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Aging: Promoting Awareness and Advocacy

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Aging: Promoting Awareness and Advocacy Dean D. VonDras, Ph.D. Human Development and Psychology Departments University of Wisconsin-Green Bay vondrasd_at_uwgb.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aging: Promoting Awareness and Advocacy


1
  • Aging Promoting Awareness and Advocacy
  • Dean D. VonDras, Ph.D.
  • Human Development and Psychology Departments
  • University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
  • vondrasd_at_uwgb.edu

2
  • Overview
  • Recognizing physical/psychological/social
    interactions
  • Recognizing functional changes due to age and
    disability
  • Promoting awareness and advocacy

3
  •   

Psychological
Physical
Social
4
  •  Observable Physical Changes with Age
  •  Skin and face wrinkles, sagging, leathering
  •  Hair thinning and graying
  •  Height decreases
  • Weight increases during middle adulthood,
    i.e., the middle-age spread, and often
    decreases in old age, especially in physically
    fragile older adults
  •  

5
  • Declines in Sensory-Perceptual Processes with
    Age
  • Vision and Hearing
  • Taste and Smell 
  • Somethesis Skin, Temperature, Pain
  • Proprioception sensations generated by the body
    that let you know the location of limbs in space
  • Kinesthesia ones sense of location while
    moving through space 

6
  • Changes in Hearing
  • Presbycusis age related hearing impairment
  • Caused by deterioration of mechanisms in the
    inner ear, long-term exposure to loud noises,
    certain drugs, an improper diet, or genetic
    factors. 

7
  • Decline in sensitivity to tones and pitches
    different frequencies decline at different rates
    with advancing age.
  •  
  •  

8
From Ordy et al. (1979), Age differences in the
functional and structural organization of the
hearing system in man, in, Ordy and Brizzee
(Eds.), Sensory Systems and Communication in the
Elderly.
9
  • Speech perception becomes more difficult due to
    the decline in tone and pitch sensitivity.
  •  

10
  • Ways to make your speech heard
  • Talk in a lower pitch but distinct voice
  • Articulate every syllable -- speak clearly
  • Talk face to face -- read my lips

11
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13
  • Causes of Disability
  • Congenital occurring at birth
  • Accident/injury
  • Because of illness/disease
  • Age-related

14
  • Keep in mind
  • A disability may not be obvious to others.
  • A disability is more likely to occur in old age.

15
Most Prevalent Chronic Conditions in Later-life
  • Arthritis
  • Hypertensive Disease
  • Heart Disease
  • Hearing Impairments
  • Musculoskeletal impairments
  • Chronic Sinusitis
  • Diabetes
  • Visual Impairments

16
Most Feared Conditions in Later-life
  • Alzheimers Disease - Dementia
  • Stroke/Cancer
  • Physical disability that prevents independence
    and autonomy of normal life (e.g., Parkinsons
    Disease)
  • Heart Disease/Chronic Pulmonary Disorder
  • Deafness/Blindness      

17
  • Old age and disability impact upon
  • Activities of daily life (ADLs)
  • Instrumental activities of daily life (IADLs)
  • Sense of self

18
  •  

Ideal Self
Real Self
19
  • Stereotype a social belief about a group of
    people.

20
  • Stereotypes linked with traits of older adults
  • Negative Stereotypes -gt Traits
  • Severely impaired -gt Slow-thinking, feeble,
    senile
  • Despondent -gt Sad, hopeless, afraid, lonely
  • Shrew/curmudgeon -gt Ill-tempered, stubborn,
    bitter
  • Recluse -gt Quiet, timid, naive

21
  • Positive Stereotypes -gt Traits
  • Golden-ager -gt Active, independent, happy
  • Perfect grandparent -gt Loving, supportive, wise,
    kind
  • J. Wayne Type -gt Patriotic, proud, religious

22
  • Loss Continuum Model (Pastalan, 1982)
  • Views aging as a progressive series of losses
    that reduces ones social participation.

