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Differentiated Instruction


Differentiated Instruction Hoover City Schools Sandra Page ASCD Faculty Member and Educational Consultant 919/929-0681 bookpage_at_nc.rr.com 350 Warren Court – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated Instruction
  • Hoover City Schools
  • Sandra Page
  • ASCD Faculty Member and
  • Educational Consultant
  • 919/929-0681
  • bookpage_at_nc.rr.com
  • 350 Warren Court
  • Chapel Hill, NC 27516

How we will spend our time together
  • Define differentiation and its principles
  • Examine lessons that tier for learning preference
  • Look at some other specific strategies
  • Learning contracts (differentiated by learning
    preference or by readiness)
  • RAFTs (writing across the curriculum,
    differentiated by learning preference)
  • Choose to develop an assessment or a learning
    profile lesson/activity

Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about differentiation. Write as much as you
Key Vocab
Differentiated Instruction is a teachers
response to learners needs
guided by general principles of
differentiation, such as
appropriate degree of challenge
ongoing assessment and adjustment
clear learning goals
respectful tasks
flexible grouping
Teachers can differentiate
Learning Profile
Carol A Tomlinson
GROWTH If tasks are a close match for their
skills MOTIVATION If tasks ignite curiosity or
passion EFFICIENCY If the assignment encourages
students to work in a preferred manner
Learning Profile
Student Traits
  • There are four student traits that teachers must
    often address to ensure effective and efficient
    learning. Those are readiness, interest,
    learning profile, and affect.

Student Traits
  • Affect has to do with how students feel about
    themselves, their work, and the classroom as a
    whole. Student affect is the gateway to helping
    each student become more fully engaged and
    successful in learning.

Tomlinson, 2003
  • Current
  • Interests
  • Potential
  • Interests
  • Talents/Passions
  • Areas of Strength
  • and Weakness
  • Learning
  • Preferences
  • Self Awareness

Content Knowledge
Student Traits
  • Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that
    evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus,
    highly effective teachers attend both to
    developing interests and as yet undiscovered
    interests in their students.

Tomlinson, 2003
What Do You Want to Learn About Rome?
  • Name _______________________
  • These are some of the topics we will be studying
    in our unit on Ancient Rome.
  • We want to know what you want to learn about.
    Number your choices from 1
  • to 8. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is
    your least favorite.
  • ____ geography
  • ____ government (laws)
  • ____ agriculture (foods they grew)
  • ____ architecture (buildings)
  • ____ music and art
  • ____ religion and
  • ____ sports
  • ____ roles of men, women, and children
  • What Can You Tell Us About Rome?
  • 1. What country is Rome in? ______________
  • 2. What does the word civilization
  • _________________________________________________
  • 3. Can you give us some examples of different
    civilizations? ____________

How Do You Like to Learn?
  • 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No
  • 2. I am able to ignore the noise of
  • other people talking while I am working. Yes
  • 3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No
  • 4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No
  • 5. I work hard by myself. Yes No
  • 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes
  • 7. I will work on an assignment until it is
    completed, no
  • matter what. Yes No
  • 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work
  • and do not finish it. Yes No
  • 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like
  • have exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No
  • 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like
  • create my own steps on how to complete it. Yes
  • 11. I like to work by myself. Yes No
  • 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No
  • 13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to
    work on
  • an assignment. Yes No

Student Traits
  • Learning profile refers to how students learn
    best. Those include learning style, intelligence
    preference, culture and gender. If classrooms
    can offer and support different modes of
    learning, it is likely that more students will
    learn effectively and efficiently.

Tomlinson, 2003
Learning Profile Factors
Learning Environment quiet/noise warm/cool still/
mobile flexible/fixed busy/spare
Group Orientation independent/self
orientation group/peer orientation adult
orientation combination
Gender Culture
Intelligence Preference analytic practical creati
ve verbal/linguistic logical/mathematical spatial/
visual bodily/kinesthetic musical/rhythmic interpe
rsonal intrapersonal naturalist existential
Cognitive Style Creative/conforming Essence/facts
Expressive/controlled Nonlinear/linear Inductive/
deductive People-oriented/task or Object
oriented Concrete/abstract Collaboration/competiti
on Interpersonal/introspective Easily
distracted/long Attention span Group
achievement/personal achievement Oral/visual/kines
thetic Reflective/action-oriented
Intelligence Preference
Human brains are wired differently in different
individuals. Although all normally functioning
people use all parts of their brains, each of us
is wired to be better in some areas than in
others (Gardner, Sternberg). Differentiation
based on a students intelligence preference
generally suggests allowing the student to work
in a preferred mode and helping the student to
develop that capacity further. Sometimes
teachers also ask students to extend their
preferred modes of working, or they opt to use a
students preferred areas to support growth in
less comfortable areas.
Sternbergs Three Intelligences
  • We all have some of each of these intelligences,
    but are usually stronger in one or two areas
    than in others.
  • We should strive to develop as fully each of
    these intelligences in students
  • but also recognize where students strengths
    lie and teach through those intelligences as
    often as possible, particularly when introducing
    new ideas.

