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Some Interesting Research Experiments in IPv6 Internetworking

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Some Interesting Research Experiments in IPv6 Internetworking IPv6 Workshop, IIT-Kanpur, April 1, 2005 Dr. Rahul Banerjee Computer Science & Information Systems Group – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Some Interesting Research Experiments in IPv6 Internetworking


1
Some Interesting Research Experiments in IPv6
Internetworking
IPv6 Workshop, IIT-Kanpur, April 1, 2005
  • Dr. Rahul Banerjee
  • Computer Science Information Systems Group
  • Birla Institute of Technology Science, Pilani
    (India)
  • E-mail rahul_at_bits-pilani.ac.in
  • Home http//www.bits-pilani.ac.in/rahul

2
Interaction Points
  • IPv6 Current Status
  • Problems and Issues
  • An overview of major IPv6 research experiments
    around the world
  • Related Research Experiments at BITS-Pilani
  • Project IPv6_at_BITS First few Steps during
    1998-2002
  • Project BITS-LifeGuard
  • The Grid-One Initiative
  • The Road Ahead
  • Summary
  • References

3
IPv6 Current Status
  • A brief overview of the IPv6 workgroups progress
    at the IETF
  • The Revised IETF Roadmap for IPv6
  • IPv6 Research, Development and Deployments in
    Industry
  • Hype versus Reality
  • Obstacles Opportunities

4
The IETF IPv6 Working Group Current Progress
Status of IPv6-specific Standardization /
Updating Work (1 of 2)
  • Milestones passed ltwork completedgt
  • Submission of a flexible method to manage the
    assignment of bits of an IPv6 address block to
    the IESG for Informational RFC.
  • Submission of the Flow Label specification to
    IESG for Proposed Standard RFC.
  • Submission of the Prefix Delegation requirements
    to IESG for Informational RFC
  • Revision of the Aggregatable Unicast Addresses
    (RFC2374) to remove TLA/NLA/SLA terminology.
  • Submission of a Draft on Proxy RA solution for
    prefix delegation.
  • Submission of the IPv6 Node Requirements to IESG
    for Informational.
  • Submission of the Site-Local Deprecation document
    to IESG for Informational.
  • Submission of the Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
    Addresses to IESG for Proposed Standard RFC
  • Submission of the Link Scoped IPv6 Multicast
    Addresses to IESG for Proposed Standard RFC

5
The IETF IPv6 Working Group Current Progress
Status of IPv6-specific Standardization /
Updating Work (2 of 2)
  • Milestones passed ltwork completedgt
  • Submission of the IPv6 Scoped Addressing
    Architecture to IESG for Proposed Standard RFC
  • Submission of the TCP MIB to IESG for Proposed
    Standard RFC
  • Submission of the Site-Local Deprecation document
    to IESG for Informational RFC
  • Submission of the Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
    Addresses to IESG for Proposed Standard RFC
  • Submission of the Router Preferences,
    More-Specific Routes to IESG for Proposed
    Standard RFC
  • Submission of the updates to Auto Configuration
    (RFC2462 to be republished as Draft Standard RFC
  • Submission of the update to ICMPv6 (RFC2463) to
    be republished as Draft Standard RFC

6
IPv6 Working Group Roadmap Status
  • Milestones originally targeted ltwork in
    progress / delayed progressgt lt1 0f 2gt
  • Dec 04 Submit document defining DAD
    optimizations to the IESG for Proposed Standard
  • Dec 04 Submit Load Sharing to IESG for Proposed
    Standard
  • Dec 04 Submit updates to Neighbor Discovery
    (RFC2461) to be republished as Draft Standard
  • Jan 05 Submit Centrally Assigned Unique Local
    IPv6 Unicast Addresses to IESG for Proposed
    Standard

7
IPv6 Working Group Roadmap Status
  • Milestones originally targeted ltwork in
    progress / delayed progressgt lt2 of 2gt
  • Jan 05 Submit Proxy ND to IESG for Informational
  • Jan 05 Resubmit Node Information Queries to IESG
    for Experimental status
  • Jan 05 Submit update to IPv6 over PPP (RFC2472)
    to IESG for Draft Standard
  • Jan 05 Submit Update to Privacy Extensions for
    Stateless Autoconfiguration document (RFC3041) to
    the IESG for Draft Standard
  • Mar 05 Submit update to IPv6 Address
    Architecture to the IESG for Draft Standard
  • Apr 05 Re-charter or close working group.

