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Solar cell ?

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Solar cell Motech Industries Inc. Solar cell Solar Cell A. n-type p-type – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solar cell ?


1
?????????
  • Solar cell ?
  • Motech Industries Inc.

2
Solar cell ??
3
Solar Cell ??
  • A. ?n-type??,???p-type????
  • B. ?????(?????????) ???????????

4
Solar cell ??
5
PV Module Performance Rating
  • ????
  • 1. The peak watt (Wp) rating
  • A. Temp B. Solar radiation (AM1.5)
  • ?????????????
  • 2. NOCT-normal operating cell temperature
  • ?????????????????,?? Wp ??,?????
  • 3. AMPM standard
  • global-average day light level, ambient
    temperature, air mass

6
Electrical Performance
  • 1. Power Output??????peak power or avg power?
  • (watts)
  • 2. Energy Output
  • (Wh)

  • ???????????3??
  • 3. Conversion efficiency
  • energy output from array

  • energy input from sun
  • ????1EEE?ASTM (American Society for Testing
    and Materials)

100
x
7
  • ???????

8
  • ????

9
I
2ND Quadrant Generation
1ST Quadrant Dissipation
V
3D Quadrant Dissipation
4TH Quadrant Generation
Power is either generated or dissipated,
depending on the quadrant you are in.
10
I
I
V
Power Dissipating Region
Power Generating Region
V
Power Dissipating Region
Dark Characteristic Light Characteristic
11
The VI characteristic of a solar cell is usually
displayed like this
I
V
V
I
The coordinate system is flipped around the
voltage axis.
12
Power is a function of position along the VI
characteristic. At the intercepts, it is minimum
- zero - increasing to a max near the knee of the
curve.
13
Set 1 ISC , PMAX , VOC
ISC
PMAX
(0V, 150 mA) ? V ? I 0 mW
(0.43 V, 142 mA) ? V ? I 61 mW
Some typical values
(0.5V, 0 mA) ? V ? I 0 mW
VOC
14
The short circuit current ISC is a linear
function of sunlight intensity. The open circuit
voltage VOC is not. (VOC is weakly dependent on
temperature.) Recall from Part I that sunlight
intensity is measured in terms of a solar
constant with units such as mW/cm2.
15
Answer to Question 1
I ISC
R 0
Does it surprise you that the current at short
circuit is not infinite? Or that a current can
flow with no voltage? Where does the energy
originate?
16
Answer to Question 2
I 0
_
R ?
V VOC
17
Answer to Questions 3 and 4 (contd)
Hyperbola for P PMAX
ISC
Point of tangency
Current at max power
VOC
Voltage at max power
18
Set 2 RS , RSH
RSH
ISC
The slopes of these lines are characteristic
resistances.
RS
VOC
19
Questions 1. Which resistance is higher, the
measurement at ISC or the measurement at VOC
? Remember R ?V/?I ! 2. Physically, what do
you think these resistances represent? 3. As a
solar cell designer, what is your preferred ideal
value?
20
Answers to Questions 1 - 3 The resistance at
ISC is extremely high. In an equivalent circuit
model of a solar cell, it represents a shunt
resistance. The resistance at VOC is extremely
low. In an equivalent circuit model of a solar
cell, it represents a series resistance. Both of
these resistances are internal, and represent
energy dissipation mechanisms in the
cell. Ideally, a designer would like zero series
resistance and infinite shunt resistance.
21
Cell
RS
RLOAD
RSH
ISC
Cell
Equivalent circuit for a solar cell with load.
Internal resistances RS and RSH represent power
loss mechanisms inside the cell.
22
RS 0?
RLOAD
RSH ?
ISC
The ideal solar cell would have no internal
losses at all! What would the VI characteristic
of THIS cell look like?
23
The Ideal Solar Cell
ISC
RSH ?
RS 0
VOC
24
The Ideal Solar Cell
ISC
Notice that the area under the rectangle PMAX
for the ideal cell. For this cell, PMAX VOC ?
ISC
VOC
25
Set 3 Fill Factor
ISC
In fact, PMAX/(ISC ? VOC) measures the cells
quality as a power source. The quantity is called
the Fill Factor. Can you see why?
VOC
26
Questions 1. What is the ideal fill factor? 2.
Can the ideal cell ever be built? Why or why
not? 3. For a cell with these parameters (0V,
150mA), (0.43V, 142mA), and (0.5V, 0mA) calculate
the fill factor.
27
Answer to Question 1 The ideal fill factor is
unity. Why? Answer to Question 2 An ideal cell
might be approximated, but never actually built.
Nature is never ideal as humans think about
ideal. Answer to Question 3 The fill factor
is (0.43V ? 142mA)/(0.5V ? 150mA) 0.81 81
28
?????????
  • Inverter ?
  • Motech Industries Inc.

29
?????
  • ?????????????????,????????????,?????Inverter???DC/
    AC,???????Inverter??DC???????/???50/60Hz?117/220V,
    ?????????Watts???KWatts,???????Inverter???????480V
    ?????

30
Inverter??
31
????????
  • 1.????????
  • 2.????
  • 3.??????????

32
??????
  • 1.???????
  • 2.?????????
  • 3.???????

33
??????
  • 1.??
  • 2.?????????
  • 3.??

34
?????
  • 1.??????
  • 2.??????
  • 3.????
  • 4.?????

35
??????????
  • More flexibility on power management.
  • Provides limited power for critical loads incase
    of power failure.
  • Requires Battery maintenance schedule.

36
???????
  • AC OUTPUT PARAMETERS
  • DC INPUT PARAMETERS
  • PROTECTION
  • GENERAL SPECIFICATION

37
AC OUTPUT PARAMETERS
  • Output Voltage
  • Output Frequency
  • Continues AC output rating
  • Waveform
  • Output Power Factor
  • THD
  • DC control injection
  • Efficiency

38
DC INPUT PARAMETERS
  • Input Power control
  • MPPT Range

39
PROTECTION
  • Internal Protection System
  • Anti islanding
  • Protection signals/contacts
  • Internal Shutdown

40
GENERAL SPECIFICATION 1
  • Parallel Operation
  • Local Operator Interface
  • Front Panel LCD Display
  • Computer Ports Isolation
  • Remote Access
  • Parameters Fault log
  • Communications

41
GENERAL SPECIFICATION 2
  • Output Date Files
  • Operating Temperature Rang
  • Humidity
  • Enclosure
  • Printed Circuit Boards
  • Standby Tare Losses
  • Noise
  • Aux. ADC Port

42
?????????????
  • 1.??????
  • 2.?????
  • 3.????
  • 4.?????
  • 5.????????

43
?????????????
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