Indigenous Women’s Participation in Political Sector : An Experience of Nepal International Parliamentary Conference Parliaments, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 31 october-3 November 2010, Tuxtla, Mexico - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Indigenous Women’s Participation in Political Sector : An Experience of Nepal International Parliamentary Conference Parliaments, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 31 october-3 November 2010, Tuxtla, Mexico

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Title: Indigenous Women’s Participation in Political Sector : An Experience of Nepal International Parliamentary Conference Parliaments, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 31 october-3 November 2010, Tuxtla, Mexico


1
Indigenous Womens Participation in Political
Sector An Experience of NepalInternational
Parliamentary Conference Parliaments, Minorities
and Indigenous Peoples 31 october-3 November
2010, Tuxtla, Mexico
Indigenous Womens Rights are Human Rights
  • Presented By
  • Lucky Sherpa
  • Member of Constituent Assembly, Nepal
  • Email-sherpalucky_at_yahoo.com
  • Kathmandu, Nepal

2
Indigenous Peoples of Nepal
  • According to CBS 2001, Indigenous Nationalities
    in Nepal Consists 37.2 Percent of the Total Nepal
    Population That is 8.46 nationalities recognized
    by Govt but there are still some groups to be
    enlisted.
  • There are 59 indigenous Nationalities and more
    are yet to be recognized.
  • Indigenous Nationalities are found in 70 out of
    75 Districts in Nepal.
  • Indigenous Nationalities make up more than 50
    percent in nearly all the hill districts of
    eastern and Central Nepal.

3
INDIGENOUS WOMEN OF NEPAL
  • Women Population- 50.4, 11377556
  • Indigenous Women Population-37.5
  • Ips recognized by the Govt -59
  • Source Census 2001

4
(No Transcript)
5
  • Box 1.
  • Indigenous Nationalities of Nepal
  • MOUNTAIN
  • 1. Bara Gaunle 7. Lhomi (Shingsawa) 13.
    Thakali
  • 2. Bhutia 8. Lhopa 14. Thudam
  • 3. Byansi 9. Marphali Thakali 15. Tingaunle
    Thakali
  • 4. Chhairotan 10. Mugali 16. Topkegola
  • 5. Dolpo 11. Siyar 17. Sherpa
  • 6. Larke 12. Tangbe 18. Wallung
  • HILL
  • 1. Bankaria 9. Hayu 17. Newar
  • 2. Baramo 10. Hyolmo 18. Pahari
  • 3. Bhujel/Gharti 11. Jirel 19. Rai
  • 4. Chepang 12. Kushbadia 20. Sunuwar
  • 5. Chhantyal 13. Kusunda 21. Surel
  • 6. Dura 14. Lepcha 22. Tamang
  • 7. Fri 15. Limbu 23. Thami

6
Major Factors of Social Exlusion
7
238 years of Discrimination
  • On the Basis of Gender
  • Caste/Ethnicity
  • Religion
  • Language
  • Culture

8
Source ESP based on data from Human Development
Report, NESAC, 1999 estimated onlyHuman
Development Indicators
9
Fundamental Problems of IPs of Nepal
  • Lack of participation in all areas of Governance
  • Weak Institutional Framework for Supporting their
    development
  • Inadequate Government Policies to Promote their
    development and poor implementation of these
    policies.
  • Low Educational Status
  • Low Socioeconomic Status

10
Population DistributionSource 2001 Census,
CBS, Acharya 2004
11
Participation in Governance
12
Women Movement and Indigenous Women of Nepal
  • Womens movement of Nepal is only centered on the
    gender discrimination issue of dominant groups,
    but has failed to encompass the issues and
    innermost dimensions of adivasi/ Janajati
    (Indigenous Nationalities women in this movement.
  • Diversity of indigenous women have not been yet
    recognized by Women movement.
  • Although Innumerable programs related to women
    development and Gender equality are being
    implemented in the country, Programs have
    benefited those limited castes and communities
    who dominate stat affairs.

13
Discrimination, Social Exclusion, Marginalization
and Poverty
14
Present Political Context and Ips of Nepal
  • Building a New Constitution for Nepal
  • Out of Total CA members, 33 percent consists of
    Indigenous CA Members .
  • New Constitution is becoming a Low priority for
    most of the Political Parties
  • Cases of Human Right Violation, insecurity and
    Impunity at Rise.
  • Bandhs and Strikes at rise

