TAKING NOTES FROM LECTURES OR TEXTBOOKS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – TAKING NOTES FROM LECTURES OR TEXTBOOKS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bc3e0-YTRiY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

TAKING NOTES FROM LECTURES OR TEXTBOOKS

Description:

Protozoa Biology, Ch. 13. Protozoa (Cornell notes) (Cornell Sample) After reading this chapter you will be able to: Describe ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:278
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 36
Provided by: reachLoui
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: TAKING NOTES FROM LECTURES OR TEXTBOOKS


1
TAKING NOTES FROM LECTURES OR TEXTBOOKS
On-Line Student Success Seminar
2009 (Your success is our
goal!)
2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
  • At the conclusion of this presentation,
  • students will . . .
  • Understand why note taking is important
  • Have some viable options for taking notes in
    class
  • Know what information to include in notes
  • Understand how taking and using notes can
    increase
  • their learning

3
WHAT ARE NOTES?
  • Notes are . . .
  • Shortened forms of ideas/concepts
  • Brief written records or communication
  • Means of capturing (in writing) the
  • ideas communicated by a speaker or
    writer

Example The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of
Man was a revolutionary call for legal equality,
representative government, and individual
freedom. But the new rights were strictly limited
to men Napoleon tightened further the
subordination of French women. Notes Decl.of
Rights of Man (1789). Revolutionary call for
legal ity, represent govt,, indiv.
freedomlimited to men by Napoleon made women
more subordinate.
4
WHAT ARE NOTES?
(Sample)
Biology, Chapter 13. Protozoa
Biology, Ch. 13. Protozoa(Notes)
  • After reading this chapter you will be able to
  • Describe protozoa in general
  • Discuss the two types of protozoaamoeba and
    ciliates
  • Protists are organisms that have characteristics
    similar to both plants and animals, but they are
    not animals of plants. They are mostly one-celled
    and belong to Kingdom Protista. Protozoa is one
    large group of protists. In this chapter you will
    learn about protozoa in general and more
    specifically about two common types of protozoa.
  • Protozoa in General
  • All protozoa share certain characteristics.First,
    they are one-celled, nongreen, animal-like
    protists. Second, they can move about and are
    specially equipped to do so. Most protozoa
    actively trap their food. They get it from the
    surrounding water and consume it in chunks. Some
    protozoa, however, are parasites. They live
    directly off other organisms.
  • Amobae
  • Forming pesudopodia. One of the simplest
    protozoans is the amoeba. Amoeba are unique in
    how they move. They develop
  • pseudopodia. Pseudopodia are false feet
    formed by flexible

(Be able to describe protozoa. Discuss 2 kinds,
(1) amoeba and (2) ciliates
Def.
Protists organisms w/characteristics of plants
animals but are neither. Mostly one-celled
belong to Kingdom Protista.
Protozoa 1 large group of protists. 2 common
types. Protozoa one-celled
non-green animal-like can
move basis of classificatn must
secure their own food from water where they live
consume food in chunks
some are parasites, living off other
organisms Amoeba a simple protozoan, unique
b/c the way it moves develop
pseudopodiafalse feet formed by flexible
plasma membranse and cytoplasm in phases
1. cytoplasm gelatinous, fixed
5
WHY TAKE NOTES?
  • Notes give an account of what was said or
    read
  • They organize and sequence information
  • Notes weed out unnecessary information
  • They enable you to more accurately retrieve
  • what was said or read
  • Notes enable you to write your own textbook!

6
WHY TAKE NOTES?
  • Note taking forces you to listen /read
    carefully
  • Helps you test your understanding
  • of the material
  • Provides a gauge to what is important
  • Writing notes helps you remember prior to
  • your formal study of the information
  • Good notes hold clues to what the professor
    considers important

7
WHAT INFORMATION IS IMPORTANT?
  • Professors often give clues to important
    information
  • Material written on the board
  • Information repeated
  • Information given emphasis
  • Tone of voice
  • Gestures
  • Amount of time spent on a point
  • Word signals
  • There are two points of view on . . .
  • The third reason is . . .
  • In conclusion . . .
  • Summaries
  • Reviews at the beginning of a class

8
HOW CAN WE TAKE NOTES?
  • Use a note taking system (paper/pencil)
  • Example Cornell Note taking system
  • Use a laptop
  • Use an audio recorder
  • What are the advantages/disadvanta
    ges of each?

