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Introduction to Industrial Hygiene


Introduction to Industrial Hygiene Industrial Hygiene IENG 341 Carter J. Kerk Industrial Engineering Department South Dakota School of Mines Spring 2008 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Industrial Hygiene

Introduction to Industrial Hygiene
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • IENG 341
  • Carter J. Kerk
  • Industrial Engineering Department
  • South Dakota School of Mines
  • Spring 2008

  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • P. 17
  • 1-3
  • Due Date?

Introduction to Industrial Hygiene
  • Course Website
  • http//
  • Review of Syllabus
  • Course Content Matrix
  • Minor in Occupational Safety
  • http//

Industrial Hygiene
  • Part science, part art
  • Industrial Hygiene is the application of
    scientific principles in the workplace to prevent
    the development of occupational disease or injury
  • Requires knowledge of chemistry, physics,
    anatomy, physiology, mathematics

IH Topics
  • Toxicology
  • Occupational Health Standards
  • Airborne Hazards
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Skin Disorders
  • Noise Exposure
  • Radiation
  • Thermal Stress
  • Anatomy
  • Biohazards
  • Chemicals
  • Illumination
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Ventilation
  • Vibration
  • Sampling

History of IH
  • Disease resulting from exposure to chemicals or
    physical agents have existed ever since people
    chose to use or handle materials with toxic
  • In the far past, causes were not always recognized

Earliest Recordings
  • Lead poisoning among miners by Hippocrates, 4th
    century BC
  • Zinc and sulfur hazards by Pliny the Elder, 3rd
    century BC

Did you think you knew Metallica?
The Original Metallica
  • Georgius Agricola published a 12 volume set in
    1556, De Re Metallica
  • Town physician in Saxony
  • Silver mining
  • Described diseases of lungs, joints, eyes
  • Woodcuts (see next slides)

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Metallica Quotes
  • If the dust has corrosive qualities, it eats
    away at the lungs, and implants consumption in
    the body
  • Later determined to be silicosis, tuberculosis,
    and lung cancer

Metallica Quotes
  • there is found in the mines black pompholyz,
    which eats wounds and ulcers to the bone this
    also corrodes iron . . . There is a certain kind
    of cadmia which eats away at the feet of workmen
    when they have become wet, and similarly their
    hands, and injures their lungs and eyes.
  • Later recognized as manifestations of toxicity of
    arsenic and cadmium

Metallica cont.
  • A young American named Herbert C. Hoover and his
    wife, L.H. Hoover, translated Agricolas work
    into English.
  • The translation was published in 1912
  • Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1891 as a
    Mining Engineer
  • Hoover served as the 31st president of the US
    (1929 1933)

  • Published work describing mercury poisoning of
    miners in 1567
  • His famous quote, All substances are poisons
    there is none which is not a poison. The right
    dose differentiates a poison and a remedy.
  • This provided the basis for the concept of the
    dose-response relationship.

Dose-Response Relationship
  • The toxicity of a substance depends not only on
    its toxic properties, but also on the amount of
    exposure, or the dose
  • Paracelsus differentiated between
  • Chronic (low-level, long-term) poisoning
  • Acute (high-level, short-term) poisoning

Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)
  • Wrote a book, De Morbis Artificum (Diseases of
    Workers), starting the field of occupational
  • Urged physicians to ask the question, Of what
    trade are you?
  • He described diseases associated with various
    lower-class trades, such as corpse carriers and

Other Pioneers around 1770
  • Sir George Baker
  • Linked Devonshire colic to lead in cider
  • Percival Pott
  • Linked soot exposure and scrotal cancer in
    chimney sweeps

The Mad Hatter
  • Lewis Carrolls
    Alice in Wonderland (1865)
  • Mad Hatter exhibited symptoms of mercury
    poisoning, such as mental and personality changes
    marked by depression and tendency to withdraw
  • Mercury was used in processing hides made into
  • Bars were installed on windows at hat factories
    presumably to prevent afflicted workers from
    leaping during bouts of depression

Protection Starts to Arrive
  • English Factory Act, 1833, allows injured workers
    to receive compensation
  • English Factory Inspectorate, 1878
  • US Workers Compensation started in 1908-1915 in
    several states (state programs, not federal)
  • Occupational Safety Health Act enacted in 1970
    creating OSH Administration
  • Created regulations, inspections, recordkeeping,
    enforcement, etc.

