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EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS

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EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS WHAT IS AWARENESS It s About Safety Basic Definitions Regulations and Standards ICS* Terminology Hazard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENTS


1
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  • .

2
EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS INCIDENTS
AWARENESS
3
WHAT IS AWARENESS Its About Safety
  • Basic Definitions
  • Regulations and Standards
  • ICS
  • Terminology
  • Hazard and Risk Assessment
  • Site Control
  • SOGs
  • SARA and ERP
  • Personal Protective Equipment

4
WHY IS THIS A BIG DEAL?
  • We dont do it all the time so we need the
    practice
  • Many unpredictable elements room for error
  • NFPA and OSHA agree that its a big deal

5
THE ROLE OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT AT A HAZARDOUS
MATERIALS INCIDENT
  • ITS THE SAME AS ANY OTHER CALL
  • Show up and do the best we can to save lives and
    protect property while ensuring that we all go
    home safe and sound afterward.

6
DEFINITIONS
  • FIRST RESPONDER-
  • AWARENESS LEVEL
  • Responds to the Emergency
  • Recognizes the release as hazardous
  • Calls for Appropriate Resources
  • Assists with Intervention as Training Dictates

7
DEFINITIONS
  • HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EMERGENCY
  • An occurrence that results, or is likely to
    result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous
    substance (OSHA 1910.120)

8
DEFINITIONS
  • HAZARDOUS MATERIAL (EPA)
  • A material which, due to its concentration,
    quantity, or chemical or physical properties, may
    cause, or significantly contribute to an increase
    in mortality, to an increase in serious,
    irreversible illness, or pose a substantial
    present or potential hazard to human health or
    the environment when improperly managed.

9
DEFINITIONS
  • HAZARDOUS MATERIAL (Clear Creek)
  • Animal, vegetable, mineral, or chemical that
    could explode, catch fire, get on you and make
    you sick, or get on a fish or boreal toad and
    make him sick.

10
HOW DO WE BECOME AWARE
  • To become aware, one must educate ones-self on
  • Identifying the substance
  • Keeping the substance at bay
  • Keeping the substance off of ones-self

11
HOW DO WE IDENTIFY THE SUBSTANCE?
  • MANY BRILLIANT CHEMISTS, TOXICOLOGISTS, FIRE
    CHIEFS, AND TRUCK DRIVERS HAVE WORKED DILLIGENTLY
    FOR YEARS TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION
  • AND THEY STILL DONT AGREE

12
TWO MAIN I.D. METHODS
  • NFPA 704
  • DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

13
NFPA 704 (the DIAMOND)
  • HEALTH HAZARD (BLUE)
  • FIRE HAZARD (RED)
  • REACTIVITY (YELLOW)
  • SPECIFIC HAZARD
  • Used on fixed facilities
  • Each Hazard gets a rating of 0 thru 4
  • 4 is bad, 0 is good

14
DOT System (the ORANGE book)
  • Transportation Based System
  • (its the one you see on trucks)
  • The PLACARD is the key
  • Look for the PLACARD on the truck, then look for
    the NUMBER on the placard.
  • If you find the NUMBER, look up the NUMBER on the
    YELLOW PAGES.
  • The YELLOW PAGES tell you What the material is
    and Which GUIDE NO. to find in the ORANGE PAGES.

15
DOT GUIDEBOOK
  • If we cant find the NUMBER, try looking for the
    NAME of the material on the shipping papers.
  • If you find the NAME, look it up in the BLUE
    PAGES.
  • The BLUE PAGES tell you Which Guide No. to look
    up in the ORANGE PAGES.

16
DOT GUIDEBOOK
  • The ORANGE PAGES
  • Potential Hazards
  • Safety Precautions
  • Emergency Response

17
No Name or ? No Problem!
  • We can still use the ORANGE BOOK
  • Turn to GUIDE 111 in the ORANGE PAGES

18
No Name or ? No Problem!
What does the truck look like?
MC312
MC307
MC306
MC331
MC312
MC306
19
THE HAZARDS OF HAZMAT
  • ROUTES OF EXPOSURE
  • INHALATION (Breath it in)
  • ABSORPTION (Get it on ya)
  • INGESTION (You eat it)

20
HAZARDS OF HAZMAT
  • YOU MAY ASK What Happens if I Eat It, Breath It,
    or Get It On Me?
  • The answer is THAT DEPENDS
  • It depends on What, Who, Where,
  • and How Much!