8
A Technical Overview of IPv6-specific Research
Experiments
9
Principal Objectives of this Research Overview
  • Spreading Awareness of activities in related
    project areas for ease of collaboration (through
    a brief Technical Summary and subsequent
    discussion)
  • Avoiding duplication of work-objectives and
    ensuring better utilization of resources
  • Ensuring synergy between related projects so as
    to step up their productive output
  • Identification of areas of possible collaboration
    between different projects
  • Identification of a viable mechanism for ensuring
    such synergy and collaboration

10
Categories of Major IPv6 QoS Projects
  • Quality-of-Service at the Infrastructure Level
  • Packet-Switching Technology-specific initiatives
  • Virtual Circuit -Switching Technology-specific
    initiatives
  • Mixed-Mode-specific initiatives
  • Quality-of-Service at the Higher Level
  • Application-specific initiatives
  • Service-specific initiatives
  • Application Level Service-specific initiatives
  • Transport Level Service-specific initiatives
  • Quality-of-Service at both levels
  • Survey-based and Analysis-based initiatives
  • Implementation and Testing-based initiatives
  • In all the categories, some of the ongoing works
    would facilitate standardization, benchmarking
    and derivation of technology roadmaps.

11
Categories of Major IPv6 QoS Projects
  • Quality-of-Service at the Infrastructure Level
  • Packet-Switching Technology-specific initiatives
  • Virtual Circuit -Switching Technology-specific
    initiatives
  • Mixed-Mode-specific initiatives
  • Quality-of-Service at the Higher Level
  • Application-specific initiatives
  • Service-specific initiatives
  • Application Level Service-specific initiatives
  • Transport Level Service-specific initiatives
  • Quality-of-Service at both levels
  • Survey-based and Analysis-based initiatives
  • Implementation and Testing-based initiatives
  • In all the categories, some of the ongoing works
    would facilitate standardization, benchmarking
    and derivation of technology roadmaps.

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20
IPv6-based Grid Computing Projects
  • Telescience project allowed collaboration with
    the researchers in Argentina with their
    counterparts in Sweden to control the
    Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM
    4000) in the USA.
  • This facility also allowed bioinformatic and
    collaborative visualization tools.
  • Incidentally, the Telescience project was also
    featuring an all-IPv6 native support-based
    underlying fabric. In that sense, it was
    interesting to see how the researchers approached
    the problem.
  • The researchers were able to transfer at the
    1Gbps rate using this all-IPv6 infrastructure.
  • However, till date, no international project has
    attempted to capitalize on the experimental QoS
    features for which the IPv6 has good potential.

21
Some Other Projects involving Grid Computing and
IPv6
  • Teragrid (NSF funded, partly IPv6 enabled)
  • GrangeNet (10 Gbps delivered over IPv6)
  • KDDI Labs.-Project WIDE-Osaka University-UCSD
    Research Grid experiment (using native
    IPv6-support)
  • Project Grid-One (at BITS-Pilani)

22
First few steps at BITS
  • Project IPv6_at_BITS
  • Project Home Page
  • http//ipv6.bits-pilani.ac.in/
  • IPv6-site   
  • IPV6-BITS-IN
  • Origin AS4755
  • International Tunnels  Eleven
  • BITS was the first from India to be on the
    International IPv6 Backbone known as the 6-Bone
    and was the only University in India that
    acquired the status of a pTLA for IPv6.
  • The project has as an active IPv6-oriented
    networking research and development component.
  • Has over 24 International Partners participating
    in collaborative research.
  • BITS led the IPv6-QoS Research Group at the
    European Commissions Next Generation Networks
    Initiative