9
The Cornell Note-Taking System
2-1/2
6
Note-taking Column (use in class)
Cue Column
  • 1. Record during the lecture, use this column
    to record the lecture using telegraphic
    sentences.
  • 2. Questions as soon as possible after class,
    formulate questions based on your notes. Writing
  • helps clarify
    meanings, reveal relationships, establish
    continuity, and strengthen
  • memory. Perfect stage
    for exam preparation!
  • 3. Recite cover note-taking column w/a sheet
    of paper. Use the questions (cue column) to say
    aloud, in your own words, the answers indicated
    by the cues.
  • 4. Reflect ask yourself questions about the
    material. Example Whats the significance of
    this information? What principle are the facts
    based upon? How can I apply them? How do they
    fit in with what I already know? What is beyond
    them?
  • 5. Review spend 15 minutes per day (minimum)
    reviewing all your previous notes. This aids
  • retention and
    understanding and prepares you for the exam!

(use after class)
Adapted from How to Study in College by Walter
Pauk, 2001, Houghton Mifflin Co.
2 Summary use this space to summarize
your notes. (Every pageinterim summary.)
10
Split-Page System
(modification of the Cornell System)

Sp
2-1/2
6
Note-taking Column (use in class)
Cue Column
  • 1. Record during the lecture, use this column
    to record the lecture using telegraphic
    sentences.
  • Reduce as soon as possible after class, review
    your notes.
  • Weed out unnecessary information
  • In cue column label and organize remaining
    information. (See
  • next slide).
  • Make content annotations
  • content-specific definitions
  • relationships cause/effect compare/contrast
  • characteristics, traits, properties, functions
  • theories, formulas, etc.
  • examples
  • names, dates, events

(use after class)
See Nist, Sherrie and William Diehl, Developing
Textbook Thinking, 5th ed. New York Houghton
Mifflin Co., 2005.
2 Summary use this space to summarize
your notes. (Every pageinterim summary.)
11
WHAT ARE NOTES?
(Cornell Sample)
Biology, Chapter 13. Protozoa
Biology, Ch. 13. Protozoa(Cornell notes)
  • After reading this chapter you will be able to
  • Describe protozoa in general
  • Discuss the two types of protozoaamoeba and
    ciliates
  • Protists are organisms that have characteristics
    similar to both plants and animals, but they are
    not animals of plants. They are mostly one-celled
    and belong to Kingdom Protista. Protozoa is one
    large group of protists. In this chapter you will
    learn about protozoa in general and more
    specifically about two common types of protozoa.
  • Protozoa in General
  • All protozoa share certain characteristics.First,
    they are one-celled, non-green, animal-like
    protists. Second, they can move about and are
    specially equipped to do so. Most protozoa
    actively trap their food. They get it from the
    surrounding water and consume it in chunks. Some
    protozoa, however, are parasites. They live
    directly off other organisms.
  • Amobae
  • Forming pesudopodia. One of the simplest
    protozoans is the amoeba. Amoeba are unique in
    how they move. They develop
  • pseudopodia. Pseudopodia are false feet
    formed by flexible

Learning outcomes Be able to (1) describe
protozoa (2) discuss 2 protozoan
Types (1) amoeba and (2) ciliates
Protists organisms having characteristics of
both plants animals but are neither
Traits?
They are one-celled (mostly)
members of Kingdom Protista protozoa
Example
Protozoa in genl
Characteris?
  • One-celled, non-green, animal-like
  • Move about w/esp. equipped feet
  • Actively trap their food from water they live in
    consume food in chunks
  • Some are parasites, living directly off other
    organisms

Amoebae Forming pseudopodia Amoeba are simple
but unique. They develop
pseudopodia false feet formed in phases
by flexible membrane. . .
What is 1 simple protozoan?
Protozoa are protists, organisms having
characteristics of plants and animals yet are
neither. They are mostly one-celled members of
the Kingdom Protists. They are non-green, and
12
WHAT ARE NOTES?
(Split-page Sample)
Biology, Chapter 13. Protozoa
Biology, Ch. 13. Protozoa(cue column)

