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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 18 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner I. Introduction Progressive era Surge in production ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 18
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
EditionVolume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Introduction
  • Progressive era
  • Surge in production, consumption, urban growth
  • Persistence of social problems
  • Progressivism
  • Broad-based elements
  • Loosely-defined meanings
  • Varied and contradictory character
  • New notions of American freedom

3
II. Urban age
  • Early-twentieth-century economic explosion
  • Golden age for agriculture
  • Growth in number and size of cities
  • Start contrasts of opulence and poverty
  • Popular attention to dynamism and ills of the
    city
  • Painters and photographers
  • Muckrakers
  • Lewis Hines photography
  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities
  • Ida Tarbells History of the Standard Oil Company
  • Novelists
  • Theodore Dreisers Sister Carrie
  • Upton Sinclairs The Jungle

4
II. Urban age (contd)
  • Immigrants and Immigration
  • Height of new immigration from southern and
    eastern Europe
  • Immigration from agrarian to industrial centers
    as a global process
  • Volume and flows
  • Causes
  • Circumstances of immigrants
  • Ellis Island
  • Influx of Asian and Mexican immigrants in West
  • Immigrant presence in industrial cities

5
II. Urban age (contd)
  • Immigrants and Immigration
  • 6. Aspirations of new immigrants
  • Social and legal equality, freedom on conscience,
    economic opportunity, escape from poverty
  • Means to acquire land back home
  • Material property as central to freedom
  • 7. Circumstances of new immigrants
  • Close-knit ethnic neighborhoods
  • Social institutions
  • Preservation of native languages
  • Churches
  • Low pay, harsh working conditions

6
II. Urban age (contd)
  • D. The new mass-consumption society
  • Outlets for consumer goods
  • Department stores
  • Neighborhood chain stores
  • Retail mail order houses
  • Expanding range and availability of consumer
    goods
  • Leisure activities
  • Amusement parks
  • Dance halls
  • Theaters vaudeville
  • Movies nickelodeons

7
II. Urban age (contd)
  • E. Women in urban public life
  • Employment
  • Racial and ethnic stratification
  • Working woman as symbol of female emancipation
    Charlotte Perkins Gilmans Women and Economics
  • Leisure, entertainment
  • F. Fordism
  • Background on Henry Ford, Ford Motor Company
  • Production innovations
  • Standardized output
  • Lower prices
  • Assembly line

8
II. Urban age (contd)
  • F. Fordism
  • Strategies to attract and discipline labor
  • Five-dollar day
  • Anti-union espionage
  • Linking of mass production and mass consumption
  • G. Impact of mass-consumption ideal
  • Recasting American way of life, freedom
  • Challenges to material inequalities
  • Labor unionism
  • Critique of corporate monopoly
  • Doctrine of a living wage Father John A. Ryan

9
III. Changing ideas of freedom
  • Varieties of Progressivism
  • Industrial labor and the meanings of freedom
  • Frederick W. Taylors scientific management
  • Principles of
  • Mixed response to
  • Favorable as way to enhance efficiency
  • Unfavorable as threat to worker independence
  • New talk of industrial freedom, industrial
    democracy

10
III. Changing ideas of freedom (contd)
  • Socialist party
  • High watermark of American socialism
  • Membership
  • Elected officials
  • Newspapers
  • Eugene V. Debs
  • Program
  • Immediate reforms
  • Public ownership of railroads and factories
  • Democratic control of economy

11
III. Changing ideas of freedom (contd)
  • Socialist party
  • 3. Breadth of following
  • Urban immigrant communities
  • Western farming and mining regions
  • Native-born intelligentsia
  • 4. Rising presence of socialism throughout
    Atlantic World
  • Labor movement
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Surge of growth
  • Boundaries of membership
  • Skilled industrial and craft laborers
  • White, male, and native-born

12
III. Changing ideas of freedom (contd)
  • Labor movement
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Moderate ideology ties with business
    Progressives
  • National Civic Federation
  • Collective bargaining for responsible unions
  • Alternative strain of rigid employer
    anti-unionism
  • Industrial Workers of the World
  • Inclusion of workers from all stations and
    backgrounds
  • Trade union militancy
  • Advocate of workers revolution
  • William Big Bill Haywood
  • Support and guidance for mass, multiethnic strikes

13
III. Changing ideas of freedom (contd)
  • Labor movement
  • 3. High points of broad-based labor struggle
  • Lawrence Bread and Roses textile strike march
    of strikers children
  • New Orleans dock workers strike
  • Paterson silk workers strike Paterson pageant
  • Colorado Fuel and Iron miners strike Ludlow
    Massacre
  • 4. Suppression of labor radicalism and emergence
    of civil liberties issue

14
III. Changing views of freedom (contd)
  • Shadings of feminism
  • Appearance of term feminism
  • Lyrical Left
  • New cultural bohemia
  • Radical reassessments of politics, the arts,
    sexuality
  • Rise of personal freedom
  • Freudian psychology
  • Free sexual expression and choice
  • Pockets of open gay culture
  • Birth control movement
  • Emma Goldman
  • Margaret Sanger