Creative Thinker
Attracted to novelty, likes to produce knowledge
or ideas instead of consuming them, sees the
world from a unique perspective, often prefers
working alone, does not like to be rushed toward
completion of tasks, often works in bursts,
with long periods of incubation (which can look
like unproductiveness) followed by quick, highly
productive working periods, often has unique
sense of humor. Needs support with setting
deadlines and timelines, open-ended assignments
with structure, assignments that allow for
creative thinking and novel products, support
working with other students, frequent outlets for
creative thought, support with turning ideas
into reality.
Analytical Thinkers
Likes to break things into its parts, likes to
know how things work, enjoys facts as well as
ideas, likes to argue, attracted to logical
thinking and logical ideas, likes to think as
opposed to doing, typically does well at school
tasks, enjoys solving problems, can focus for
long periods of time on a single task, may balk
at creative assignments, likes to find one,
right answer, may see things as black and white
Needs assignments that require thought as
opposed to rote memorization, extended
assignments that allow for focused, long-term
study, problems to figure out, time to discuss
ideas with others, support with how to present
ideas in a non-argumentative way, support with
listening to and accepting others ideas,
opportunities to struggle with open-ended
questions that have no right/wrong answer
Practical Thinkers
Likes to see the real-world application of
things, excellent at implementing plans, a
doer, highly effective in making things
happen, organized, less interested in ideas
than in action, likes to move and do when
learning, can be an excellent leader, may
struggle with creativity-for-creativitys-sake
assignments, may resist completing assignments
for which they see no real-world purpose, can
work very well in group situations, may not be
traditionally book smart Needs Hands-on
activities, assignments that are connected to the
real world, opportunities to share ideas with
practitioners and experts, experiences with more
creative, open-ended activities, support with
being patient with activities for which they see
no immediate application, opportunities to lead
(even when they are not the highest achievers,
these students can be highly effective at leading
groups and delegating responsibilities)
Biology A Differentiated Lesson Using
Sternbergs Intelligences
  • Learning Goals
  • Know - Names of cell parts, functions of cell
  • Understand - A cell is a system with
    interrelated parts
  • Do Analyze the interrelationships of cell
  • Present understandings in a clear, useful,
    interesting and fresh
  • way.
  • After whole class study of a cell, students
    choose one of the following sense-making

Sternberg Intelligence Preferences
continued Analytical
  • Use a cause/effect chain or some other format you
    develop to show how each part of a cell affects
    other parts as well as the whole. Use labels,
    directional markers, and other symbols as
    appropriate to ensure that someone who is pretty
    clueless about how a cell works will be
    enlightened after they study your work.

Sternberg/Biology (contd) Practical
Look around you in your world or the broader
world for systems that could serve as analogies
for the cell. Select your best analogy (best
most clearly matched, most explanatory or
enlightening). Devise a way to make the analogy
clear and visible to an audience of peers,
ensuring that they will develop clearer and
richer insights about how a cell works by sharing
in your work. Be sure to emphasize both the
individual functions of cell parts and the
interrelationships among the parts.
Sternberg/Biology (contd) Creative
Use unlikely stuff to depict the structure and
function of the cell, with emphasis on
interrelationships among each of the parts. You
should select your materials carefully to reveal
something important about the cell, its parts,
and their interrelationships. Your ahas should
trigger ours. or Tell a story that helps us
understand a cell as a system with interdependent
actors or characters, a plot to carry out, a
setting, and even a potential conflict. Use your
own imagination and narrative preferences to help
us gain insights into this remarkable system.
Sternberg/ Biology continued Process
  • Students share their work in a 3 format (2
  • first triads of students who completed the same
  • then triads with each of the 3 categories
  • This is then followed by a teacher-led, whole
    class discussion of cells as systems, then a
    Teacher Challenge in which the teacher asks
    students to make analogies or other sorts of
    comparisons between cells, cell parts, or
    interrelationships and objects, photos, or
    examples produced by the teacher.
  • The teacher administers an end of chapter test
    that is the same for all.

Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences
Linear Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential
Show the parts of _________ and how they
work. Explain why _______ works the way it
does. Diagram how __________ affects
__________________. Identify the key parts of
_____________________. Present a step-by-step
approach to _________________.
Streetsmart Contextual Focus on Use
Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their
life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to
solve this real life problem ____. Based on your
own experience, explain how _____ can be
used. Heres a problem at school, ________. Using
your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan
to address the problem.
Innovator Outside the Box What If - Improver
Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual
materials to explain ________________. Use humor
to show ____________________. Explain (show) a
new and better way to ____________. Make
connections between _____ and _____ to help us
understand ____________. Become a ____ and use
your new perspectives to help us think about
Evaluate the Sternberg lesson
  • Choose a lesson with a partner or two
    (Multiplication, Number 5, fractions, equation of
    lines, tall tales, Plot, Dance, States of Matter,
    Animal Migration,, energy)
  • Read through the lesson
  • Talk about
  • What is the benefit to students for this learning
    style lesson?
  • Are all students learning?
  • Are all students likely to be more actively
  • What are your questions?

Equations of Lines
  • Know
  • Forms of the equations of lines General,
    Standard, Point Slope, Vertical and Horizontal
  • Understand
  • All forms of equations of lines represent the
    same line.
  • Given an equation of a line in one form, any
    other form can be generated.
  • Do
  • Find other forms of equations of lines given one
  • Find the strengths, weaknesses and applications
    of each form of equation.