23
Some Other Ongoing Projects that already use the
IPv6-enabled Infrastructure
  • Project BITS-MOS
  • IPv6-VoD Project
  • IPv6-DTVC Project
  • BITS Digital Library Project
  • BITS Virtual University Project
  • Technology Transfer Portal Project
  • BITS-Linux Project
  • JS project for Free Journals
  • Project BITS-WearComp

24
Project GridOne An IPv6-QoS-aware Grid
Computing Experiment in Progress at BITS-Pilani
25
Grid computing Architecture
  • Grids may be seen as made up of four layers
  • Application layer (example collaborative
    biomedical research)
  • Middleware layer (examples Schedulers, APIs,
    Authentication schemes, Interfaces, Managing
    elements)
  • Computing Infrastructure layer (examples PCs,
    PDAs, Mid-range and Mainframes, Supercomputers as
    individual nodes)
  • Distributed Communication / fabric layer
    (example underlying networks)

26
The Grid-One Initiative at BITS-Pilani
  • BITS-Pilani is currently involved in a two-part
    experimental project under its Grid-One
    Initiative
  • In the first phase, it is building a medium-sized
    campus-wide grid involving
  • several Server-class systems,
  • about 3000 PCs used inside the institutes
    laboratories and faculty chambers, student hostel
    rooms and
  • many of the staff-owned PCs / Laptops / Tablet
    PCs etc.
  • (The entire campus is connected using Gigabit
    Ethernet and Wireless LAN technologies.)
  • Operating Systems include Linux, FreeBSD, SCO
    Unix, HP-UX, Sun Solaris, Windows 2003 Server,
    Windows 2000/Me/XP, Novell Netware, Win CE ltas
    client nodegt, Palm OS ltas client nodegt.
  • The second phase would involve connecting the
    resultant grid to a bigger IPv6-enabled Grid for
    experimentation.

27
Project BITS-LifeGuard A Wearable Computer
Research Project for Saving Human Lives that uses
native IPv6
28
Introduction to the BITS Wearable Computing
Project
  • The Project BITS-WearComp research programme
  • Conceptualized in 1999
  • Started in the early 2000
  • First white paper and roadmap published in 2001
  • First specific project, the BITS-Lifeguard, begun
    in May 2001 ltBlueprint discussed at the NGNis
    Brussels Meet in May 2001gt
  • Objectives
  • Saving human lives with the help of non-intrusive
    wearable computing devices
  • Using the advances in computer communication and
    networking technologies to complement the
    wearable device capabilities ltincluding the
    native IPv6 support in the wearable as well as
    the cars computergt

29
A little bit about the BITS-Lifeguard system
  • This research aims to protect human lives from
    those road accidents that result from the reduced
    levels of the physical fitness or mental
    alertness of the driver.
  • Initially, it is focusing on light vehicles and
    their drivers / occupants. However, the concept
    is easily extensible to large vehicles and their
    drivers / occupants as well.
  • This research also draws on the works done by
    life scientists on human sensory system, brain
    and select externally measurable parameters (that
    can be measured, calibrated or accurately
    estimated without piercing human body).

30
Motivation behind the BITS-Lifeguard system
  • More people die of road accidents than due to
    natural calamities or other reasons
  • Out of these road accidents, as per various
    reports,
  • About 8 accidents were due to mechanical
    problems / failures in the vehicle
  • About 12 accidents were found to be due to
    traffic violations, wrong assessment of the
    situation-on-hand by the driver or activities
    that tend to distract drivers (including changing
    cassettes / CDs / speaking on mobile etc.)
  • Approximately, 73 of the accidents were
    attributed to the possibilities that the drivers
    physical and mental alertness levels may have
    been unfit for driving at the time of accident
  • Remaining 7 accidents were accounted to various
    reasons including those of suicidal attempts /
    forced accidents etc.

