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Dangers of Soy

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Dangers of Soy Presented by: Bruce Topping History of Soy Foods Soybeans originate in the Orient. Soybeans were considered inedible until around 2500 years ago ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dangers of Soy


1
Dangers of Soy
  • Presented by Bruce Topping

2
History of Soy Foods
  • Soybeans originate in the Orient.
  • Soybeans were considered inedible until around
    2500 years ago sometime during the Chou Dynasty
    in China.
  • Before that, soy was used in crop rotation as a
    nitrogen fixer

3
The Discovery of Fermentation
  • Ancient Chinese made a fermented food called
    chiang made by mixing animals foods like fish
    or meat
  • Sometime between 2nd century BC and 4th century
    AD this process was applied to soybeans and it
    became the precursor to miso.
  • Soy sauce was originally the liquid poured off
    during chiang production.

4
Fermented Soy Foods The Traditional Way
  • Miso paste made of fermented beans and grains -
    developed from primitive soupier version of
    chiang
  • Miso began to play important role in Japanese
    diet in 1100s under Samurai control.
  • Samurai popularized national cuisine of
    simplicity and frugality in which grains were the
    starring role.

5
Traditional Soy Foods
  • Soy Sauce shoyu juices from a fermented
    mixture of wheat and soy.
  • Long fermentation process made by adding mold
    spores from Aspergillus to mixture of roasted
    soybeans and cracked wheat.
  • Ferments for 6 18 months. Some versions use
    much longer ferments.

6
Modern Soy Sauce?
  • Most soy sauces sold in America are made in 2
    days or less. (Far from traditional method!)
  • Modern versions use acid hydrolysis heating
    defatted protein with hydrochloric acid for 8
    12 hours, then neutralize acid with sodium
    carbonate. -chemical soy sauce.
  • Rapid hydrolysis method creates large amounts of
    unnatural form of glutamic acid that is found in
    MSG.

7
Traditional Fermented Soy the good old soys
  • Tempeh Appeared around the 1600s. Most popular
    fermented food in Indonesia. Solid, chunky,
    meaty texture.
  • Indonesians had been making fermented coconut
    press for centuries
  • This technique was applied to soy.
  • Easy to digest, rich in B-vitamins, minerals,
    enzymes, and omega-3 fats, as well as molds,
    bacteria, and yeasts.

8
Tempeh Continued
  • Traditional Process for making Tempeh
  • -Boiled, drained, then hulled
  • -soaked and pre-fermented for 24 hrs
  • -boil again, then inoculate (Rhizopus
    oligosporus)
  • -wrap in banana leaves and let ferment for 24
    48 hours at room temperature.
  • Scientific study of traditional Tempeh finds
  • 69 species of mold, 78 species of bacteria, 150
    species of yeast.

9
Natto
  • Natto originated in Japan about 1,000 years
    ago. Fermented soy product with pungent odor,
    cheesy texture, slimy, sticky coat.
  • Great source of vitamin K2
  • Soaked, boiled, steamed, and then fermented.
    Traditionally inoculated with Bacillus and then
    incubated in straw.

10
A Word about Tofu
  • Tofu was invented in China in 164 BC.
  • Not fermented made by separating a puree of
    cooked soybeans into solids and liquid using
    magnesium chloride or epsom salts, then pressing
    the curds into solid cakes.
  • Developed as a protein source for vegetarian
    Buddhist monks
  • They found that it decreased libido and made
    their celibate lifestyle easier. (phytoestrogens
    can lower testosterone levels)

11
A Word about Tofu
  • By 700 AD tofu was accepted as a meat substitute
    by the general public if meat or seafood was not
    available or not affordable.
  • Otherwise, tofu was served as a condiment or in
    small amounts in fish broth.

12
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Protease Inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors
  • Phytates
  • Isoflavones
  • Goitrogens
  • Saponins
  • Lectins
  • Oxalates
  • Manganese levels (for infants)
  • Allergens (known and unknown)
  • Oligosaccharides

13
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Trypsin Inhibitors and other Protease inhibitors
    interfere with digestive enzymes protease and
    trypsin. Leads to overworked pancreas, gastric
    distress, poor protein digestion.
  • Most studies over the years by the USDA on
    protease inhibitors looked at soy, but they are
    found in many nuts, seeds, nightshade vegetables,
    etc.
  • Protease Inhibitors in soy are not only more
    numerous, but harder to neutralize.
  • Only Fermentation will come close to deactivating
    all of them. All other cooking methods will
    leave remaining trypsin inhibitors.