15
Status of Indigenous Women of Nepal
  • Socio-Cultural Status
  • Indigenous women in Administration and Policy
    making
  • Total Civil Servants - 93,716
  • Women Civil Servants- 8008
  • Total Gazetted 9517
  • Women Employee 487 that is 5.12 percent
  • Total Non Gazetted 84199
  • Women Non Gazetted 7521 that is 8.93 percent of
    the total
  • Bahun Chhetri, Thakuri, Shah, Yadav women - 62.6
    percent,
  • Newar women 22.0 percent,
  • Non-newar indigenous women 13.02 percent and
  • Dalit and other women comprise 2.27
  • Indigenous Women in Decision Making level
  • Access to Education
  • Indigenous women and Health
  • July 2000

16
Different Forms of Violence Against
Indigenous Women
  • POLITICAL Violence Against Indigenous Women
  • In-equal\equitable representation in all the
    political mechanisms at all level.
  • Organizational Structure of Political Parties

17
Indigenous Women in Indigenous Peoples
Organization
  • Underrepresented in Decision Making posts and
    processes
  • Indigenous men guided by Hindu Patriarchal norms
    and values and high level of inferiority complex.
  • Underrepresented in Decision Making posts and
    processes
  • Indigenous Womens representation in most of the
    Political Parties of Nepal is almost nil in
    decision making level but represented in the
    lower cadre level.

18
Continued..
  • In-equal\equitable representation in all the
    political mechanisms at all level.
  • Army Adjustment Special Committee
  • no. of IP women-none
  • Council of Ministers etc.
  • no. of IP Women

19
ECONOMIC
  • Treated as weaker than men and discrimination on
    pay scale.
  • Wage Discrimination- Low wage for women
  • Treated as incompetency to non-indigenous women
    and discrimination on pay scale.
  • Job Politics
  • Exploitation - Undue influence/Advantage

20
Violence in Socio Cultural Sector
  • Omissions of cultural Identity-
  • Polyandry
  • In some IPs Community
  • Polygamy
  • In some of the IPs community
  • Marriage at Child/Pregnancy Stage
  • Child Marriage in Tharu community.
  • Dowry System specially in Terai IP communities
  • Testimony from Tharu Communities

21
Domestic Violence
  • Torture from husband by consuming Excessive  of
    Liquor
  • Physical torture
  • Beating, Snatching, Threatening, Starving
  • Mental torture
  • Abusing, ignoring, insulting, harassing etc.
  • Torture from other members (brothers, seniors)
  • Assigning excessive of work
  • Treating as burden and curse for family

22
Violence in society
  • IP Women are treated as the means of
    entertainment
  • Mostly employed in Night Bar/Restaurants and
    Massage Centres etc.
  • Mostly involved in entrepreneurs situated in High
    Way and Motels
  • Mostly employed in Hotel and Casinos

23
Girls Women Trafficked by Caste/Ethnicity, 2001
24
Recommendations
  • UN Organizations
  • Review Gender Policy under MDG inserting the
    programmes deals with Indigenous Women
    specifically.
  • Ask reports annually to the government on the
    programmes conducted for IP Women
  • Ensure full involvement of indigenous women in
    negotiation of peace dialogue and agreements at
    national and international levels, including
    through provision of training for indigenous
    women and their organisations on formal peace
    processes,

25
Nepal Government
  • The state should recognize identity of indigenous
    women and specify indigenous women in all plan,
    policy, strategy, operational strategy, program,
    budget, monitoring and evaluation and make
    necessary arrangement for proportional
    distribution of budget, resource and means
  • Insert Indigenous Womens Development Policy in
    National Development Plan
  • Recognize the diversity of Indigenous women in
    national women commission
  • Formulate the Reservation Act Immediately for
    ensuring participation and representation of
    indigenous women in all mechanisms of the
    government.
  • Ensure proportional representation and special
    rights of indigenous peoples-women and men, at
    all levels of the tree organs of the state -
    executive, legislative and judiciary

26
To Indigenous Peoples
  • Respect the spirit and aspiration of indigenous
    Peoples movement
  • Respect the international practices of
    characteristics of indigenous peoples
  • Respect the federal, inclusive democracy and
    diversity
  • Get united and make space for all Nepalese Peoples

27
Continue Nepal Govt.
  • Ensure the participation of indigenous women in
    the formulation of policy, plans and programmes
    by government.
  • Free Prior and Informed Consent and effective
    participation of indigenous women should be
    respected.
  • Implementation the ILO Convention 169 effectively
    in consultation with IP Women.

28
To Civil Society and International Organizations
  • Consider a National Concern to the problems and
    issues of Indigenous women and peoples.
  • Encourage Indigenous women and men to come
    forward in strengthening federalism and
    democratic republic in a meaningful way.
  • The state, womens movement, and international
    aid agencies should recognize diversity of women
    or gender in terms of caste, ethnicity, language,
    culture and region to ensure proportional
    participation and representation in all sector.
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