21
HAZARDS OF HAZMAT
  • Ultimately ingestion, absorption, or inhalation
    of a hazardous material can affect your body at
    the cellular level (you know, the cell, as in
    the basic element of life)
  • It may be skin cells, blood cells, or the cells
    in your kidneys.

22
HAZARDS OF HAZMAT
  • The key to minimizing the effects of hazardous
    material exposure is to avoid exposure in the
    first place.
  • We do that by
  • Assessing our risks and hazards
  • Controlling the scene
  • Wearing proper protective equipment

23
HAZARD AND RISK ASSESSMENT-D.E.C.I.D.E.
  • DETECT the presence of hazardous mat.
  • ESTIMATE the likely harm w/o intervention
  • CHOOSE the appropriate response objective
  • IDENTIFY options
  • DO the best option
  • EVALUATE and re-evaluate progress

24
HAZARD AND RISK ASSESSMENT Things to Consider
  • Where is the spill?
  • Where is the spill headed?
  • What is the material?
  • What are the hazards to responders?

25
SITE CONTROL
  • OBJECTIVES
  • Minimize chaos (and there will be chaos)
  • Provide direction and efficiency
  • Provide for accountability
  • Prevent harm
  • Prevent/minimize contamination

26
SITE CONTROL
  • START OUT WITH A BIG PERIMETER YOU CAN ALWAYS
    MAKE IT SMALLER LATER
  • SET UP YOUR ZONES EARLY
  • (WHATS A ZONE?)

27
SITE CONTROL
  • YOU KNOW ZONES!!!
  • COLD ZONE (OR GREEN ZONE)
  • WARM ZONE (OR YELLOW ZONE)
  • HOT ZONE (OR RED ZONE)

28
SITE CONTROL
  • COLD ZONE (the place you should want to be) no
    hazards
  • WARM ZONE (the place nobody wants to be) for
    contamination reduction
  • HOT ZONE (where the action is) highest level of
    PPE required

29
SITE CONTROL
30
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (A.K.A. PPE)
  • So we dont want to get it on us, eat it, or
    breath it how do we tame the beast?
  • We wear Personal Protective Equipment
  • Skin protection
  • Respiratory protection

31
PPE
  • SKIN PROTECTION
  • Boots (turn-outs, Tyvek overshoes, chemical
    resistant boots)
  • Gloves (Fire, Latex, Nitrile, Butyl)
  • Clothing (turn-out gear, Tyvek, Saranex, or the
    Big Dog Level A suit)

32
PPE
  • Respiratory Protection 3 types
  • None (this is bad)
  • Air purifying respirator (APR)
  • Supplied Air (SCBA)
  • In Clear Creek, we keep it simple its SCBA or
    NOTHING

33
PPE
  • ENSEMBLES
  • (makes you think of Lt. Timmens, dont it?)
  • Level D The clothes you wore to class plus
    steel toed boots and a hard hat
  • Modified Level D Your turn-out gear

34
PPE
  • ENSEMBLES CONTINUED
  • LEVEL C a Tyvek suit or turn-out gear with an
    APR (but we dont have APRs, so
  • Modified LEVEL C same as above with SCBA
  • If you need respiratory protection, use an SCBA.

35
PPE
  • MORE ENSEMBLES
  • LEVEL B Heavy duty non-encapsulating suit (like
    Saranex) plus SCBA
  • LEVEL A Fully encapsulating suit plus SCBA and
    a whole lot of Gatorade

36
PPE
  • WHEN DO WE USE WHAT ENSEMBLE?
  • Listen to someone who knows.
  • Use your reference materials (the little ORANGE
    book).
  • ERR on the side of caution

37
PUT IT ALL TOGETHER
  • Respond to the call think ahead about staging,
    resources, hazards.
  • Size-up the scene. Give a good report.
  • Isolate the area
  • Identify hazards
  • Develop a plan
  • Initiate the plan using safe procedures and the
    right equipment
  • DONT DRIVE THRU, WALK THRU OR PARK IN THE
    PRODUCT!

38
STANDARD OPERATING GUIDELINES
  • Standard Operating Guidelines (SOGs) exist for
    two purposes
  • To Provide general information on department
    policies to personnel and
  • To Provide basic guidance to department personnel
    regarding specific types of fire department
    operations.