14
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Protease inhibitors / Trypsin Inhibitors
    continued
  • Pancreas is in greatest danger. When inhibitors
    affect trypsin protease, body compensates by
    increasing number (hyperplasia) and size
    (hypertrophy) of pancreatic cells.
  • Many people say protease inhibitors arent a
    problem. Probably true for those that dont eat
    soy excessively, are not infants, and dont have
    digestive problems like low stomach HCl, celiac,
    bowel disease, etc.

15
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Phytates bind to minerals like zinc, iron, and
    calcium and keep them from being absorbed.
  • Phytates serve two functions in nature
  • Prevent premature germination
  • Store phosphorous plants need to grow
  • Phytates are valuable to humans because they
    allow winter storage.

16
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Phytates thought to be one of leading causes of
    poor growth, immune challenge, anemia, and other
    health woes in 3rd world
  • Phosphorous is plentiful in grains, but 50-75 of
    it is tied up in phytates and not readily
    bio-available. (Stunted growth can result if
    deficient)

17
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Isoflavones plant estrogens (phytoestrogens)
    that act like the hormone estrogen in our bodies,
    affecting the reproductive and nervous systems.
  • Soy foods with highest levels of isoflavones are
    soy flours, grits, nuts, soy protein isolates and
    textured vegetable protein. TVP
  • Phytoestrogens exert their estrogenic effects
    directly and indirectly.

18
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • One thing is clear Soy Estrogens are not weak.
  • Isoflavones are potent endocrine disruptors when
    consumed in sufficient quantity.

19
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Goitrogens substances that block the synthesis
    of thyroid hormones. Can cause goiter which is
    swelling in the neck caused by enlarged thyroid
    gland.
  • Principal goitrogen in soy foods are the
    isoflavones, and possibly also the saponins.
  • Cooking and processing using heat, pressure, and
    alkaline solutions wont neutralize isoflavones
    or saponins. Only solvents can do that.

20
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • America is plagued by epidemic thyroid disorders.
    Many go un-detected.
  • Thyroid cancer statistics are sobering
    incidences rose over 40 between 1975 1996.
  • Thyroid cancer one of the most common cancers
    among U.S. children and adolescents.
  • Thyroid disease is widespread in Japan, where soy
    consumption is the highest of any country in Asia.

21
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Saponins - Bitter compounds that foam up like
    suds in water.
  • Saponins found in other beans, alfalfa, and many
    other plants.
  • Greatest danger is from damage to mucosal lining.
  • Cooking wont have much effect on Saponins.
    Takes alcohol extraction to remove them. Or
    Fermentation!
  • Fermentation is the best way to deactivate
    saponins. Bacterial enzymes in our gut dont
    break down saponins until the colon.

22
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Lectins proteins with a sweet tooth help
    bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into roots of
    plants. Also makes plants useful for fertilizer
    when they die. Lectins are also called
    hemaglutinins.
  • Lectins bite into carbohydrates, especially
    sugars. Can cause leaky gut, immune system
    problems, blood clotting. -they agglutinate
    blood. 3 to 4 times more likely to move into
    bloodstream than other food proteins.
  • However, Lectins that are not deactivated will
    persist, and are not easily broken down by
    enzymes in our gut and can remain in digestive
    tract, acting like a cumulative time-bomb.
  • Research has shown lectins can cause shifts in
    gut flora favoring E. Coli

23
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Oxalates prevent proper calcium absorption and
    linked to kidneys stones and vulvodynia.
  • Not Significantly neutralized by cooking.
    Highest sources are soy protein, spinach,
    rhubarb, pecans, carrots.
  • Oxalates dont cause as much calcium binding as
    phytates, however some popular foods are high in
    both!

24
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Manganese (A vital trace mineral)
  • Soy Formula very high in manganese, 75 to 80
    times higher than breast milk. Phytates actually
    do the infant a favor in this case, but not well
    enough. Can be problematic for adults, too.
  • Manganese toxicity linked to impairment of
    neurotransmitters and implicated in ADD/ADHD.