23
Shrinking Environment with Loss

Greatest physical limitations--home
bound/residential care
Later life--with increasing physical decline
Later life--healthy
Young adulthood--Healthy
24
  • Person-Environment Interaction and Optimal
    Aging
  • Kurt Lewins (1936) conceptualization
  • B f (P, E)
  • Behavior is the function of both the person and
    environment

25
  • Competence and Environmental Press Model (Lawton
    and Nahemow, 1973)
  • Behavior is a result of a person of a particular
    competence in an environment of a specific press
    level.
  • Behavior exists on a positive-negative continuum
    and is observable at the behavior and affect
    levels.

26
  • Competence the theoretical upper limit of a
    persons capacity to function.
  • Environmental press the demands placed upon the
    person.
  • Adaptation level where press is in balance for
    particular level of competence.

27
  • Five Domains of Competence by Lawton and Nahemow
  • Biological health
  • Sensory-perceptual functioning
  • Motor skills
  • Cognitive skills
  • Ego strength

28
Positive affect and adaptive behavior
Negative affect and maladaptive behavior
Marginal
Marginal
Adaptation level
Maximum performance potential
Low Competence High
Negative affect and maladaptive behavior
B
A
Weak Environmental Press Strong
  • Competence-Environment Press Model (from Lawton
    and Nahemow, 1973)

29
  • The less the competence level of the person, the
    greater the impact of environmental factors

30
  • The competence-environmental press model is a
    useful lens of analysis for interventions in that
    it describes a scaffolding process, where
    modification of environment can increase
    adaptation.
  • E.g., arranging living environment designs to
    increase social interaction

31
  • Ways to enhance a sense of competency
  • Speak to a person, practice Bubers I and Thou.
  • Be respectfulrecognize independence and
    autonomy.
  • Recognize abilities and skillswisdom.
  • See development occurring despite disability and
    infirmity.
  • Respect cultural differences in reaction to
    changes in life, e.g., death.

32
  • Promoting Awareness and Advocacy
  • Different instructional activities and levels of
    student engagement

33
  • Levels of student engagement
  • Listening and reflecting Taking it in or
    tuning out
  • Telling about personal observations or
    experiences This is what happened to me
  • Simulation experiences finding out for yourself
  • Discussing different perspectives exploring
    contrasts, finding similarities
  • Problem solving I identifying problems
  • Problem solving II generating and testing
    solutions

34
  • Self-Discovery Activity
  • What are the Most Valuable Things in Your Life?
  • List the 5 most valuable things in your lifeand
    explain why they are important
  • Now, choose one of the aspects you mentioned to
    give up. Which one would it be and why?
  • Now choose two other of the aspects you noted
    above to give up. Which would these be and why?
  • How might giving up these aspects of your life
    reflect the losses the elderly endure?
  • How do you think you will cope and adapt, as you
    encounter losses with age?

35
  • Film Review Essay
  • Review a film where the main characters are
    elderly
  • Then compose an essay discussing how theories and
    research discussed in class coincide with
    characterizations or themes expressed in the
    film.

36
  • Interview an Older Adult
  • Conduct a semi-structured interview of an older
    adult and provide a case study discussing how
    your understanding of the person coincides with
    theories and research discussed in class.
  •  
  • Our learning goal is to find practical
    application of theory and research to real
    lives and experiences, and further our
    understanding of various aspects of adult
    development and aging.

37
  • Sensory-Perceptual Deficit Simulation
  • Materials
  • Two cotton balls and about 2 feet of plastic wrap
  • Procedure
  • Gently place cotton balls in each ear canal
    this will simulate changes in hearing that might
    occur in old age.
  • Bunch up and then gently place the wrap across
    the bridge of your nose as if they were eye
    glasses this will simulate changes in the
    peripheral visual mechanisms that might occur
    with cataracts.

38
  • Web-based learning activities
  • Common Causes of Age-Related Vision Loss
  • Lighthouse International Visual deficit
    simulation examples http//www.lighthouse.org/pat
    ient/default.htm
  • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss
  • Health and Safety Executive Auditory deficit
    simulation examples (This site allows a download
    to your computer) http//www.hse.gov.uk/noise/dem
    onstration.htm

39
  • An online version of the Implicit Association
    Test (IAT, Greenwald et al., 1998)
  • The IAT is found at the Internet web project
    sponsored by the Southern Poverty Law Center
    http//www.tolerance.org/
  • Students Assignment
  • Visit the web site, read about the IAT, complete
    two online tests.
  • Read tutorials on stereotypy and prejudice.
  • Write a brief reflection paper regarding this
    experience.