Learning outcomes Be able to (1) describe
protozoa (2) discuss 2 protozoan
  • After reading this chapter you will be able to
  • Describe protozoa in general
  • Discuss the two types of protozoaamoeba and
    ciliates
  • Protists are organisms that have characteristics
    similar to both plants and animals, but they are
    not animals of plants. They are mostly one-celled
    and belong to Kingdom Protista. Protozoa is one
    large group of protists. In this chapter you will
    learn about protozoa in general and more
    specifically about two common types of protozoa.
  • Protozoa in General
  • All protozoa share certain characteristics.First,
    they are one-celled, non-green, animal-like
    protists. Second, they can move about and are
    specially equipped to do so. Most protozoa
    actively trap their food. They get it from the
    surrounding water and consume it in chunks. Some
    protozoa, however, are parasites. They live
    directly off other organisms.
  • Amobae
  • Forming pesudopodia. One of the simplest
    protozoans is the amoeba. Amoeba are unique in
    how they move. They develop
  • pseudopodia. Pseudopodia are false feet
    formed by flexible

Types (1) amoeba and (2) ciliates
Def.
Protists organisms having characteristics of
both plants animals but are neither
  • Protists
  • orgs. w/char. of plants anims. but
  • are neither
  • Chars
  • 1-celled
  • non-green
  • animal-like
  • have feet
  • trap food
  • eat in chunks
  • some parasitic
  • Ex. amoebae
  • simple
  • dev. pseudopodia

They are one-celled (mostly)
members of Kingdom Protista protozoa
Protozoa in genl
  • One-celled, non-green, animal-like
  • Move about w/esp. equipped feet
  • Actively trap their food from water they live in
    consume food in chunks
  • Some are parasites, living directly off other
    organisms

Amoebae Forming pseudopodia Amoeba are simple
but unique. They develop
pseudopodia false feet formed in phases
by flexible membrane. . .
Protozoa are protists, organisms having
characteristics of plants and animals yet are
neither. They are mostly one-celled members of
the Kingdom Protists. They are non-green, and
13
  • In the split-page (Nist and Diehl) example
    notice that
  • learning outcomes have been addressed
  • organization perfect for studying without
    referring
  • back to notes
  • info has been reduced to the important stuff
  • annotations are labeled, providing frames of
  • reference for the information
  • Note-taking shorthand has been applied
  • This has proven to be an effective and
    efficient way
  • of organizing notes for study!

14

2-1/2
6
Note-taking Column
Cue Column
  • 3. Recite cover (or fold back) note-taking
    column. Say the information aloud.
  • Paraphrase when/where possible.
  • Think in terms of
    possible test questions of the information.
  • 4. Reflect Make connections. See
    relationships.
  • Ask yourself questions about the material.
  • Example Whats the significance of this
    information?
  • What principles
    are the facts based upon?
  • How can I apply these prinsiples?
  • How does this fit in with what I
    already know?
  • What is beyond them?
  • (Engage in critical
    thinking!)
  • 5. Review spend 15 minutes per day (minimum)
    reviewing all your previous notes. This aids
  • retention and
    understanding and prepares you for the exam!

(use after class)
See Nist, Sherrie and William Diehl, Developing
Textbook Thinking, 5th ed. New York Houghton
Mifflin Co., 2005.
2 Summary use this space to summarize
your notes. (Every pageinterim summary.)
15
NOTE TAKING ON BLACKBOARD SLIDES
  • Many professors simply outline their lectures on
    Blackboard slides. Therefore, it is important
    that you . . .
  • Tune in to the lecture
  • Write explanatory notes, etc. beside or
    directly beneath the
  • info youre explaining
  • Use shorthand abbreviations that you readily
    understand
  • Develop a system of symbols, markings, etc.
    to illustrate/indicate importance of information
  • Use examples that truly clarify
  • Get the whole story, the big picture
  • Modify/clarify/edit notes after class (for
    accuracy and review)
  • Leave space for additional notes based on
    your textbook readings