Equations of Lines
  • Analytical
  • Compare the various forms of equations of lines.
    You may make a flow chart, table or any other
    idea to present your findings to the class. Be
    sure ton consider advantages and disadvantages of
  • Practical
  • Decide how and when each form of the equation of
    a line is best used. What are the strengths and
    weaknesses of each form? What specifically
    should you look for in order to decide which form
    to use? Find a way to present your conclusions
    to the class.
  • Creative
  • Put each form of an equation of a line on trial.
    Prosecutors should try to convince the jury that
    the form is not needed, while the defense should
    defend its usefulness. Group members are the
    various equation forms and the prosecuting and
    defense attorneys. The rest of the class will be
    the jury, and the teacher will be the judge.

Evaluating Plot
  • Standard Students will evaluate the quality of
    plot based on clear criteria
  • Analytical Task
  • Experts suggest that an effective plot is
    believable, has events that follow a logical and
    energizing sequence, has compelling characters
    and has a convincing resolution.
  • Select a story that you believe does have an
    effective plot based on these three criteria as
    well as others you state. Provide specific
    support from the story for your positions.
  • OR
  • Select a story you believe has an effective plot
    in spite of the fact that it does not meet these
    criteria. Establish the criteria you believe
    made the storys plot effective. Make a case,
    using specific illustrations from the story, that
    your criteria describes an effective plot

Evaluating Plot contd
Evaluating Plot
  • Practical Task
  • A local TV station wants to air teen-produced
    digital videos based on well known works. Select
    and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure
    your storyboards at least have a clear and
    believable plot structure, a logical sequence of
    events, compelling characters and a convincing
    resolution. Note other criteria on which you
    feel the plots effectiveness should also be
    judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner
    based on these and other criteria you state.
  • Creative Task
  • Propose an original story you fell has a clear
    and believable plot structure, a logical sequence
    of events, compelling characters, and a
    convincing resolution. You may write it,
    storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find
    a way to demonstrate that your story achieves
    these criteria as well as any others you note as

Three States of Matter Elementary Grade KNOW
Three states of matter solid, liquid, and
gas UNDERSTAND All matter has both mass and
volume. DO Distinguish one state of matter
from the others. Show how one
state of matter changes to the others.
A Science Example Migration
  • Know animals traits and needs
  • Understand that animals migrate in order to meet
    their needs.
  • Be able to trace an animals migratory path and
    explain why it follows
  • that pattern
  • Analytical Find two animals that share a
    similar migration pattern. Chart their
    similarities and differences. Be sure to include
    information on each animals characteristics,
    habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path,
    movement time frames, etc., as well as the
    reasoning behind these facts. Include an
    explanation as to why you think they share this
  • Practical National Geographic has asked you to
    research the migratory habits of _________ (your
    choice). They would like you to share your
    findings with other scientists AND to offer them
    recommendations about the best manner of
    observing in the future. Be sure to include
    information on the animals characteristics,
    habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path,
    movement time frames, etc., as well as the
    reasoning behind these facts. Include a How To
    checklist for future scientists to use in their
    research pursuits of this animal.
  • Creative You have just discovered a new species
    of ____________. You have been given the honor
    of naming this new creature and sharing the
    fruits of your investigation with the scientific
    world via a journal article or presentation. Be
    sure to include information on this
    newly-discovered animals characteristics,
    habitat(s), adaptations, needs, migratory path,
    movement time frames, etc., as well as the
    reasoning behind these facts. Include a picture
    of the animal detailed enough that other
    scientists will be able to recognize it.
  • Kristi Doubet 05

Energy ANALYTICAL Differentiated by
Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Energy CREATIVE Differentiated by
Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Energy PRACTICAL Differentiated by
Intelligence Preference and also by Readiness
Learning Style Social Studies Lesson on Landforms
based on Sternbergs Intelligence Preference
  • Know Geographical terms (isthmus, delta,
    peninsula, river, island)
  • Understand Landforms and bodies of water effect
    human movement and influence the development of
  • Do Locate and label specific landforms
  • Analyze how landforms produce economic
    advantages that establish settlements.
  • After students have read and taken notes on the
    chapter, the teacher reviews with the whole class
    the basic information on landforms. Then,
    students are given a choice of three assignments
    to be done individually or in groups of two or

  • Practical Using these 8 given cities, (or you
    may choose other cities after approval by
    teacher), demonstrate how landforms and bodies of
    water contributed to the development and movement
    of people to this site over a period of time. You
    may use overlay transparencies or models to show
    the areas and growth.
  • Creative Develop a map of a new world that has
    at least 8 different types of landforms and/or
    bodies of water. Using labels, etc., determine
    how these sites would grow due to economic
    possibilities of these geographical features, and
    predict population growth over a period of time.
  • Analytical Create clues or a set of directions
    to help us identify and locate at least 8
    landforms on the map (given in the textbook, or a
    map provided by the teacher). Clues/directions
    should also be based on population and economic
    growth and changes.

Dance Lesson Differentiation by Learning Profile
(Sternberg Intelligence)
  • Students will discuss their understanding of
    Dance is communication in a journal reflection.
  • Analytical Give specific examples of different
    ways dance can communicate. Discuss how space can
    be manipulated to create different moods. Present
    your conclusions in a chart or list.
  • Practical Choose 4 moods that can be
    communicated through dance. Discuss how dance
    would communicate each mood, and include the use
    of space for each.
  • Creative Dance is a form of communication.
    Create a story filled with emotion to
    communicate, and describe what the dance would
    look like. Be sure to include how the dance
    manipulates space.
  • Nancy Smith, 2002

Evaluate the Modality lessons
  • Choose 2-3 lessons with think-alike partner(s)
  • Read through those 2-3 lessons, looking at your
    shared learning modality areas
  • Talk about
  • How you and your think-alike partner feel
    approaching each lesson from your learning
    modality preference? Does it feel more
    comfortable to try this activity because it fits
    your learning preference?
  • Discuss whether students might be more engaged by
    using this approach.
  • What are your questions?