40
  • A sample of students narrative responses
  • I learned that perhaps I had biases that I was
    not aware of I felt that I had very positive
    attitudes toward older adults, but I was amazed
    to find out that I did indeed have biases!
  • I saw that even though you may not believe that
    you have bias towards others, unconsciously you
    probably do. Society has a huge influence over
    us.
  • I really did not learn very much from this
    activity. I feel this was more of a hand
    eye-coordination exercise than an attitudes test.
    If you really want to see how people have
    attitudes towards others then you need to ask
    them questions and do follow-up studies.
  • I learned that there are a lot of different ways
    to be biased against others.

41
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42
  • Classroom advocacy assignment
  • Identify an issue or problem, e.g., rising health
    costs, adapting to environmental press, etc.
  • Assign small groups a unique case to discuss
    and have them identify important concerns and
    possible solutions for the individual(s)
    represented in the case.
  • Cases may include the following individuals
  • - cognitively impaired elderly
  • - institutionalized elderly
  • - chronically ill elderly
  • - economically disadvantaged elderly
  • - mentally ill elderly
  • - family caregivers of older adults
  • - widowed elderly
  • - new immigrant elderly
  • - older adults from different ethnic backgrounds

43
Means, Standard Deviations, and Spearman
Correlations of Survey Measures with Advocacy
Perspective (N 74)
p lt .05, p lt .01. a 0 advocacy is for
self or student perspective 1 advocacy is for
unique group of older or disabled adults
44
Sampling of Student Narrative Responses
Discussing What is Learned When Serving as an
Advocate is a Required Aspect of Discussion
45
  • Overall
  • The advocacy role takes the student beyond their
    usual realm of thinking and experience, enhancing
    depth-of-learning.
  • The activity stimulates a wide variety of
    learning behaviors, e.g., interactive inquiry,
    critical analysis, empathic understanding, etc.

46
  • Things an advocate can provide informally
  • Moral support
  • Sense of belonging
  • Self-esteem
  • Recognition of competency and mastery
  • Practical aid
  • Safe environment

47
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48
  • Acting with Empathy
  • Empathy recognizing and understanding the
    state of mind, beliefs, desires and emotions of
    another person without interjecting your own.
  • Putting yourself in anothers shoes

49
  • Sympathy feeling sorry another person.
  • Empathy ? Sympathy

50
  • Avoid patronizing speech remarks that reflect
    stereotypes of incompetence and dependence.
  • Avoid infantalization e.g., using terms of
    endearment, using simple language, etc.

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55
  • Bernies Travels
  • 1. Attended McBride HS -- all-conference and
    all-district as a senior.
  • 2. Attended UMSL 3-year starter, 5th in career
    scoring, senior co-captain and MVP in 1971-72.
  • 3. Assistant coach at McCluer North HS
    1972-1974.
  • 4. Head coach at McCluer High 1974-1975 Class
    4A State Champions.
  • 5. Returns to UMSL as Asst. Coach, 1975-1977.
  • 6. Head Coach Jefferson College, 1977-1985
    182-69 record, eight 20-win seasons, Region 16
    East finals 5 times.
  • 7. Moves to Murray State (Ky.) 1985-1989 as
    recruiting coordinator1988 NCAA tournament, 1989
    NIT.
  • 8. Southwest Missouri State Assistant Coach,
    1989-1992.
  • 9. SMS Head Coach 1992-1995 48-37 record, NIT.
  • 10. Assistant Coach New Mexico State -- 1996
  • 11. Head Coach at Kirkwood High in St. Louis --
    1997
  • 12. Head Coach at University of Missouri-St.
    Louis -- 1999

56
We need to meet all kinds of people so that we
can find ourselves. Young people need older
people just as older people need young people in
order to become more themselves and more human.
That humanizing process will teach us that there
is a child behind the mask of each older face,
just as there is already an older person behind
the mask of each young face. Leo. E.
Missinne (1990) 
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