25
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Allergen Soy is one of the top 8 allergens
  • Allergies are an abnormal inflammatory reaction
    by the immune system. IgE and other
    immunoglobulins involved.
  • Intolerances to soy are not always caused by the
    immune system reactions but by unkown metabolic
    mechanisms.
  • Soybeans contain at least 16 allergenic proteins.
    Some researchers pinpoint as many as 30.
  • Soy is hidden in hamburgers and other regular
    foods, people often miss the connection.

26
Naturally Occurring Antinutrients and Toxins in
Soy
  • Oligosaccharides sugars that cause bloating and
    flatulence.
  • Require enzymes (alpha-galactosidase) to be
    properly digested, which humans do not make.
  • The result is that these sugar compounds get to
    the colon intact and are eaten up by colonic
    bacteria. Digestive fermentation takes place.

27
Reproductive Issues
  • Many plants have contraceptive effects. (known
    since 1926)
  • During 1940s sheep were diagnosed with clover
    disease caused from phytoestrogens in clover.
  • In female sheep, eating clover causes endometrial
    damage and changes in cervical mucous.
    Infertility often results
  • In 1980s female cheetahs were suffering liver
    damage caused by isoflavones in their soy feed.
  • Diet rich in estrogens may well be one of the
    major factors in the decline of cheetah fertility
    in north american zoos. (experts reassured
    everyone that this was a cheetah problem, not a
    human problem. cheetahs lack certain liver
    enzymes)

28
Benefits of Soy Fermentation
  • Almost completely deactivates protease
    inhibitors, Saponins, and Lectins.
  • Deactivates a large portion of the phytates
  • Gets rid of the oligosaccharides which cause gas
  • Increased levels of certain B-vitamins and
    vitamin K2.

29
Benefits of Soy Fermentation
  • Essential Fatty acids are not damaged during
    fermentation, and the Rhizopus strain of bacteria
    may produce GLA, an important omega-6 fatty acid.
  • Digestive aid help facilitate the digestion of
    other foods eaten at the same time
  • Contain beneficial microorganisms that help
    combat food poisoning, and dysentery.

30
Benefits of Soy Fermentation
  • May help protect us from radiation poisoning
    including x-ray radiation according to research.
  • During WWII, a Japanese physician in Nagasaki
    named Dr. Akizuki was out of town the day of the
    bombing, and the hospital where he worked was
    destroyed. He returned to Nagasaki to treat
    survivors of the bombing. He and his staff ate
    miso soup together every day and never
    experienced any radiation sickness, despite their
    proximity to the fallout.

31
Important Point to Remember
  • Asians do not eat any soy foods in great
    quantity! (unless forced to do so by famine or
    poverty)
  • They are used as condiments and flavoring agents
    (not meat replacements) and rarely more than once
    a day.
  • The Japanese average 8.6 grams of soy protein per
    day. Well below the US government recommendation
    of 25 grams per day.

32
Soy in the West
  • Soy was brought to western countries by
    missionaries, and other travelers to the orient.
  • Soy foods were generally not popular with western
    palates with the exception of soy sauce.
  • Soy was used in crop rotation, but not much else
    until about 1930

33
Soy in the West
  • Around 1930 soy started to have some influential
    supporters.
  • John Harvey Kellog, M.D. Ardent vegetarian,
    promoted soyfoods as meat substitutes.
  • Henry Ford promoted soyfoods, soy plastics,
    soybean fiber cloth
  • Adolf Hitler promoted soybeans, vegetarianism,
    and natural foods
  • Mussolini wanted to add soy flour to polenta

34
Soy in the West
  • Few soybeans sold as whole food products. Focus
    is on soy for industry and processed foods.
  • Americans for the most part dont seem to mind
    that industry has slipped invisible soys into
    every supermarket food imaginable.
  • Now perceived as healthful additive.

35
How Soy Became Health Food
  • By 1962 soy oil had captured over 50 of U.S.
    cooking salad oil market.
  • Manufacture of vegetable oil leaves a lot of
    leftover protein. Industry needed to create a use
    for this surplus of byproduct.

36
How Soy Became Health Food
  • Soy protein makes an excellent fertilizer, but
    the petrochemicals had that market cornered
    already.
  • Only so much can be fed to animals
  • Soy industry wanted to get into human market, but
    soy had a terrible image problem.
  • In a clever move, industry solved two problems at
    once while creating a revenue stream out of these
    surplus byproducts
  • Soy Industry decided to make soy a health food
    and aimed for affluent people.
  • Soybean Industry sponsored many studies, public
    relations efforts are superb. Made sure to
    publicize any study showing benefit.