Birth of Industrial Hygiene
  • A few industrial hygienists were practicing in
    early 1900s
  • Physicians sometimes saw the industrial hygienist
    as a threat to their realm of expertise
  • Dr. Alice Hamilton was a pioneer Occupational
    Physician and female pioneer. She helped foster
    the field of IH in the US
  • American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA)
    formed in 1939

Industrial Hygiene
  • Other terms
  • Occupational Hygiene
  • Environmental Hygiene
  • Environmental Health

Professional Organizations
  • American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA),, member organization
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists (ACGIH),, member
    organization for government employees
  • American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH),, independent organization that
    administers certification programs for industrial
    hygiene professionals
  • IHIT, Industrial Hygienist in Training
  • CIH, Certified Industrial Hygienist
  • Requires maintenance of certification

Code of Ethics
  • See course website
  • Source

Definition of Industrial Hygiene
  • An Industrial Hygienist is a person having a
    college degree in engineering, chemistry,
    physics, medicine, or related physical and
    biological sciences, who has also received
    specialized training in recognition, evaluation,
    and control of workplace stressors and therefore
    achieved competence in industrial hygiene. The
    specialized studies and training must be
    sufficient so that the individual is able to 1)
    anticipate and recognize the environmental
    factors and understand their effects on people
    and their well-being 2) evaluate, on the basis
    of experience and with the aid of quantitative
    measurement techniques, the magnitude of these
    stresses in terms of the stressors ability to
    impair human health and well-being and 3)
    prescribe methods to eliminate, control, or
    reduce such stresses when necessary to diminish
    their effects.

Scope of IH
  • Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of hazards
    or agents
  • Chemical Agents
  • Dusts, mists, fumes, vapors, gases
  • Physical Agents
  • Ionizing and nonionizing radiation, noise,
    vibration, and temperature extremes
  • Biological Agents
  • Insects, molds, yeasts, fungi, bacteria, viruses
  • Ergonomic Agents
  • Monotony, fatigue, repetitive motion

2nd Aspect Evaluation of Agents
  • Observations
  • Quantitative measurement of the agents of concern
  • Experience and knowledge of Industrial Hygienist

3rd Aspect Control of Agents
  • Controls in this order of preference
  • Engineering Controls
  • Engineering changes in design, equipment,
  • Substituting a non-hazardous material
  • Administrative Controls
  • Reduce the human exposure by changes in
    procedures, work-area access restrictions, worker
  • Personal Protective Equipment / Clothing
  • Ear plugs / muffs, safety glasses / goggles,
    respirators, gloves, clothing, hard-hats

Knowledge Basis for IH
IH as Part of an Overall Safety Program
  • General Safety
  • Ergonomics
  • Industrial Hygiene
  • Wellness / Fitness

IH Program Minimum Elements
  • Recognition of health hazards
  • Evaluation of health hazards
  • Control of health hazards
  • Recordkeeping
  • Employee training
  • Periodic program review

1. Recognition of health hazards
  • Walk-through survey with someone knowledgeable of
    the processes
  • Regular intervals, keep records
  • Planning stage reviews
  • Modification reviews
  • MSDS reviews

2. Evaluation of hazards
  • Measurements
  • Air sampling, noise meters, light meters, thermal
    stress meters, accelerometers (vibration)
  • Calculation of dose
  • Level and duration of exposure
  • Keep records

3. Control of Hazards (Prioritized)
  • 1 Engineering
  • Substitute a less hazardous material, local
    exhaust ventilation
  • 2 Administrative
  • Worker rotation, training
  • 3 Personal Protective Equipment
  • Respirators, gloves, eye protection, ear
    protection, etc.

4. Recordkeeping
  • Important in all phases of the program
  • Often required by regulation
  • 29 CFR 1904
  • Increase program effectiveness
  • Useful in legal challenges

5. Employee training
  • Effective component if total program is
    implemented and engineering controls are first
  • Often required by regulation
  • Right to Know or Hazard Communication Standard
    29 CFR 1910.1200
  • Regular intervals
  • Keep it interesting and effective, use a variety
    of techniques
  • Keep records of dates, individuals, topics,

6. Program review
  • Regular intervals (yearly, semi-annual)
  • Review the written program as well as the
  • Updates for new regulations, new chemicals, new
    processes, or any changes
  • Audit components of the program
  • Internal OSHA inspection
  • Involve employees, consultants, management

  • Critical Thinking Questions
  • P. 17
  • 1-3
  • Due Date?