16
NOTE TAKING DOS ANDDONTS
  • DO . . .
  • Make your notes brief
  • Put (most) notes in your own words
  • Exceptions
  • Formulas
  • Definitions
  • Specific facts
  • Consider using outline form
  • Write key words
  • Date your notes

17
NOTE TAKING DOS AND DONTS
  • Use graphics to assist your understanding
    and recall
  • Concept maps (including flow charts)
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • (See samples at end of presentation)

18
NOTE TAKING ON BLACKBOARD SLIDES
  • Its o.k. to . . .
  • Use graphics to assist your understanding
    and recall
  • Concept maps (including flow charts)
  • Charts
  • Diagrams
  • (See samples at end of presentation)

Keep them simple!
19
Note-taking Options
  • Laptops

Disadvantages
Advantages
  • Permanence
  • Ease of retrieval
  • Ease of editing
  • Ease of making copies for
  • networking, etc.
  • Difficult for some to listen
  • and word process simultaneously
  • 2. Inaccuracies
  • 3. Failure to edit notes

What other advantages/disadvantages can you think
of?
20
Audio Recorders
  • Especially good for students who have difficulty
  • taking notes while listening.
  • Student can focus on lecture in class
  • Student can play recording section-by-section and
    note the important information
  • Student can listen to lecture as many times as
    he/she needs to get the necessary information

21
A Note-taker
  • Having someone else take notes for you is an
    advantage for some people. If you use this option
    be sure to focus during the lecture and perhaps
    jot down some points that are of particular
    significance to an understanding of the material.

22
Note-taking, outline style
  • History 101 History of Civs. I, Dr. Lynn Wagner


    09/22/06
  • The Classical Age of Greece, 5th Century B.C.E.
  • The Classical Philosophers
  • The Sophists (orig. those who are wise, but
    later a derogatory label)
  • Leader Protagoras
  • Beliefs
  • No absolute truth (of right and justice)
  • Relativism everything depends on any given
    time and place
  • Ethics
  • Opposed slavery and war
  • Favored concept of liberty and rights for
    everybody
  • Supported freedom
  • Criticized by Socrates, Plato, and others
  • The Big 3 Socrates, Plato,
    Aristotle
  • Socrates

23
Note-taking, outline style
  • History 101 History of Civs. I, Dr. Lynn Wagner


    09/22/06
  • Positive view of mankind
  • Never wrote anything
  • Taught Plato
  • Plato
  • Goals to refute the views of the Sophists,
    incl. theory of relativism
  • Lived long (d._at_81)
  • Wrote several Dialogues, The Republic the
    most well known
  • Developed theory of absolute truth, goodness,
    etc.
  • Student of Socrates (c. 429)
  • Member of aristocratic class
  • Strong belief in spirituality (not found in
    Socrates)
  • Dev. Doctrine of Ideals (forms, universals)
  • Phys. world not complete unive
  • Spiritual things (higher) cannot be
    experienced through senses
  • Highest ideal The Good is guiding purpose
    of the universe
  • Virtue based in knowledge
  • True knowledgeundrstndg. perfect form

24
Note-taking, outline style
  • History 101 History of Civs. I, Dr. Lynn Wagner


    09/22/06
  • 3 main classes of people, ea w/function(s)
  • Workers (farmers, artisans, merchants attend
    to appetitive functions
  • Guardians (soldiersguard the state)
  • Philosophers, kings (rulers intellect,
    aristocracy birth and wealth have nothing to
  • do with this classification )
  • Equality women could serve any position if
    qualified!
  • Aristotle
  • Estab. School, the Lyceum
  • Taught Alexander the Great
  • Prolific, copious writer
  • More scientific, less interested in the
    spiritual (than Plato)
  • Considered the founder of Biology
  • Also interested in Astronomy and Physics
  • Middle-class outlook, no aristocratic sympathy
  • Agreed w/Socrates and Plato that knowledge
    derived from senses incomplete, inaccurate,
    limited and variable
  • Differs w/Plato re ideals in spirit. Realm

25
Note-taking, outline style
  • History 101 History of Civs. I, Dr. Lynn Wagner


    09/22/06
  • Referred to ideal state as the polity
  • Polity in between oligarchy and democracy
  • Ideal state (polity) under control of middle
    class
  • Polity should provide for the poor
  • Saw state as absolute, so turned attn to
    Whats the best kind of state to have?
  • Opposed to accumulation of wealth
  • Note Greeks really didnt think much about
    science.