37
Non-Fermented Soy FoodsNew Era of Soy
  • Soy milk, soy cheese, soy ice-cream, soy flour
    and the more obvious products soy nuts, soynut
    butter.
  • The problem with most of these products is that
    toxins and anti-nutrients are still present and
    most people dont care for the taste.
  • None of these products were widely used in Asian
    countries.

38
Modern Soy Foods
  • Modern soymilks use highly acidic solutions for
    speed, and cook the beans in a pressure cooker.
    To cover up beaniness, they add sugar.
  • Soy yogurts and puddings usually contain
    carrageenan, a thickener from red seaweed. Many
    years assumed safe, but linked to ulcerations and
    malignancies in G.I. tract of animals. (taste
    tasters describe as awful
  • Soy Cheese often will state cholesterol free
    but many are still loaded with hydrogenated fats.
    Taste reviews of casein-free versions are
    usually horrible
  • Soy ice creams is basically water, sugar, corn
    oil, soy protein isolate or tofu, and then more
    sugar makes up the rest of the ingredients, often
    HFCS. (Some do taste good)
  • Soy Flour added to Many, many foods and widely
    used in general today as an egg substitute and to
    moisten the final product retaining an illusion
    of freshness.

39
Modern Soy Foods
  • Approximately 60 of all packaged food products
    will contain soy ingredients.
  • Fast food is near 100 - will usually be found in
    the bun, the burger, the mayo, the fries,
    everything.
  • Most commercial breads today contain small
    amounts of soy flour, not labeled as soy
    products.
  • Soy often hiding in chopped meat mixes.

40
Highly Refined Soy Products
  • Textured Soy Protein (TSP or TVP) Made by
    forcing defatted soy flour through an extruder.
    Has a long shelf-life and is used as a meat
    replacement or extender.
  • Soy Protein Concentrate made from defatted soy
    flakes by precipitating the solids with aqueous
    acid, aqueous alcohol, moist heat and/or organic
    solvents.

41
Highly Refined Soy Products
  • Soy Protein Isolate Used in almost all the
    processed foods seen in grocery stores, muscle
    man powders, and main ingredient in soy infant
    formulas.
  • Made by mixing defatted soy meal with a caustic
    alkaline solution to remove the fiber, then
    washing with an acid solution to precipitate out
    protein. Protein curds are dipped in another
    alkaline solution and spray dried at extremely
    high temperatures.
  • Used for binder sealer of cardboard boxes.

42
Highly Refined Soy Products
  • High heat, pressure, acids and alkalis used in
    manufacture leave toxic residues, damage
    proteins, and form new toxic compounds
  • Nitrosamines damage the liver and are mutagens
    and carcinogens.
  • Lysinoalanine cross-linked amino acid produced
    when amino acid lysine is subjected to strong
    alkaline treatments. Linked to kidney damage.

43
Highly Refined Soy Products
  • Excitotoxins Amino acids that damage
    neuroreceptors in the brain. Glutamate and
    aspartate are formed during manufacture of
    hydrolyzed vegetable protein and commercial soy
    sauce.
  • Heterocyclic Amines mutagenic and carcinogenic
    compounds
  • Cholorpropanols linked to liver cancer
  • Hexane Organic solvent toxic to the lungs and
    nervous system, linked to Parkinsons disease.
    Residues remain in soyfoods after processing.

44
Soy Formula
  • Never used traditionally as an infant food in
    Asia.
  • Soy is just as common an allergen as milk
  • High levels of soy isoflavones can disrupt the
    infants developing endocrine system, nervous
    system, and immune system.

45
Soy Formula
  • Contains aluminum levels 10 times greater than
    milk-based formula and 100 times greater than
    breast milk.
  • Contains toxins formed during processing as well
    as undesirable additives and preservatives.

46
Soy Formula
  • Different fatty acid profile than breast milk no
    EPA and DHA important for proper brain
    development.
  • Leads to lower immune system function and more
    infections.
  • Use sucrose and corn syrup instead of lactose
    which is vital to nervous system development.
  • Phytates in soy formula prevent good absorption
    of minerals like calcium, zinc, iron, and copper.