PRODUCT OPTIONS The Good Life.... Making Choices
About Tobacco Use
  • Use key facts from class and research
  • Make a complete case
  • Provide defensible evidence for the case
  • Weight varied viewpoints
  • Be appropriate/useful for its target audience
  • Give evidence of revision quality in content
  • Be thought-provoking rather than predictable

Comic book parody with smoking super/ heroes
super/ heroines
Story boards for t.v. ad using few/no words to
make the point
Radio-spot (public information with music timed,
T. Koppel C. Roberts with teen who smokes,
tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person with emphysema
Brochure for pediatricians office patients
9-16 as target audience with graphics
Research and write editorial that compares the
relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C.
submit for publication
Pantomine a struggle of will regarding
smokingincluding a decision with rationale
Act out printed skit on pressures to smoke an
reasons not to smoke
Social Studies Chapter Review Differentiation by
Learning Modality Students are asked to read a
textbook chapter, using a graphic organizer for
note-taking. They then prepare a review/response
using learning modality preferences. They may
work in learning style alike partnerships to
prepare the response. In class, they will debrief
in groups of 4 with each modality represented in
each group.
Differentiation by Learning Modality
Preference Sewing Project Choices in Consumer
Education Class Students will all create a
small, original product using skills of sewing,
design layout, fabric selection, color choice,
embellishment choices
Sandra Page, 2006
Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality
  • Auditory Learners The students will practice
    graphing several lines given initial points and
    slopes. After practicing, they will create a news
    bulletin that explains the process and
    implications of this type of graphing and will
    share their bulletins with the class. The
    students in this group may work individually or
    in pairs.

Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality
  • Visual Learners Given a point and slope, the
    students graph lines on graph paper. They should
    plot the given point in one color, use a second
    color to show the rise form the point, and use a
    third color to show the run form the point. They
    should then plot the resulting point in a fourth
    color. The students should repeat the same
    process to find a third point on the line.
    Finally, using a fifth color, they should sketch
    the line containing all three points. The
    students will then apply their understanding of
    the process using a problem such as the
    following Josh buys his first pack of baseball
    cards for 3, the next two packs for 4 more, and
    the next three packs for 6 more. Show the line
    that predicts how much Josh will pay for nine
    packs altogether. The students in this group may
    work individually or in pairs.

Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality
  • Kinesthetic Learners On a large grid on the
    floor, one student stands at the original point.
    A second student walks the rise and run from the
    original point to the next point on the grid,
    counting aloud while doing so. Another student
    begins where the second students is standing and
    repeats the process to find a third point. The
    students repeat this process until all the
    students represent points on the line. They then
    create the line by holding string between them.
    The students will then apply this same process to
    a problem such as the one given to the visual
    learner group (see above). The students in this
    group should work in groups of five to six

Partial List of Learning Modality Tasks/Skills
  • an engaging, high level strategy that
    encourages writing across the curriculum
  • a way to encourage students to
  • assume a role
  • consider their audience,
  • examine a topic from a relevant perspective,
  • write in a particular format
  • All of the above can serve as motivators by
    giving students choice, appealing to their
    interests and learning profiles, and adapting to
    student readiness levels.

RAFTs can
  • Be differentiated in a variety of ways readiness
    level, learning profile, and/or student interest
  • Be created by the students or Incorporate a blank
    row for that option
  • Be used as introductory hooks into a unit of
  • Keep one column consistent while varying the
    other columns in the RAFT grid

RAFT Activities
Language Arts Literature
Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me
Then Who? Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
Consumer Education Class RAFT In this RAFT, all
students will have a Topic that focus on food
safety practices. The Formats are meant to appeal
to different learning styles.
Business Education RAFT Students are reviewing
elements from Insert Drop Down Menu This RAFT
uses the columns of Role and Audience to review
basic elements and vocabulary of this unit.
Music History RAFT This is a writing across the
curriculum assignment. The music teacher wanted
a written product from every student, and so the
Format options are all written. The roles are all
composers that students have studied within this
quarter, and this activity serves as a review for
an end of quarter test on music history.
Angle Relationship RAFT
Algebra RAFT
(No Transcript)
Indicator Raft
Morein Gordon, Joyce Kent and Karen Woodworth,
2004 New Rochelle High School
High School Biology RAFT Know (See terms below
the RAFT) Understand Plants and animals have a
symbiotic relationship with
photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthesis
and respiration are essential to human life. Be
Able to Do Explain the relationship between
photosynthesis in plants and
respiration in humans Explain and connect the
equations for photosynthesis and
respiration Explain the nature of human
dependence on plants
Important Terms photosynthesis, respiration,
carbon dioxide, sunlight, blue light or green
light (or other colors), sugar, water,
mitochondria, chloroplast, stoma (stomata),
lactic acid, aerobic respiration, anaerobic
respiration, autotroph, heterotroph, sunny,
cloudy, cool, warm, long sunny days, short days,
lungs, light energy, food energy Annette Hanson,
Timberline High School, Boise, Idaho
Period____________ Date__________ Partners
______________ __________________________________
______________________________ Due Date
Astronomy Rafts For this assignment you and
your partners will choose one of the following
assignments. You will work with your partners to
create a story that follows the topic and format.
All topics can be found in your textbook but a
minimum of two other sources is required. Choose
your assignments wisely and be very creative.
Students will also be responsible for presenting
their assignments to the class in a 3 8 minute
Other ideas may be used also. Any other idea
besides the listed topics must be approved by
Miss Wall. Think creativity!
Parts of Speech
Playwright Voice and Style
  • KNOW
  • - Voice, Tone and Style
  • - Each playwright has a voice.
  • - Voice is shaped by life experiences and
    reflects the writer.
  • - Voice shapes expression.
  • - Voice affects communication.
  • - Voice and style are related.
  • DO
  • - Describe an authors voice and style.
  • - Mimic a playwrights voice and style.
  • - Create a piece of writing that reflects a
    writers voice and style.

