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Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology

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Title: Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology


1
Chapter 2An Integrative Approach to
Psychopathology
2
One-Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models
  • One-Dimensional Models (single Paradigm)
  • A conceptual approach
  • Could mean an emphasis on a specific cause of
    abnormal behavior
  • Problems occur when information from other areas
    is ignored
  • Multidimensional Models (draws from multiple
    paradigms)
  • Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative
  • System of influences that cause and maintain
    suffering
  • Draws upon information from several sources
  • View abnormal behavior as multiply determined

3
Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior
  • Biological Factors (genetics, physiology,
    neurobiology)
  • Learning Factors (conditioning, modeling)
  • Emotional Factors
  • Cognitive Factors
  • Social Factors
  • Cultural Factors

4
Multidimensional Models of Abnormal Behavior
(cont.)
  • Figure 2.1
  • Judys case one-dimensional or multidimensional
    models

5
Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology
  • Biological Paradigm
  • Phenotype vs. genotype

6
The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental
Effects
  • Gene-Environment Interactions
  • The Diathesis-Stress Model
  • Predisposition
  • Stress

7
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8
Ways to study Behavioral Genetics
  • Family Method
  • Index cases
  • Twin Studies
  • DZ
  • MZ
  • Adoptees Method

9
Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology
  • The Field of Neuroscience
  • The role of the nervous system in disease and
    behavior
  • The Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Brain and spinal cord
  • The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • Somatic and autonomic branches

10
Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology
(cont.)
  • Figure 2.4
  • Divisions of the nervous system (from Goldstein,
    1994)

11
Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System
  • The Neuron
  • Soma Cell body
  • Dendrites Branches that receive messages from
    other neurons
  • Axon Trunk of neuron that sends messages to
    other neurons
  • Axon terminals Buds at end of axon from which
    chemical messages are sent
  • Synapses Small gaps that separate neurons
  • Neurons Function Electrically, but Communicate
    Chemically
  • Neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers

12
Neuroscience and the Central Nervous System
(cont.)
  • Figure 2.5
  • Transmission of information from one neuron to
    another

13
Neuroscience Functions of MainTypes of
Neurotransmitters
  • Functions of Neurotransmitters
  • Agonists
  • Antagonists

14
Neuroscience Functions of MainTypes of
Neurotransmitters
  • Main Types and Functions of Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin (SSRIs St. Johns wort) -
  • Regulates behaviors, moods, thoughts
  • Tx Depression by serotonin
  • Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and
    benzodiazepines
  • Reduces postsynaptic activity, which inhibits
    behavior and emotions
  • Tx Anxiety by GABA
  • Norepinephrine and beta blockers
  • Tx block receptors of norepinephrine reduces
    Arousal anxiety
  • Dopamine
  • Tx Schizophrenia by blocking receptors (lowers
    Dop)

15
Neuroscience Functions of MainTypes of
Neurotransmitters (cont.)
  • Figure 2.11
  • Manipulating serotonin in the brain

16
Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain
  • Hindbrain
  • Medulla Heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
  • Pons Regulates sleep stages
  • Cerebellum Involved in physical coordination
  • Midbrain
  • Coordinates movement with sensory input
  • Contains parts of the reticular activating system
    (RAS)

17
Neuroscience and the Brain Structure
  • Limbic System
  • Thalamus Receives and integrates sensory
    information
  • Hypothalamus Controls eating, drinking,
    aggression, sexual activity
  • Regulates emotions and expressions

18
Neuroscience and the Divisions of the Brain
  • Forebrain (Cerebral Cortex)
  • Location of most sensory, emotional, and
    cognitive processing
  • Two specialized hemispheres (left and right)
    joined by the corpus callosum

19
Neuroscience and the Brain Structure
  • Lobes of Cerebral Cortex
  • Frontal Thinking and reasoning abilities,
    memory
  • Parietal Touch recognition
  • Occipital Integrates visual input
  • Temporal Recognition of sounds and long-term
    memory storage

20
Neuroscience Peripheral Nervous and Endocrine
Systems
  • Somatic Branch of PNS
  • Controls voluntary muscles and movement
  • Autonomic Branch of the PNS
  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the
    ANS
  • Regulates cardiovascular system body
    temperature
  • Also regulates the endocrine system and aids in
    digestion
  • The Endocrine System
  • Hormones

21
Neuroscience Peripheral Nervous andEndocrine
Systems (cont.)
  • Figure 2.9
  • Location of some of the major endocrine glands

22
EVALUATING THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM
  • Biological researchers have made great progress
    in elucidating brain-behavior relationships.
  • Biologically based research on both causes and
    treatment of psychopathology is proceeding at a
    rapid rate, as we will see when we discuss
    specific psychopathologies
  • Caution against reductionism
  • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

23
The Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive
Science
  • Conditioning and Cognitive Processes
  • Respondent and operant learning
  • Learned helplessness
  • Modeling and vicarious learning
  • Prepared learning
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
  • Beck
  • Cognitive distortions
  • Ellis
  • Irrational beliefs

24
EVALUATING THE COGNITIVE PARADIGM
  • Interventions based on cognitive theories have
    received more empirical research support than any
    other intervention.
  • Cognitive explanations of psychopathology tend to
    focus more on current determinants of a disorder
    and less on its cause.

25
The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology
  • The Nature of Emotion
  • To motivate us
  • Action tendency different from affect and mood
  • Intimately tied with several forms of
    psychopathology
  • Components of Emotion
  • Behavior, physiology, and cognition
  • Example of fear
  • Harmful Side of Emotional Dysregulation

26
The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology (cont.)
  • Figure 2.15
  • Emotion has three important and overlapping
    components behavior, cognition, and physiology

27
Cultural and Social Factors in Psychopathology
  • Cultural Factors
  • Influence the form and expression of normal and
    abnormal behavior
  • Gender Effects
  • Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on
    psychopathology
  • Social Relationships
  • Frequency and quality related to mortality,
    disease, and psychopathology
  • Stigma

28
Life-Span and DevelopmentalInfluences Over
Psychopathology
  • Life-Span Developmental Perspective
  • Addresses developmental changes
  • Such changes influence and constrain what is
    normal and abnormal
  • The Principle of Equifinality
  • Several paths to a given outcome
  • Paths may operate differentially at different
    developmental stages

29
Summary of the MultidimensionalPerspective of
Psychopathology
  • Multiple Causation
  • Is the rule, not the exception in explaining
    normal and abnormal behavior
  • Take a Broad, Comprehensive, Systemic Perspective
  • Addressing biological, psychological, social,
    cultural, and developmental factors
  • Useful in Understanding the Causes of
    Psychopathology and its Alleviation
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