47
Soy Formula
  • Soy formula contains high levels of manganese
    from the soybean itself. Infants cannot
    eliminate excess levels because of immature
    livers.
  • Soy formula can lead to poor growth caused by low
    levels of methionine and protease inhibitors
    remaining after manufacture.
  • Exclusive use of infant soy formula is the
    equivalent of consuming one or two birth control
    pills daily, on an estrogenic basis --
    environmental toxicologist Mike Fitzpatrick

48
Soy Oil
  • Soy oil was sometimes extracted in Asian
    countries and used for lamp oil, soap, greasing
    axles, and lubricating machinery.
  • Soy oil was very rarely used as a cooking oil
    because of unpleasant smell and taste.
  • Traditional fats used for cooking in China
    include lard, sesame oil, peanut oil, and
    rapeseed oil.

49
Soy Oil
  • Higher in Omega-3 fats than some oils (8 of the
    unsaturated fat is omega-3)
  • Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is 6.5 1 less than
    ideal
  • Most of the omega-3 fats are lost or damaged in
    processing.
  • Soy Oil Polyunsaturated 61 (very prone to
    rancidity), Monounsaturated 23, Saturated
    15.

50
Soy Oil
  • Extracting soy oil involves grinding and crushing
    the beans then extracting using high temperature,
    intense pressure, and chemical solvents.
  • The process causes exposure to light, heat, and
    oxygen
  • Rancid oils taste and smell horrible, so the oil
    is then refined at high temperatures, deodorized,
    and lightly hydrogenated.

51
Soy Oil
  • In the 1950s processors discovered that the
    rancid omega-3 fats were what caused soy oil to
    smell so bad during frying so they had to find a
    way to get rid of them.
  • Most soy oil undergoes selective Hydrogenation of
    omega-3 fats 2.7-5.4 trans fatty acids in
    liquid oils. light hydrogenation
  • They also have a genetically altered soybean that
    has fewer omega-3 fats.

52
Soy Oil
  • Most Soy oil is further hydrogenated and colored
    to make margarine or bleached to make shortening.
  • 77-79 of vegetable oils consumed in America come
    from soy
  • -90 of salad dressings,
  • -72 of baking and frying fats,
  • -88 of margarines,
  • -76 of salad/cooking oils.

53
Genetically Modified Soy
  • In 1997, Argentina became on of the first
    countries to authorize GMO.
  • Monsantos Roundup Ready soybeans promised
    increased productivity and decreased herbicide
    requirements.
  • Problems with herbicide-resistant super weeds
    led GM soy producers to double herbicide
    application.

54
Genetically Modified Soy
  • Bacteria died, leaving soil so inert that weeds
    would not rot.
  • Farmers neighbors suffered health problems,
    many livestock died or gave birth to deformed
    offspring.
  • 10,000 sq. miles of rainforest leveled for
    soybean production. 150,000 small farmers
    driven off their land.
  • Monsanto called this an exemplary success

55
GMO Soy
  • Soy allergies jumped 50 in the U.K. just after
    GM soy was introduced
  • The level of one known allergen, (trypsin
    inhibitor), was 27 higher in raw GM soy
    varieties.
  • Increased residue of Roundup herbicide in GM soy.
  • Mice fed GM soy had reduced levels of pancreatic
    enzymes

56
Dangers of Soy
  • Why is soy a problem?
  • (from the scientific literature)
  • Long list.
  • -Malnourishment -Thyroid Problems
  • -Reproductive problems -ADD/ADHD
  • -Immune problems -Loss of Libido
  • -Digestive Distress -Top 8 allergens
  • -Linked to heart disease risk
  • -Accelerate cancer (especially breast)
  • Many countries warn about soy foods officially.
    (Switzerland, England, Australia and New Zealand)

57
Take Home Messages
  • The only safe, traditional soy foods are
    fermented and eaten in small amounts
  • Do not give infants soy formula!!!
  • Avoid soy oil, shortening, and margarine entirely
    when possible.
  • Use of solvents, alkalis, extruders, high-heat
    pressure is similar to MANY foods but rarely are
    these foods billed as Health Foods. Soy is
    different this way.

58
  • Thank You!

59
References
  • The Whole Soy Story by Kaayla T. Daniel, PhD, CCN
  • www.westonaprice.org
  • Politically Incorrect Nutrition by Michael Barbee
  • Wild Fermentation by Sandor Katz
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