Playwright Voice and Style
Playwright Voice and Style
  • Reflect on your own life and experiences to
    determine your own voice.
  • Analytic
  • Make a list of themes, concepts and emotions
    that reflect your won voice. Explain how they
    relate to your life and experiences. Write a
    brief portion of a scene that demonstrates your
    voice and style.
  • Practical
  • Which playwright most reflects your own voice
    and style? What are the similarities and
    differences? Are there similarities in your life
    and the life of the playwright that you can find
    to explain the similarities?
  • Creative
  • Think of an experience in your life that has
    shaped who you have become. Explain how that
    experience could be woven into a play or scene of
    a play. What would the voice and style of the
    play or scene be, and why? If you want, write
    and direct a short scene that reflects your voice
    and style.

Jacksonian Democracy Tiered Social Studies
RAFT Learning goals are to review vocabulary,
people, and essential questions related to the
chapter. The teacher assigns choices based on
readiness in analysis of text.
Our Community RAFT (Primary grade) Know
responsibility, role, respect, behavior Do
Discuss, reflect, respond Understand Our
classroom community depends on us working
Grade 6 Social Studies RAFT
  • Students will
  • Know
  • Names and roles of groups in the feudal class
  • Understand
  • Roles in the feudal system were interdependent.
    A persons role in the feudal system will shape
    his/her perspective on events.
  • Be Able to Do
  • Research
  • See events through varied perspectives
  • Share research perspectives with peers

Feudal System Raft contd
Following the RAFT activity, students will share
their research and perspectives in mixed role
groups of approximately five. Groups will have a
discussion agenda to guide their conversation.

-Kathryn Seaman
RAFT Assignment Grade 10 English
  • Know Voice, Tone, Style
  • Understand
  • Each writer has a voice
  • Voice is shaped by life experiences and reflects
    the writer
  • Voice shapes expression
  • Voice affects communication
  • Voice and style are related
  • Be Able to Do
  • Describe a writers voice and style Mimic
    a writers voice and style
  • Create a piece of writing that reflects a
    writers voice and style

Self Portrait RAFT High School Art
  • Students will
  • Know
  • Characteristics of self portrait
  • Appropriate use of artistic materials
  • Principles of Design
  • Definition of artistic expression
  • Understand
  • Each artist has a personal style
  • Personal style reflects the individuals
    culture, time, and personal experiences.
  • Use of materials and style are related
  • Be Able to Do
  • Analyze an artists personal style and use of
  • Create a facsimile of an artists personal
    style and use of materials

Self Portrait RAFT
Your Turn to try a RAFT
  • Select a unit youll be teaching shortly.
  • Determine the learning goals you want students to
  • You could
  • Concentrate on Role and Audience, and use RAFT to
    review people, dates or vocabulary. Then let
    format and topics be fun and based on interests.
  • Concentrate on a skill, and incorporate that
    skill in either the Format or the Topic. That
    allows the students to engage by varying the role
    and audience.
  • Concentrate on the big idea, the understanding,
    in the Topic.
  • You can have some easier and some harder RAFTs
    and assign them to students to provide
    appropriate challenge levels.
  • You could allow students to choose from a list of
    Rs, As, Fs and Ts to give them learning style
    and interest preferences.
  • Develop one or two RAFT strips that would lead
    students to the understanding you selected.

RAFT Planning Sheet
Know (facts, vocab) Use these in Role or
Audience? Understand (statement) Use this in
topic? Do (verb) This might be the guide for
the format?
The Purpose of an Anchor Activity is to
Provide meaningful work for students when they
finish an assignment or project, when they first
enter the class or when they are
stumped. Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the
content and instruction. Free up the classroom
teacher to work with other groups of students or
Learning Contracts
  • Gives students control over when to work
  • Gives students choice about presentation options
  • Can be tiered so that challenge levels of the
    problems, texts, or skills practiced are suitable
    for each student

