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Understanding Nutrition


Understanding Nutrition Chapter 17 Life Cycle Nutrition: Alcohol and the Later Years By A. Fellah, Ph.D. The Aging of the U.S. Population Nutrition and Longevity In ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Nutrition

Understanding Nutrition
  • Chapter 17
  • Life Cycle Nutrition
  • Alcohol and the Later Years
  • By
  • A. Fellah, Ph.D.

The Aging of the U.S. Population
Nutrition and longevity.
Nutrition and Longevity
  • In 2000, an estimated 70,000 people in U.S. were
    100 years or older by the year 2050, the number
    of centenarians is expected to grow more than
  • Life expectancy the average number of years
    lived by people in a given society.
  • Life span the maximum number of years of life
    attainable by a member of a species.
  • Longevity long duration of life.

The Age Wave
About one in five Americans will be 65 years of
age or older by the year 2030.
Increasing Longevity
Fun with friends may increase longevity.
Life Expectancy
Average length of life for Caucasian and African
American males and females in the United States
in 1900, 1940, and 1996.
  • Research in the field of aging is active-and
    difficult. The questions researchers are asking
  • To what extent is aging inevitable, and can it be
    slowed through changes in lifestyle and
  • What role does nutrition play in the aging
    process, and what role can it play in slowing
  • It seems that aging is inevitable, natural
    process, programmed into the genes at conception.
  • Nutrition can improve the quality of life in the
    later years.

U.S. Population Growth, 1960 to 1990
The oldest oldthose over 85 yearsare the
fastest-growing age group in the United States.
Between 1960 and 1990, the U.S. population grew
39 percent, but the population of those over 85
more than doubled. An estimated 25,000 Americans
now living are 100 years old or older.
Observation of Elderly People
  • Health Habits
  • The physiological age reflects the health status
    and may or may not reflect the chronological age.
  • Physiological age a persons age as estimated
    from her of his bodys health and probable life
  • Chronological age a persons age in years from
    his or her date of birth.
  • Influence of lifestyle behaviors on people
  • Sleeping regularly and adequately.
  • Eating well-balanced meals.
  • Engaging in physical activity regularly.
  • Not smoking.
  • Not using alcohol, or using it in moderation.
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight.

Manipulation of Diet
  • Energy Restriction in Animals.
  • Animals live longer and have fewer ageing related
    diseases when their food intakes are
  • The consequences of energy restriction
  • Delay the onset, or prevention, of diseases
  • Prolonged growth and development.
  • Improve blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and
    blood lipids.
  • Energy Restriction in Human Beings
  • Cut in energy intake by 10-20 may result in
  • Drop in Body weight, body fat, and blood
  • Rise in HDL cholesterol.

The Aging Process
  • Stress any threat to a persons well-being a
    demand placed on the body to adapt.
  • Stressors environmental elements, physical or
    psychological, that cause stress.
  • Physical alcohol abuse, drug abuse, smoking,
    pain, and illness.
  • Psychological exam, divorce, moving, and death
    of loved one.
  • Stress response the bodys response to stress,
    mediated by both nerves and hormones.
  • Healthy people over 100 years old who had higher
    intakes of vegetable showed less evidence of
    oxidative stress than people 70 to 99 years old.

  • Physiological Changes
  • Body Composition older people tent to lose bone
    and muscle and gain body fat.
  • Sarcopenis loss of skeletal muscle mass,
    strength, and quality.
  • Optimal nutrition and regular physical activity
    can help maintain muscle mass and strength and
    minimize the change in body composition.
  • Immune System
  • Reduction in function with age.
  • Compromised with nutrition deficiencies.
  • Old age and malnutrition make older people
    vulnerable to infection diseases.

Younger Womans Thigh
Older Womans Thigh
  • GI tract intestinal wall loses strength and
    elasticity with age.
  • Atrophic gastritis condition affect 1/3 of
    those over 60.
  • Inflamed stomach.
  • Increased bacterial growth.
  • Reduced HCl.
  • Reduced intrinsic factor.
  • Increased risk of nutrient deficiencies, notable
    by vitamin B12.
  • Tooth Loss tooth loss and gum diseases are
    common in old age.
  • People without teeth have low intakes of fiber
    and vitamins and high intakes of saturated fat
    and energy.
  • Conditions requiring dental care
  • Dry mouth, Eating difficulty,
  • No dental care within 2 years, Tooth or mouth
  • Altered food selections, Lesions, sores, or lumps
    in mouth.

  • Sensory Losses and other Physical Problems
  • They can interfere with the ability to obtain
    adequate nourishment.
  • Failing eyesight can make driving to the grocery
    store difficult.
  • Carrying bags of groceries may become a problem.
  • Taste and smell sensitivities tend to diminish
    with age.
  • Psychological changes
  • Depression affecting 6 million older adults.
  • Economic changes
  • Poverty is a problem for 20 of the people over
    age 65.
  • Social change
  • Malnutrition most likely to occur among those
    living alone.
  • Loneliness is directly related to nutritional

Taste in Older Aged People
Taste is less affected by age than are some other
Energy and Nutrient Needs of Older Adults
  • Water
  • Total body water decreases as people age, so even
    mild stresses such as fever or hot weather can
    precipitate rapid dehydration in old adults.
  • 6 glasses of water is needed to prevent
  • Energy and Energy Nutrients
  • The energy RDA for adults decreases slightly
    after age 50.
  • People must select mostly nutrient-dense foods,
    low in fat, sugars, and alcohol.
  • Many older people experience unintentional weight
    loss because of inadequate food intake.

