diminished the violence prevalent in new western
    areas
  • The Methodists were the largest, most successful
    denomination on the frontier
  • Early 1800s to 1840s

43
Eastern Revivals
  • By the 1820s, the center of religious revivals
    had moved east again
  • It was particularly strong in an area of western
    New York known as the Burned-Over District
  • Mostly along Erie Canal

44
Eastern Revivals (cont.)
  • Charles G. Finney
  • Revivalist leader
  • Preached humans were capable of living without
    sin
  • Humans needed to experience an emotional
    religious conversion

45
Critics of Revivals The Unitarians
  • In New England, the educated and wealthy were
    often repelled by the emotional excesses of
    revivalism and turned instead to Unitarianism
  • This denomination preached that goodness should
    be cultivated by a gradual process of character
    building
  • Emulate the life and teachings of Jesus
  • Believed humans could shape their own destiny and
    improve their behavior

46
The Rise of Mormonism
  • Joseph Smith
  • Started Mormonism in 1820s
  • In the Burned-Over District
  • Moved to Nauvoo, IL to start a model city
  • Began practice of polygamy
  • Prosecuted by authorities and attacked by mobs
    (murdered Smith in 1844)

47
The Rise of Mormonism (cont.)
  • The hostility that the Mormons encountered from
    others convinced Mormon leaders that they must
    separate themselves from American society
  • Brigham Young moved Mormons to the Great Salt
    Lake region in 1846

48
The Shakers
  • Started by Mother Ann Lee in the U.S.A. in 1774
  • Founded separate religious communities
  • The Shakers rejected economic individualism and
    tried to withdraw from American society
  • They separated men and women
  • Banned marriage
  • Relied on converts and adoption to keep their
    numbers up
  • They pooled their land and tools and labor in the
    process of creating remarkably prosperous villages

49
The Age of Reform
  • Introduction
  • The reform movements were strongest in New
    England and in areas of the Midwest settled by
    New Englanders

50
The War on Liquor
  • The temperance movement began by preaching
    moderation in the use of liquor
  • American Temperance Society
  • Movement began to demand total abstinence and
    prohibition laws
  • Most members were middle class
  • 1840s Washington Temperance Societies attracted
    workers though
  • The movement was successful in cutting per capita
    consumption of alcohol in half between the 1820s
    and 1840s

51
Public School Reform
  • Horace Mann
  • Secretary of the MA Board of Education

52
Public School Reform (cont.)
  • Advocated many educational innovations
  • State tax support of schools
  • Grouping pupils into classes by age and level of
    competence
  • Longer school terms
  • Use of standardized textbooks
  • Compulsory attendance laws

53
Public School Reform (cont.)
  • Despite opposition from various groups, many
    northern states adopted these reforms
  • Backed by important constituencies
  • Businesses
  • needed disciplined, literate workers
  • Workingmens groups
  • Saw education as a road to social mobility
  • Reform-minded women
  • realized school reform would open teaching
    careers to women
  • By 1900, 70 of public school teachers were female

54
Abolition
  • Opposition to slavery in the 1820s came mostly
    from black Americans
  • 1831
  • Militant white abolitionist movement began
  • Led by William Lloyd Garrison
  • The Liberator
  • http//www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2928t.html

55
Abolition (cont.)
  • Most northern whites in the 1830s and 1840s
    were hostile to the abolitionists
  • American Anti-Slavery Society
  • Founded in 1833
  • Suffered from internal quarrels between its
    Garrisonian wing and its New York and western
    wings
  • 2 main points of dispute
  • Whether to support rights for women as well as
    black
  • Whether to take abolitionism into politics

56
Abolition (cont.)
  • http//www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec83
    2
  • http//usa.usembassy.de/etexts/democrac/18.htm

57
Womens Rights
  • Many of the womens rights leaders began their
    reform careers in the abolitionist movement
  • Seneca Falls, NY
  • 1848
  • Womens rights convention
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Lucretia Mott
  • Declaration of Sentiments

58
Womens Rights (cont.)
  • http//www.nps.gov/archive/wori/declaration.htm
  • Launch of the feminist movement
  • Women gained a few rights
  • They did not get to vote fully until 1920

59
Penitentiaries and Asylums
  • In the 1820s and 1830s, religious revivalists
    and reformers came to believe that crime,
    poverty, and deviancy were caused by failures of
    parental guidance that could be mended by
    institutions providing the proper discipline and
    environment
  • Following that belief, reformers created
    penitentiaries and workhouses for criminals and
    the indigent

60
Penitentiaries and Asylums (cont.)
  • Dorothea Dix fought for the establishment of
    insane asylums to treat the mentally ill
  • These programs were tied to the belief that
    deviancy could be erased by settling the deviants
    in the right environment

61
Utopian Communities
  • A few reformers founded ideal or utopian
    communities
  • Demonstrate ways of life that they thought were
    superior to those prevailing in antebellum
    American
  • New Harmony, IN
  • Hopedale, MA
  • Brook Farm, MA
  • Most utopian communities were short lived

62
New Harmony, IN
63
Conclusion
  • In the 1820s and 1830s, politics and religion
    responded increasingly to the common man
  • Andrew Jackson represented the common man of
    the enlarged electorate and was swept into the
    presidency
  • Jacksons stands on federally financed internal
    improvements, protective tariffs, nullification,
    and the national bank divided citizens
  • Led to the rise of the second party system
  • Democrats vs. Whigs

64
Conclusion (cont.)
  • The Panic of 1837, furthered the partisan split
  • Reformers offered a variety of proposals to
    unleash the basic goodness of humans and perfect
    society
  • Though initially avoiding corrupt politics,
    reformers by the 1840s were starting to enter
    the political arena to advance their particular
    aims
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