Writing Bingo Try for one or more BINGOs this
month. Remember, you must have a real reason for
the writing experience! If you mail or email
your product, get me to read it first and initial
your box! Be sure to use your writing goals and
our class rubric to guide your work.
Novel Think-Tac-Toe basic version Directions
Select and complete one activity from each
horizontal row to help you and others think about
your novel. Remember to make your work
thoughtful, original, accurate, and detailed.
Create a pair of collages that compares
Novel Think Tac-Toe advanced version Directions
Select and complete one activity from each
horizontal row to help you and others think about
your novel. Remember to make your work
thoughtful, original, insightful, and elegant in
Learning Contract----Think Tac Toe Ancient
Civilizations Grade 6
Charles Kyle Kathy Reed Illinois
A Planet Show Tell (Each student must pick
one square from each horizontal row and use the
two together)
Create One
Pick a Way to Explain
This differentiated review/synthesis task is
based on Va. SOLS for science
1.6 The student will
investigate understand the basic relationships
between the Earth and sun, Including the sun
is the source of heat light night day
are caused by the rotation of the Earth. 1.7 The
student will investigate and understand the
relationship of seasonal change (light and
temperature) to the activities life processes
of plants and animals. Based on Unit by Bette
Wood, Charlottesville, Virginia City Schools.
Proportional Reasoning Think-Tac-Toe
Nanci Smith, 2004
Student Traits
  • Readiness refers to a students knowledge,
    understanding, and skill related to a particular
    sequence of learning. Only when a student works
    at a level of difficulty that is both challenging
    and attainable for that student does learning
    take place.

Tomlinson, 2003
Directions Complete the chart to show what you
know about Table Tennis. Write as much as you
Table Tennis
Personal Experience
Knowledge Rating Chart
  • Ive never heard of this before
  • Ive heard of this, but am not sure how it works
  • I know about this and how to use it
  • _____ Direct object
  • _____ Direct object pronoun
  • _____ Indirect object
  • _____ Indirect object pronoun
  • _____ Object of a preposition
  • _____ Adjective
  • _____ Interrogative adjective

(No Transcript)
Exit Cards Algebra
  • Name
  • Draw a graph label the x and y axes
  • Graph a line segment with the endpoints (3,5)
  • Graph a line segment with the endpoints (-3,-5)
  • Provide two ways of writing the equation for a

3-2-1 Card
  • Name
  • 3 things I learned from the friction lab
  • 2 questions I still have about friction
  • 1 thing way I see friction working in the world
    around me.

Tiered Assignments
  • In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses
    varied levels of tasks to ensure that students
    explore ideas and use skills at a level that
    builds on their prior knowledge and prompts
    continued growth.
  • While students work at varied degrees of
    difficulty on their tasks, they all explore the
    essential ideas and work at high levels of
  • Assessment-based tiering allows students to work
    in their Zone of Proximal Development or in a
    state of moderate challenge.

BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System RAS
Toggle Switch
Only one of these three states is activated
(aroused) at a time
Certain motivational states which interfere with
learning condition are especially dangerous
anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily
when teachers expect too much from students
boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.
Howard Gardner
Learning only happens when the toggle switch is
in the middle position
The What and the Why
  • Tiering .
  • responds to differences in students readiness
    levels (skills and/or knowledge)
  • gives students an opportunity to be successful at
    assigned tasks
  • attempts to fit students learning into a zone of
    proximal development, providing a moderate level
    of challenge
  • configures a skill to allow some students to move
    more quickly, with more sophisticated texts,
    using multiple step problem-solving, while other
    students use more basic level materials and/or
    fewer complicated steps to learn and practice a

Elementary Physical Education
Tiered Lesson
? SKILL Dribbling and basketball
  • Dribble from point A to point B in a straight
    line with one hand
  • Switch to the other hand and repeat.
  • Use either hand and develop a new floor pattern
    from A to B (not a straight line)

Grade K Counting (Skill)
Grade K Key Concept Patterns
Counting/Math Center Task 1 Find a way
to count and show how many people are in our
class today. How did you get your answer? Task
2 Find a way to show how many people are in our
class. How many absent today? How many are
here today? How do you know? Task 3 Find a
way to show how many boys are in our class
today. How many boys are absent today? How
many girls are here today? How many girls are
absent today? Prove you are right.
Generalization Scientists Classify by
Patterns Use carpenters aprons to collect
data through a nature walk. At Science
  • Task 1 Classify Leaves
  • by size
  • by color
  • Task 2 Classify Leaves
  • by shape
  • create a category
  • Task 3 Find 3 ways each leaf could be classified
    other than color

Pre-made grid with categories on it
Sample grid students create own grid
Students decide how to show categories and
Tomlinson 97
The Equalizer
  • Foundational Transformational
  • Concrete Abstract
  • Simple Complex
  • Single Facet Multiple Facets
  • Small Leap Great Leap
  • More Structured More Open
  • Less Independence Greater Independence
  • Slow Quick

Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Rep
resentations, Ideas, Applications,
Materials Resources, Research, Issues,
Problems, Skills, Goals Directions, Problems,
Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary
Connections Application, Insight,
Transfer Solutions, Decisions,
Approaches Planning, Designing,
Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought
Thinking About The Equalizer
  • Foundational Transformational
  • Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications
  • Foundational to Transformational. When an idea
    is new to some students, or if its not in one of
    their stronger areas, they often need supporting
    information about the idea that is clear and
    plainly worded. Then they usually need time to
    practice applying the idea in a straightforward
    way. In these instances, the materials they use
    and the tasks they do should be foundational
    that is, basic and presented in ways that help
    them build a solid foundation of understanding.
    At other times, when something is already clear
    to them or is in a strength area, they need to
    move along quickly. They need information that
    shows them intricacies about the idea. They need
    to stretch and bend the idea and see how it
    interacts with other ideas to create a new
    thought. Such conditions require materials and
    tasks that are more transformational.
  • For example, one child may benefit from a more
    basic task of classifying animals by body
    covering, which another may need the more
    transformational task of predicting how changes
    in environment would likely affect the body
    covering of several animals. In a math class, one
    young learner may be ready for a basic
    application of the concept of fractions by
    cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given
    fraction. An appropriate challenge for another
    student may be the more transformational task of
    writing measures of music that represent certain

Thinking About The Equalizer
2. Concrete Abstract Representations,
Ideas, Applications, Materials
  • Concrete to Abstract. Students usually need to
    become familiar with the key information or
    material about an area of study before they can
    successfully look at its implications, meanings,
    or interrelationships. However, once they have
    grasped the information in a concrete way, its
    important that they move on to meanings and
    implications. Working with concrete information
    should open a door for meaningful abstraction
    later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot
    (more concrete) typically has to precede
    investigations of theme (more abstract). But
    ultimately, all students need to delve into the
    meanings of stories, not just the events. The
    issue here is readiness or timing.