31
The Vision behind the BITS-Lifeguard System (1
of 2)
  • The overall life-saving environment in which the
    BITS-Lifeguard is envisioned to work shall have
    two core components
  • The wearable computing component The
    BITS-Lifeguard
  • The vehicular computing component
  • The scenario of action would include
  • Part-I
  • sensing of select critical parameters that help
    estimate the current level of alertness and
    physical ability to drive safely,
  • comparing these with the pre-fed threshold levels
    and generate an alert to the driver
  • in case, driver fails to respond quickly enough,
    send and SoS signal to the vehicular computer
    wirelessly
  • These responsibilities are handled by the
    wearable computer

32
The Vision behind the BITS-Lifeguard System (2of
2)
  • The scenario of action would include
  • Part-II
  • Taking over control from the driver,
  • Safely attempting to move the vehicle as per the
    pre-fed GIS map and GPS data
  • Stopping the vehicle on a side
  • Sending information wirelessly to the rescue /
    recovery agencies providing the location details,
    vehicles details and drivers details
  • Intimating to the pre-registered relative /
    friend about the event and location
  • These steps are taken by the vehicles computer

33
Elements of the BITS-Lifeguard Non-Intrusive
Wearable Computing System
  • A wearable computing system of this category
    needs at least five basic elements
  • Non-Intrusive Sensory elements to sense the
    wearers environment,
  • Computing elements to take care of computational
    needs and,
  • Communication elements to interconnect these
    computing elements (with mobility)
  • Body safe Power Supply / Generation elements to
    provide the necessary power to the wearable
    computing system
  • Fabric or placeholder elements to allow
    interconnected elements in place ltcould server
    other purposes alsogt

34
Identifying Challenges
  • It was required to identify
  • elements of relevance
  • Factors influencing the choices
  • Roles of Hardware technologies (including CPU,
    Power system, Sensor and Communication)
  • Roles of Software technologies (including System
    and Application software)
  • Challenge was also to consider Trade-offs between
  • functionalities,
  • form factor,
  • weight and
  • cost of device elements

35
Research Issues (1 of 10) Sensory Issues
  • Selection of parameters required to be sensed
  • Identifying the inter-relationship of these
    parameters with one-another, if any,
  • Comparison of these parameters usefulness to the
    target system from the viewpoint of their
    measurability, ease of measurement, estimation or
    calibration
  • Identification of any conflicting requirements of
    any two or more of these parameters due their
    measurement process that may interfere with
    each-other

36
Research Issues (2 of 10) Sensory Issues
  • Identification of best possible method of direct
    or indirect sensing the chosen parameters
  • Evaluating the best candidate methods from the
    viewpoints of their being appropriate to be
    embedded into the wearable computers fabric
  • Identifying the best mechanism and location to
    embed one or more of these sensory elements in
    the fabric
  • Identify the reliable interfacing mechanism to
    connect these elements with the appropriate part
    of the target system

37
Research Issues (3 of 10) Processing Issues
  • Ascertaining the exact scope of real-time
    processing
  • Estimating average and peak processing power
    needed
  • Identifying the level and mechanism of
    fault-tolerance required
  • Evaluating the available processor families and
    short listing the candidate choices
  • Deciding about a safe and secure embedding
    mechanism, deciding the location of placement of
    processors, integration of the chosen processors
    with the rest of the target system
  • Planning power needs of the processing sub-system

38
Research Issues (4 of 10) System Software Issues
  • Identifying the critical and optional features
    needed to be supported by the Operating System
  • Evaluating available Operating Systems on the
    chosen processors with respect to
  • real-time support in the scheduling mechanism,
  • power-management support,
  • efficiency of operation,
  • memory requirements,
  • availability of ready-to-use device drivers,
  • security support,
  • robustness (crash-resistance and recovery
    included),
  • availability of source code for modification and
    customization,
  • application development support available etc.