26
Graphic Organization Concept Mapping w/Venn
Diagram
History 101 The Classical Age of Greece, 5th C.
- B.C.E.
Concept Map (Venn Diagram) compare/contrast,
The Big 3 (Greek Fathers)
Plato (2)
Aristotle (3)
  • Authors
  • Believed knowledge derived from
  • senses is incomplete
  • Estab. school

Scientific rather than spiritual
Aristotle Plato have these in common
Taught Alexander the Great
Estab. school, the Academy
Estab. sch., the Lyceum
Socrates (1)
  • Greek philosopher (thinker)
  • Interested in physical and metaphysical
  • Preceded by schools of thought

d. Age 81
Wrote The Republic)
All 3 have these in common
Goal to challenge the Sophists
Committed suicide (399 B.C.)
Belief Man can attain absolute truth (Positive
view of mankind)
Platos teacher
Socratic method
A good way to reduce information to the main
points. A great organizational tool. Ideal for
visual and tactile/kinesthetic learners,
especially when comparing 2 or more people or
concepts.
27
Sample Graphic Organizers
Concept Map (pyramid)Blooms Taxonomy
(Hierarchy)
COMPREHENSION KNOWLEDGE
EVALUATION
SYNTHESIS
ANALYSIS APPLICATION
The pyramid is an especially good way to map
hierarchical information such as Maslows
Hierarchy of Needs, or, in this case, Blooms
Taxonomy. Beginning at the base of the pyramid,
the levels progress sequentially upward until the
highest is attained. This enables you to see
relationships easily. Especially good for visual
and tactile/kinesthetic learners.
28
OTHER CONCEPT MAPS
Alternative
Alternative
Alternative
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
End
Beginning
Alternative
Alternative
Alternative
Process Development Map (Ideal for science
classes! Businesses often use these to map where
they are, where they need to be by a given time,
and the steps they need to take to get there by
the deadline date.)
29
Charting compare/contrast
Hist. 101, The Classical Age of Greece, 5th C.
B.C.E. Purpose to compare and contrast the
Big 3 Greek Philosophers
(Ideal for organizing and reducing a lot of
verbiage to the essentials!)
Socrates
Plato

Aristotle
Interested in the physical meta-
Interested in physical metaphysical
Interested in physical metaphysical physical Pre
ceded by schools of thought Preceded
by schools of thought
Preceded by schools of thought
Milesian Milesian Milesian
Pythagorean Pythagorean Pythagorean
Atomism Atomism Atomism
Sophism Sophism Sophism Socrates Socrate
s Platos
Positive view of mankind No
writings Wrote several
Dialogues, The Republic Prolific writer
most important
Challenged the Sophists
Established a school, the Academy
Estab. School, the Lyceum
Platos teacher Student of
Socrates Taught Alexander the
Great Believed knowledge derived from
Believed know. derived from senses
Believed know. derived from senses senses
incomplete, limited, variable incomplete,
limited, variable, and
incomplete, limited, variable, and in- and
inaccurate
inaccurate
accurate
30
TIME LINES
  • Major Inventions (1875-1895)

1875 1880 1885 1890 1895

Telephone (1876) Phonograph (1877)
Cash register (1879) Hearing Aid
(1881) Electric fan (1882) Rayon
(1883) Modern bicycle (1884) Motorcycle
(1885) Contact lenses (1887) Ballpoint pen
(1888) Submarine (1891) Movie machine
(1894) Safety razor (1895)
31
Concept Cards
More sophisticated than flash cards, concept
cards are ideal as study cards because they are
easy to carry around for use in those 10-15
minute spare minutes. They aid recall by
reducing information to the bare essentials. Info
may be recorded graphically, in writing, or a
combination of both.