Thinking About The Equalizer
3. Simple Complex Resources, Research,
Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals
  • Simple to Complex. Sometimes students need to
    see only the big picture of a topic or area of
    study, just its skeleton, without many details.
    Even adults often find it helpful to read a
    childrens book on black holes, for example,
    before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking.
    When the big picture is needed, your students
    need resources, research, issues, problems,
    skills, and goals that help them achieve a
    framework of understanding with clarity. On the
    other hand, when the skeleton is clear to them,
    theyll find it more stimulating to add muscle,
    bone, and nerves, moving from simple to complex.
    Some students may need to work more simply with
    one abstraction at a time others may be able to
    handle the complexity of multiple abstractions.
  • For example, some students may be ready to
    work with the theme in a story (a single
    abstraction), while other students look at
    inter-relationships between themes and symbols
    (multiple abstractions, or complexity).

Thinking About The Equalizer
4. Single Facet Multiple Facets
Disciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of
  • Single Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes
    students are at peak performance when working on
    problems, projects, or dilemmas that involve only
    a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be
    all that some students can handle to make a
    connection between what they studied in science
    today and what they studied last week. Those with
    greater understanding and facility in an area of
    study are ready for and more challenged by
    following complicated directions. They are more
    challenged by solving problems that are
    multifaceted or require great flexibility of
    approach, or by being asked to make connections
    between subjects that scarcely seemed related

5. Small Leap Great Leap Application,
Insight, Transfer
  • Small Leap to Great Leap. Note that this
    continuum does not provide the option of no
    leap. Students should always have to run ideas
    through their minds and figure out how to use
    them. Activities that call only for absorption
    and regurgitation are generally of little
    long-term use.
  • But for some students, learning about how to
    measure area and then applying that learning by
    estimating and verifying the area of the hamster
    house compared to the teachers desk may be
    enough of a leap of application and transfer at
    least in the beginning. Other students may be
    able to more from estimating and verifying area
    to estimating materials needed to a building
    project and proportional cost implications of
    increasing the building area. In both cases,
    students make mental leaps from reading
    information on a page to using that information.
    The latter task calls for relatively greater
    leaps of application, insight, and transfer..

Thinking About The Equalizer
6. More Structured More Open Solutions,
Decisions, Approaches
  • Structured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students
    need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid
    out for them, where they dont have too many
    decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by
    managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or
    delineated routes. Being new to a computer or
    word processor often requires completing
    programmed and closed lessons that involve
    right answers to become knowledgeable -- and
    comfortable with basic operation and
    keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and
    open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of
    graphics to illustrate ideas in a formal
    presentation. Following a predetermined format
    for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab often
    makes more sense than improvisation.
  • At other times, however, students are ready to
    explore the computer, craft their own essays
    designed to address a communication need, or
    create a chemistry lab that demonstrates
    principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most
    of us become confident enough to eventually wing
    it. But when modeling has served its purpose,
    its time to branch out and get creative.

7. Clearly Defined Fuzzy Problems In
process, In Research, In Products
Thinking About The Equalizer
8. Less Independence More Independence
Planning, Designing, Monitoring
  • Dependent to Independent. A goal for all learners
    is independent study, thought, and production.
    But just as some students gain height more
    quickly than others, some will be ready for
    greater independence earlier than others. Their
    needs in developing independence generally fall
    into one of these four stages
  • Skill building, when students need to develop the
    ability to make simple choices, follow through
    with short-term tasks, and use directions
  • Structured independence, when students make
    choices from teacher-generated options, follow
    prescribed time lines, and engage in
    self-evaluation according to preset criteria to
    complete longer-term and more complex tasks.
  • Shared independence, when students generate
    problems to be solved, design tasks, set time
    lines, and establish criteria for evaluation. The
    teacher helps tighten or focus the plans and
    monitors the production process.
  • Self-guided independence, when students plan,
    execute, and seek help or feedback only when
  • By guiding students across this continuum at
    individually appropriate speeds, you and your
    students are less likely to become frustrated by
    tasks that require greater independence.

Analyzing the Assignment
  • What skill is being differentiated in this
  • What works well for students by tiering this
    skill activity?
  • What concerns do you have?
  • How does tiering an assignment honor some of the
    major principles of differentiation?
  • Ongoing assessment allows adjustment of
  • Groupings are flexible
  • Tasks are respectful
  • Assigned tasks provide appropriate, moderate
    challenges and with an opportunity for success
  • Teacher and students are clear about learning

Tiered Activity
  • Subject Science
  • Concepts Density Buoyancy
  • Introduction All students take part in an
    introductory discussion, read the chapter, and
    watch a lab activity on floating toys.
  • Activities Common to All Three Groups
  • Explore the relationship between density and
  • Determine density
  • Conduct an experiment
  • Write a lab report
  • Work at a high level of thinking
  • Share findings with the class

The Soda Group
  • Given four cans of different kinds of soda,
    students determined whether each would float by
    measuring the density of each can.
  • They completed a lab procedure form by stating
    the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In
    an analysis section, they included an explanation
    of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the
    relationship between density and buoyancy.