39
Research Issues (5 of 10) Application Software
Issues
  • Identification of techniques and tools that would
    allow
  • efficient,
  • verifiable,
  • self-correcting and
  • time-sensitive application level software design
    and development
  • Deciding about the critical and optional modules,
  • Formulating security (privacy included)
    strategies to be implemented at the application
    level

40
Research Issues (6 of 10) User-specific Issues
  • Choice of mechanism to be used for the User
    (Driver in this case) registration and
    authentication prior-to-use
  • User-specific critical data acquisition, sensor
    output calibration and verification
    prior-to-first use as well periodically
    afterwards (say every two years or after any
    major injury / prolonged treatment etc.)
  • Deciding upon the minimal set of training
    (ideally none) on use of the wearable and
    precautions, if any
  • Carefully evaluating the least irritating but
    adequately effective interface to the user for
    alerts (say audio only, audio and vibratory alert
    etc.)

41
Research Issues (7 of 10) Communication
Technology Issues
  • Identification of the low-power, short-distance,
    low / medium-speed wireless communication
    mechanism (technology, protocol included) for the
    wearable computing element
  • Ensuring that the technology and mechanism work
    even if accidentally an object of common use or
    any body part may come between the wearable
    computers transceiver and vehicles transceiver
  • Identification of Higher-level Protocol Stack for
    local as well as global identification of the
    wearable computer as well as that of the
    vehicles computer
  • Identification of appropriate wireless mobile
    communication technology that could allow
    vehicles computer to communicate with the
    external world in the event of the need

42
Research Issues (8 of 10) Power-specific Issues
  • Identifying the methods and mechanisms to
    minimize the power requirements of the wearable
    computer system since providing power from
    vehicles power system is both impractical and
    unadvisable
  • Ensuring that the chosen mechanism of reduced
    power requirement does not adversely affect the
    critical aspects of operation of the wearable
    computing system
  • Identifying possible power-system elements that
    could supply required power to the identified
    elements of the wearable computer for reasonably
    long hours before any recharging or replacement
    becomes necessary
  • Assessing the robustness of the power-sub-system
    against likely failures / exposures / damages

43
Research Issues (9 of 10) Security Issues
  • Identification / development of low-overhead
    based efficient security mechanisms and protocols
    for providing
  • Data integrity check
  • Failsafe User (driver) authentication
  • Implementation of verifiable privacy policy to
    protect privacy of the user from the unscrupulous
    offenders
  • Protection against any over-the-network or
    EMI-based attacks on the wearable or vehicular
    subsystems

44
Research Issues (10 of 10) User-Safety Issues
  • Evolution of a verifiable framework that could be
    used to ensure that the overall system in its
    entirety or any individual sub-system / element
    of which does not pose any threat to the physical
    security or mental comfort level of the user
  • Ensuring that a built-in self-test be executed on
    the wearable computer as well as on the vehicles
    computer at appropriate intervals to ensure that
    the system continues to conform to the specified
    safety norms.

45
Current Status (1 of 2) Vehicular Computing System
  • Vehicles communication subsystem design is
    ready, fine tuning and verification are yet to be
    done
  • GPS software modules have been developed
  • A minimal GIS mechanism is being developed
  • Vehicles environment is planned to be simulated
    over next one year
  • Real prototype for the vehicles computing system
    is slated for 2008.