Business 201 Steps in
the Selling Process
Steps in the Selling Process
Ex.
  • 1. Find buyers. Advertise.
  • Locate stores where buyers
  • shop.
  • 2. Present product/service
  • attractively convincingly.
  • Sell perfume in
    classy-looking bottles.
  • Create desire to buybe persuasive.
  • Close the sale. Say, Will you
    take the brown one, the blue one, or both?

Ex..
Ex.
Front of Card

Back of Card
32
Summary The Classical Age of Greece
This summary is written from the notes from the
History 101 lecture. It could also be written
from the compare/contrast chart on a previous
slide.
During the Classical Age of Greece (5th century
B.C.), the Big Three philosophers, Socrates,
Plato, and Aristotle, challenged the beliefs of
the Sophists (originally those who are wise,
but later a derogatory term) led by
Protagoras. The Sophists believed that there is
no absolute truth of right and justice. They also
believed in relativismthat everything depends
upon any given time and place. They opposed war
and slavery, favoring the concept of liberty and
rights for everyone. Socrates began expounding
his beliefs as a challenge to the Sophists. His
belief was that man can attain absolute truth.
Although He did not put his thoughts in writing,
he held positive views of mankind. He is
remembered for his legacy of the Socratic
method, the strategy of answering a question
with a question. Because of his beliefs,
Socrates was viewed as a traitor and was
condemned to death by execution. It is believed
that he committed suicide by poisoning himself
with Hemlock in 399 B.C. Socrates had been
Platos teacher. Plato, a member of the
aristocratic class of 5th century Greece, was a
prolific writer. Socrates was not a writer, but
Plato wrote several Dialogues, The Republic
being one of the most well-known. He, like
Socrates, was motivated to refute the views of
the Sophists and their theory of
relativism. Plato believed strongly in
spiritualism. This is something we do not find
in Socrates. Plato established his own school,
The Academy, developed the Doctrine of Ideals
(or Forms, or Universals) and taught that the
physical world is not the complete universe. A
higher realm existsspiritual thingsand cannot
be experienced through the senses.
33
Summary (cont)
  • The highest realm, the Good, is the guiding
    purpose of the universe. Virtue is based in
    knowledge, and true
  • understanding perfect form. The body is
    subordinate to the mind and should not be
    pampered. The soul is immortal, so absolute
  • goodness and absolute justice are attainable.
  • Interested in politics, Plato designed the
    perfect political state which he referred to as
    the Republic. This perfect state,
    characterized by harmony and efficiency, had 3
    main classes of people, each with a distinct set
    of functions.
  • workersfarmers, artisans, merchants.
    Function attend to the appetitive needs of the
    people
  • guardianssoldiers. Function protect the
    state
  • philosophers, kings the ruling class the
    intellectual aristocracy (birth and wealth had
    nothing to do with being in this class.

knowledge is
In Platos perfect state women were considered
equals who could serve in any position provided
they were qualified. Aristotle was Platos
student. He established his own school, the
Lyceum. One of his students was Alexander the
Great. Like Plato, Aristotle was a writer. His
treatises were on politics and metaphysics.
34
Question/Answer Strategy
A rehearsal strategy which proves helpful when
reviewing for an exam. It helps the student
identify the areas of strength and those where
additional study is warranted.
Question

Answer 1. In what ways are the
philosophies of 1. All 3
challenged the thinking of the Sophists
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle alike? All
agreed that knowledge derived from the senses is
incomplete, limited, variable, and
inaccurate All
were interested in the metaphysical as well as
the physical. 2. How do the Big 3
differ? 2. Plato and
Aristotle were writers. Socrates was not.
Plato established the
Academy, Aristotle established the
Lyceum. Although Socrates
taught, he did not establish a

school. Aristotle was more of a scientist
than the others.
Aristotle was less interested
in the spiritual. His outlook was more
middle class. Aristotle believed that the
soul died with the body. He didnt
believe in denying the body,
but felt that all things should be done in
moderation. Socrates was Platos teacher,
Plato was Aristotles, but Aristotle taught
Alexander the Great.

35
Link to the test
About PowerShow.com