The Brine Egg Group
  • Students developed a prescribed procedure for
    measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the
    salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining
    the mass of water, determining the mass of an
    egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring
    the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the
    solution and observing.
  • They answered questions about their procedures
    and observations, as well as questions about why
    a person can float in water, whether it is easier
    to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium
    filled balloon floats in air, and the
    relationship between density and buoyancy.

The Boat Group
  • Students first wrote advice to college students
    building concrete boats to enter in a boat race.
  • They then determined the density of a ball of
    clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting
    its dimensions and its density.
  • They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel
    as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and
    determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat
    could hold.
  • They built and tested the boat and its projected
  • They wrote a descriptive lab report to include
    explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the
    boat was able to float, the relationship between
    density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of
    steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.

Science Lesson ThinkDOTS Matter
How are physical and chemical properties
different? Why?
Which is higher, an elements atomic number or
its mass number? Why?
Name three types of physical changes. Create a
list with at least two examples of each that are
different from the examples in the book.
What does the periodic table tell us about
calcium? How can this help us in our everyday
Science Lesson ThinkDOTS - Matter
Predict as many properties for potassium as you
can. To make your predictions, look at the
information in the box for this element and
consider its location on the periodic table.
Suppose you were given some sugar cubes, a
grinder, some water, a pan, and a hot plate. What
physical and chemical changes could you make in
the sugar?
There are three jars in the front of the room.
Each has a substance with a strong odor. One is a
solid, one is a liquid, and one is a gas. Which
odor would students in the back of the room smell
first? Why?
Why do you think scientists used the term cloud
to describe the position of electrons in an
P. Goolsby K. Brimijoin, Amherst County
Schools, 2000
PHYSICS A High School Tiered Lesson
  • After reading and discussing text and looking at
    models of flight, the students will refine
    thinking about the physics of flight. As a result
    of the Lab, students should
  • Know
  • Key vocabulary (thrust, drag, lift, fluid,
    pressure, velocity, camber, airfoil, chord,
    trailing edge, leading edge)
  • Understand
  • Bernoullis PrincipleAs the velocity of a fluid
    increases, its pressure decreases. (Moving fluid
    creates an area of low pressure. Decrease in
    pressure on the top of the airfoil causes lift.)
  • Newtons Third Law of Motion (For every action,
    there is an equal and opposite reaction)
  • Aerodynamics is the study of forces acting on an
    object because air or another gas is moving.
  • Be Able to Do
  • Construct objects that project themselves through
    space in different ways as a demonstration of
    student knowledge of key information and
    understanding of key principles.
  • Explain, illustrate and defend thinking regarding
    the objects they create and modify.

Students are assigned to work in pairs at a lab
station based on a brief preassessment writing
prompt asking for their basic knowledge and
understandings of the physics of flight. Each
lab station has three tasks, increasing in
complexity of design and understandings. Required
elements included a written explanation of their
findings for initial designs and modified
designs, and the use of key vocabulary and key
In the lab students design, redesign, and explain
Paper Airplanes that fly for Maximum
Distance Maximum Hang Time Tricks
Kites Diamond Box Triangle-Layered
Pinwheels Forward Motion Backward Motion Upward
Algebra ThinkDOTS
  • Level 1
  • 1. a, b, c and d each represent a different
    value. If a 2, find b, c, and d.
  • a b c
  • a c d
  • a b 5
  • 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved
    in solving card 1.
  • 3. Explain in words what the equation 2x 4
    10 means. Solve the problem.
  • 4. Create an interesting word problem that is
    modeled by 8x 2 7x.
  • 5. Diagram how to solve 2x 8.
  • 6. Explain what changing the 3 in 3x 9 to a
    2 does to the value of x. Why is this true?

Algebra ThinkDOTS
  • Level 2
  • 1. a, b, c and d each represent a different
    value. If a - 1, find b, c, and d.
  • a b c
  • b b d
  • c a -a
  • 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved
    in solving card 1.
  • 3. Explain how a variable is used to solve word
  • 4. Create an interesting word problem that is
    modeled by 2x 4 4x 10. Solve the problem.
  • 5. Diagram how to solve 3x 1 10.
  • 6. Explain why x 4 in 2x 8, but x 16 in ½
    x 8. Why does this make sense?


Algebra ThinkDOTS
  • Level 3
  • 1. a, b, c and d each represent a different
    value. If a 4, find b, c, and d.
  • a c b
  • b - a c
  • cd -d
  • d d a
  • 2. Explain the mathematical reasoning involved
    in solving card 1.
  • 3. Explain the role of a variable in
    mathematics. Give examples.
  • 4. Create an interesting word problem that is
    modeled by
  • . Solve the problem.
  • 5. Diagram how to solve 3x 4 x 12.
  • 6. Given ax 15, explain how x is changed if a
    is large or a is small in value.

Adding Fractions
  • Green Group
  • Use Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model
    simple fraction addition problems. Begin with
    common denominators and work up to denominators
    with common factors such as 3 and 6.
  • Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs
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