39
S.O.G.
  • Standard Operating Guidelines are not intended to
    address every situation. They are meant to be
    GUIDEANCE to be adaptable to a variety of
    situations and circumstances.
  • They are another tool in the toolbox

40
S.O.G. NO. 11O HAZMAT RESPONSE
  • HIGHLIGHTS
  • Every incident presents the potential for
    exposure to hazardous materials and the products
    of combustion of an ordinary fire may present
    severe hazards to personnel safety.
  • Adequate situation evaluation is critical. If the
    wrong decision is made, personnel can easily
    become part of the problem instead of part of the
    solution.

41
S.O.G. NO. 110 cont.
  • The first arriving unit will establish Command
    and begin a size-up.
  • The first unit must consciously avoid committing
    itself to a dangerous situation.
  • Establish staging for other responding units.
  • At all incidents involving hazardous materials, a
    Safety Sector will be established.

42
S.O.G. NO. 111 NATURAL GAS INCIDENTS
  • HIGHLIGHTS
  • Natural gas is lighter than air and will
    dissipate rapidly outside.
  • Inside buildings it tends to pocket, particularly
    in attics and dead air spaces.
  • The flammable limits are approximately 3 to 15
    in air.
  • Natural gas itself is non-toxic. It does,
    however, displace oxygen and can result in
    asphyxiation if in a confined space.
  • Flammable gas ranges and oxygen contents can only
    be determined by a combustible gas instrument.

43
NATURAL GAS INCIDENTS
  • Burning natural gas should not normally be
    extinguished
  • Fires should be controlled by stopping the flow.
  • All personnel working in the vicinity of a known
    or suspected gas leak shall wear full protective
    clothing.
  • A safety perimeter shall be established and
    maintained around any suspected gas leak.

44
S.O.G. NO. 112 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS INCIDENTS
  • HIGHLIGHTS
  • Flammable liquids present particular problems for
    fire protection, health, safety, and
    environmental protection.
  • The principle agent for flammable liquid
    firefighting is AFFF/ATC (Aqueous Film Forming
    Foam/Alcohol Type Concentrate). Initial attack on
    any flammable liquid fire should be made with
    AFFF/ATC.

45
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS INCIDENTS
  • Continuous monitoring with combustible gas meters
    is necessary to verify that vapors are being
    suppressed.
  • Keep the number of personnel that are working in
    the spill area to a minimum.
  • All personnel working around spills must wear
    full protective clothing (turnouts, SCBA) to
    afford protection in cases of ignition.

46
FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS INCIDENTS
  • Vapor areas can only be detected by the use of
    combustible gas indicators carried by Stations 2
    and 4.
  • Cover spills immediately with AFFF/ATC to "seal"
    vapors.
  • Control ignition sources in the area of the
    spill.
  • Do not permit the flammable liquid to run-off
    into storm drains, sewers, or drainage systems.

47
S.O.G. NO. 113 CARBON MONOXIDE INCIDENTS
  • HIGHLIGHTS
  • It is the policy of the Clear Creek Fire
    Authority that all personnel shall utilize
    self-contained breathing apparatus in atmospheres
    containing 35 parts per million or greater of
    carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide may be present for several
    different reasons As a by-product of combustion,
    an emission from internal combustion engines, a
    chemical reaction, or a leak from an industrial
    process.

48
CARBON MONOXIDE INCIDENTS
  • Carbon monoxide has approximately the same vapor
    density (weight) as air. When monitoring for CO,
    instruments do not have to be placed near the
    floor or ceiling for accurate readings.

49
CARBON MONOXIDE INCIDENTS
  • An atmospheric concentration of CO that is below
    the TLV (50 ppm) does not always indicate an
    adequate level of oxygen. An atmosphere
    containing less that 19.5 oxygen requires the
    use of SCBA.
  • An atmospheric concentration of CO that is below
    the TLV does not always indicate that other toxic
    gases or products of combustion (particulate
    matter) are not present.
  • An atmospheric concentration of CO that is below
    the TLV with the presence of visible smoke
    particles still requires respiratory protection.
  • Positive pressure ventilation will reduce the CO
    content as well as other gases.

50
IS HE DONE YET? (almost)
  • A HAZMAT call is just like any other. Just like a
    structure fire or an MVA on icy roads, our goal
    is to size up the scene, take care of business,
    and arrive back at the station in one piece.
  • With HAZMAT, remember that its easier to
    evacuate an entire city than explain to your
    partners kid why Daddy wont be coming home for
    dinner.
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