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Animal/Dairy Science 434

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Lec 2: Female comparative anatomy; History of Reproductive Physiology Kangaroo Rat Human Ovarian Differences Uterine and Cervical Differences Human Tract Human Tract ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal/Dairy Science 434


1
Animal/Dairy Science 434
  • Lec 2
  • Female comparative anatomy
  • History of Reproductive Physiology

2
Ovarian Differences
Mare
Cow
Sow
3
Cow
Sow
Cow, Sow, Ewe, Human
  • Cortex on outside
  • Ovulation can occur on any point of the ovary
  • Inversion of the cortex and medulla.
  • Ovulation occurs at the Ovulation Fossa

4
Uterine and Cervical Differences
Sow
Mare
Cow
5
(No Transcript)
6
Human Tract
7
Human Tract
8
Mare
SOW
Uterine Body
Uterine Body
Longitudinal Folds
There are no obstacles in the mare after the
fornix vagina
Cervix
Sow cervix has many interdigitating pads
Note Sow does not have fornix vagina
Cervix
Os Cervix
Os Cervix
Fornix Vagina
Vagina
Vagina
9
Cervix
COW
Internal Os
Cervical Ring
Cervical Ring
Fornix
Fornix
External Os
Fornix
Anterior Vagina
EWE
Anterior Vagina
10
Cervix
Cervical Folds
FV
IP
Sow
Mare
11
External Genitalia
Sow
Mare
Cow
Ewe
12
Human Tract
13
External Genitalia
14
Vagina
Anterior Vagina
Cervix
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Columnar Epithelium
Urethra
Submucosa
Submucosa
15
Avian Female Anatomy
perivitelline membrane
Infundibulum
Ovary
chalazae
albumen
shell membrane
Magnum
Oviduct
Isthmus
Shell Gland
Uterus
cleaving blastodisc
Intestine
vagina
Right Oviduct
cloaca
shell
Left side of Reproductive Tract Develops!!
16
Chicken Ovary
Hierarchical Follicular Status
17
Chicken Tract
Shell Gland
Oviduct
Ovary
18
Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology
Aristotle 384-322 BC
  • Fetus arises from menstrual blood
  • Seminal plasma initiates the conversion of
    menstrual blood
  • Semen from all parts of body

19
Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology
  • Fallopius (1562)
  • Describes the oviduct
  • Coiter (1573)
  • Describes the corpus luteum
  • Regnier de Graff (1672)
  • Describes the antral follicle (Graafian Follicle)
  • van Leewenhoek (1677)
  • Develops the microscope
  • Describes spermatozoa in semen

20
Historical Development of Reproductive Physiology
  • Spallanzani (1780)
  • Sperm were the fertilizing agent in semen
  • Successful artificial insemination of a dog
  • Dumas (1825)
  • Proves sperm the fertilizing agent

21
Modern Reprod. Physiology
  • Gonads produce steroid hormones
  • Cyclicity in females
  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
  • Artificial Insemination
  • Semen Cryopreservation
  • Prostaglandin used to control estrous cycles
  • Biotechnology

22
Approach to Applications
  • Develop basic knowledge of how system works
  • Investigate methods that can perturb the system
  • Manipulate the system to improve reproduction

23
Enhancing Reproduction
  • Small improvements have profound effects on
    production
  • 3 improvement in birth rate results in an
    additional
  • 1 million beef calves/year
  • 3.2 million pigs/year
  • 3.7 million gallons of milk/year

24
Current Trends
Metabolic and Physiologic Changes
Production
Reproduction
  • Continuing need to
  • improve reproductive performance
  • understand how to apply new technology


25
Limiting Reproduction
Pets
Insects
Humans
Wildlife
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