Adults of all ages need 6 to 8 glasses of water
per day.
  • Protein
  • Must be obtained from low-kcalories sources of
    high-quality protein.
  • Lean meats, poultry, fish, and eggs
  • Low-fat milk products and legumes.
  • Support a healthy immune system and prevent
    muscle wasting.
  • Carbohydrate and Fiber
  • Abundant carbohydrate is needed to protect
    protein fro being used as an energy source.
  • Eating high-fiber foods and drinking water can
    alleviate constipation.
  • Fat
  • Cutting fat may help prevent or delay the
    development of cancer and atherosclerosis.

Vitamin and Minerals
  • Vitamin B12
  • 15 of elderly deficient of the vitamin B12.
  • Given the devastating neurological effects of a
    vitamin B12 deficiency, an adequate intake is
  • Vitamin D
  • Fortified milk provides significant vitamin D.
  • Aging reduces the skins capacity of make vitamin
    D and the kidneys ability to convert it to its
    active from.
  • 10 mg daily is recommended to prevent bone loss
    and to maintain vitamin D status.

  • Calcium
  • 1200 mg is the daily recommendation.
  • Some older adults avoid milk and milk products,
    the addition of powdered non-fat milk to recipes
    may solve it.
  • Iron
  • Iron deficiency anemia is less common in older
  • People with low food energy intakes may have it.
  • Chronic blood loss from diseases and medicines,
    and poor iron absorption may lead to iron
    deficiency anemia.

Predictors of malnutrition in the elderly
Nutrition-Related Concerns of Older adults
  • Cataracts and Macular Degeneration
  • Cataracts thickening of the eye lenses that
    impair vision and can lead to blindness.
  • Macular degeneration deterioration of the
    macular area of the eye that can lead to loss of
    central vision and eventual blindness.
  • The macula is a small, oval, yellowish region in
    the center of the retina that provides the sharp,
    straight-ahead vision so critical to reading and

  • Arthritis
  • Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by
    pain, swelling, and structural changes.
  • Osteoarthritis
  • a painful, chronic disease of the joints that
    occurs when the cushioning cartilage in a joint
    breaks down joint structure is usually altered,
    with loss of function (degenerative arthritis).
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • a disease of the immune system involving painful
    inflammation of the joints and related structure.

The Aging Brain
  • Neurons nerve cells the structural and
    functional units of the nervous system. Neurons
    initiate and conduct nerve transmission.
  • Senile dementia the loss of brain function
    beyond the normal loss of physical adeptness and
    memory that occurs with aging.
  • Alzheimers disease a degenerative disease of
    the brain involving memory loss and major
    structural changes in neuron networks also known
    as senile dementia of the Alzheimers type
    (SDAT), primary degenerative dementia of senile
    onset, or chronic brain syndrome.

Serotonin synthesis in the brain
Communication within the Brain
Food Choices and Eating Habits of Older Adults
  • Familiarity, taste, and health beliefs are most
    influential on older peoples food choices.
  • People 65 and older are more likely to diet in
    pursuit of medical goals such as controlling
    blood glucose and cholesterol.
  • Food Assistance Programs
  • Congregate meals nutrition programs that provide
    food for the elderly in a conveniently located
    setting such as a community center.
  • Valuable source of nutrients for gt3 millions
    older adults.

Meals for Singles
  • Spend wisely
  • Buying the right amount so as not to waste any
    food is a challenge for people eating alone.
  • Ultrahigh temperature a process in which boxes
    of milk is exposed to temperature above those of
    pasteurization just long enough to sterilize the
  • Milk can be stored unopened on a shelf for up to
    3 months without refrigeration.
  • Be Creative
  • Creative chefs think of various ways to use food
    when only large amounts are available.

  • Life expectancy in the United States has
    increased dramatically over the years.
  • Healthful eating practices, weight control,
    adequate sleep, regular physical activity,
    limited or no alcohol use and abstinence from
    smoking can enhance longevity.
  • Physiological, psychological, economic and social
    changes can impair nutritional status.
  • For the older age group, water, declining energy
    needs and regular physical activity need to be

  • The vitamins and minerals of particular
    importance are Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin B6,
    Vitamin B12, zinc, iron, and calcium.
  • Supplements, prescribed by physicians, may be
  • Special concerns of this age group include
    cataracts, arthritis Alzheimers disease and
    brain functioning.
  • By practicing stress management skills,
    maintaining physical fitness, and participating
    in interesting activities mature adults can grow
    old gracefully.
  • This diverse population group needs different
    nutritional programs to address their specific
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