46
Current Status (2 of 2) Wearable Computing System
  • Architecture for the Sensory Sub-system is ready
    and several sensory simulation tests are under
    way
  • First phase of the Processing Subsystem
    Architecture has been completed, verification and
    prototyping is being planned
  • Software decisions for the wearable computing
    element have been made, initial choices have been
    frozen and a development environment is ready for
    use
  • Application software for the wearable computing
    system is slated for 2006
  • Security architecture is nearly complete and
    shall be evaluated within next 6 months

47
  • The BITS Virtual University Project
  • Opened to public on August 15, 2001
  • Initially offerd primarily asynchronous learning
    support
  • It now has an advanced facility for providing
  • IP-based Live (interactive) Lectures
  • On-Demand IP-based interactive delivery of
    recorded sessions
  • Over 75 of the software used developed in house
  • Currently, in Phase-4

48
The Road Ahead Identification of Common
Grounds and Complementing One-Anothers
Deliverables
  • Collaboration Possibilities in breaking new
    grounds
  • Identification of Individual Projects perceived
    Barriers as points of possible collaboration
  • Identification of Common Grounds for initiating
    an inter-project dialogue
  • Sharing the experiences
  • Helping each-other in the process of testing,
    benchmarking, standardization and field deployment

49
Concluding Remarks
  • Let us begin here now
  • Let us know one-another more closely to be able
    to explore synergy!
  • Let us brainstorm to evolve a mechanism for such
    collaborative co-existence..

50
Thank you!
51
Select References
  • Telescience project portal, OSGA site, NSF
    project site
  • Brian Carpenter ISOC Member Briefing 11, Feb.
    2003.
  • Rahul Banerjee Internetworking Technologies,
    Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi, 2003. (Also,
    freely downloadable from http//www.bits-pilani.ac
    .in/rahul and http//ipv6.bits-pilani.ac.in)
  • Rahul Banerjee Internetworking Application
    Architectures, BITS-Pilani, 2004. (Freely
    downloadable from http//www.bits-pilani.ac.in/ra
    hul and http//ipv6.bits-pilani.ac.in)
  • Rahul Banerjee An Innovative Approach to IPv6
    Quality of Service An OUCS Special Event
    (Invited lecture), Oxford University, Oxford,
    Feb. 2002.

52
References
  • Rahul Banerjee. June 2001. THE BITS LifeGuard
  • System, First technical meeting of the European
    Commissions
  • Next Generation Network Initiative project,
    Brussels.
  • 2002 Motor Vehicle Crash Data from FARS and GES.
  • January 2004. Traffic Safety Facts 2002 A
    Compilation
  • of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality
    Analysis
  • Reporting System and the General Estimates
    System.
  • Annual Report. Washington, D.C. National Highway
  • Traffic Safety Administration.
  • European Transport Safety Council. 2001. The Role
    of
  • Driver Fatigue in Commercial Road Transport
    Crashes. Technical Report, ISBN 90-76024-09-X.
    European Transport Safety Council, Rue du Cornet
    34, B-1040, Brussels.

53
References
  • NCSDR / NHTSA Expert Panel on Driver Fatigue and
    Sleepiness. 1998. Drowsy Driving and Automobile
    Crashes. URL http//www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof
    /sleep/drsy_drv.pdf
  • The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
    (RoSPA). February 2001. Driver Fatigue and Road
    Accidents A Literature Review and Position
    Paper. URL
  • http//www.rospa.com/pdfs/road/fatigue.pdf

54
References
  • Lizzy MIT's Wearable Computer Design 2.0.5. URL
  • http//www.media.mit.edu/wearables/lizzy/lizzy/.
  • Steve Mann, 1997 Smart Clothing The Wearable
  • Computer and WearCam, URL
  • http//wearcam.org/personaltechnologies/
  • Rhodes, B. J. 1997. The Wearable Remembrance
  • Agent A system for augmented memory. Personal
  • Technologies Journal, Special Issue on Wearable
  • Computing 1 218-224.
  • Abowd, G., Atkeson, C., Hong, J., Long, S.,
    Kooper,
  • R., and Pinkerton, M. 1997. Cyberguide A mobile
  • context-aware tour guide. ACM Wireless Networks
    3
  • 421-433.
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