15
IV. The Politics of Progressivism
  • Global scope of Progressive impulse
  • Common strains arising from industrial and urban
    growth
  • International networks of social reformers
  • Influence of European social legislation on
    American reformers
  • Shared premises
  • Commitment to activist government
  • View of freedom as a positive concept
  • Effective freedom power to do things
  • John Dewey, Randolf Bourne
  • Trans-Atlantic scope of Progressive impulse

16
IV. The Politics of Progressivism (contd)
  • Progressivism in municipal and state politics
  • Agendas
  • Curbing of political machines
  • Regulation of public utilities, railroads, and
    other business interests
  • Taxation of property and corporate wealth
  • Improvement and enhancement of public space
  • Humanizing of working and living conditions
  • Significant municipal and state Progressives
  • Mayors Hazen Pingree (Detroit) and Samuel Golden
    Rule Jones (Toledo)
  • Governors Hiram Johnson (California) and Robert
    M. La Follettee (Wisconsin)

17
IV. The Politics of Progressivism (contd)
  • Progressive democracy
  • Expansion and empowerment of electorate
  • Popular election of U.S. senators, judges
  • Primary elections
  • Initiatives, referendums, recalls
  • Womens Suffrage
  • Contraction and curtailment of electorate
  • Disenfranchisement of southern blacks
  • Spread of appointed city commissions or managers
  • Narrowing of voting rights for the poor
  • Preference for government by experts Walter
    Lippmanns Drift and Mastery

18
IV. The Politics of Progressivism (contd)
  • Women reformers
  • Challenge to political exclusion
  • Crusades to uplift condition of immigrant poor,
    women, and child laborers
  • Settlement house movement
  • Government measures to alleviate problems of
    housing, labor, health
  • Racist aspect
  • Leading figures
  • Jane Addams (Hull House)
  • Julie Lathrop (Childrens Bureau)
  • Florence Kelley (National Consumers League)

19
IV. The Politics of Progressivism (contd)
  • Revival of suffrage movement
  • Scattered progress at state and local levels
  • Gathering focus on constitutional amendment
  • Ambiguities of maternalist reform
  • Drive to improve conditions of working women
    while reconfirming their dependent status
  • Mothers pensions
  • Maximum working hours for women (Muller v.
    Oregon Brandeis brief)
  • Stamping of gender inequalities into foundation
    for welfare state

20
IV. The Politics of Progressivism (contd)
  • Native American Progressivism
  • Profile of Indian reformers
  • Intellectuals
  • Pan-Indian
  • Society of American Indians
  • Shared aims
  • Highlight plight of Native Americans
  • Promote justice for Native Americans
  • Differing aims
  • Endorsement of federal Indian polity
  • Full citizenship rights
  • Self-determination
  • Carlos Montezuma

21
V. Progressive presidents
  • Progressivism and the rise of the national state
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Succession to presidency reelection in 1904
  • Limits on corporate power
  • Good trusts and bad trusts
  • Northern Securities case
  • Mediation between labor and capital 1902 coal
    strike arbitration
  • Regulation of business
  • Hepburn Act
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Mixed reaction from business

22
V. Progressive presidents (contd)
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • Conservation movement
  • Late-nineteenth-century antecedents
  • Early national parks
  • Sierra Club John Muir
  • Wildlife preserves and national parks
  • Balance between development and conservation
    Gifford Pinchot
  • Water as a key point of contention

23
V. Progressive presidents (contd)
  • William Howard Taft
  • Anointment as successor by Roosevelt electoral
    victory over Bryan
  • Partial continuation of Progressive agenda
  • Antitrust initiatives
  • Standard Oil case
  • American Tobacco case
  • Upholding of good trust/bad trust distinction
    by Supreme Court
  • Support for graduated income tax (Sixteenth
    Amendment)
  • Conservative drift Pinchot-Ballinger affair

24
V. Progressive presidents (contd)
  • Election of 1912
  • Distinctive outlooks on political and economic
    freedom
  • Woodrow Wilson (Democrat New Freedom)
  • Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive New
    Nationalism)
  • William Howard Taft (Republican conservative
    wing)
  • Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)
  • Wilson victory
  • Wilsons first-term program
  • Underwood tariff
  • Labor
  • Clayton Act
  • Keating-Owen Act
  • Adamson Act

25
V. Progressive presidents (contd)
  • Wilsons first-term program
  • 3. Farmers Warehouse Act
  • 4. Supervision of economy
  • Federal Reserve System
  • Federal Trade Commission

26
Studyspace link
http//www.wwnorton.com/foner
27
End slide
This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set
for Chapter 18
Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition,
Volume 2
by Eric Foner
W. W. Norton CompanyIndependent and
Employee-Owned
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