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Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems

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Title: Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems


1
Chapter 10 Global Climate Systems
  • Geosystems 5e
  • An Introduction to Physical Geography

Robert W. Christopherson Charlie Thomsen
2
Key Learning Concepts
  • After reading the chapter you should be able to
  • Define climate and climatology and explain the
    difference between climate and weather.
  • Review the role of temperature, precipitation,
    air pressure, and air mass patterns used to
    establish climatic regions.
  • Review Köppens development of an empirical
    climate classification system and compare his
    with other ways of classifying climate.
  • Describe the A, C, D, and E climate
    classification categories and locate these
    regions on a world map.
  • Explain the precipitation and moisture efficiency
    criteria used to determine the B climates and
    locate them on a world map.
  • Outline future climate patterns from forecasts
    presented and explain the causes and potential
    consequences.

3
What is climate/climatology?
  • Earth experiences an almost infinite variety of
    weather. Even the same location may go through
    periods of changing weather. This variability,
    when considered along with the average conditions
    at a place over time, constitutes climate. In a
    traditional framework, early climatologists
    faced the challenge of identifying patterns as a
    basis for establishing climatic classifications.
    Currently at the forefront of scientific effort
    by climatologists are developing models that can
    simulate the vast interactions and causal
    relationships of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
    Climatology, the study of climate, involves
    analysis of the patterns in time and space
    created by various physical factors in the
    environment.

4
How a climatic region synthesizes climate
statistics.
  • Weather observations, gathered simultaneously
    from different points within a region, are
    plotted on maps and are compared to identify
    climatic regions. The weather components that
    combine to produce climatic regions include
    insolation, temperature, humidity, seasonal
    precipitation, atmospheric pressure and winds,
    air masses, types of weather disturbances, and
    cloud coverage. Similar climatic regions
    experience many of the same weather components.
  • This site for example (http//www.cru.uea.ac.uk)
    has weather statistics spanning centuries.
    Lastly, the Climatic Research Unit at the
    University of East Anglia, England has
    information about current weather, climatic
    research and links to other climate research
    facilities around the world.

5
How does the El Niño phenomenon produce the
largest interannual variability in climate? What
are some of the changes and effects that occur
world-wide?
  • Normally, as shown in the next slide, the region
    off the West coast of South America is dominated
    by the northward-flowing Peru Current. These
    cold waters move toward the equator and join the
    westward movement of the south equatorial
    current. The Peru current is part of the overall
    counter-clockwise circulation that normally
    guides the winds and surface ocean currents
    around the subtropical high-pressure cell
    dominating the eastern subtropical Pacific.
    Occasionally, and for unexplained reasons,
    pressure patterns alter and shift from their
    usual locations, thus affecting surface ocean
    currents and weather on both sides of the
    Pacific. Unusually high pressure develops in the
    western Pacific and lower pressure in the eastern
    Pacific. This regional change is an indication
    of large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions.
    Trade winds normally moving from east to west
    weaken and can be replaced by an eastward
    (west-to-east) flow. Sea-surface temperatures
    off South America then rise above normal,
    sometimes becoming more than 8 C (14 F) warmer,
    replacing the normally cold, upwelling,
    nutrient-rich water along Peru's coastline.

6
El Niño wind and weather patterns across the
Pacific Ocean and TOPEX/Poseidon satellite image
for November 10, 1997 (white and red colors
indicate warmer surface water- a warm pool. (p.
279).
7
How do radiation receipts, temperature, air
pressure inputs, and precipitation patterns
interact to produce climate types? (Examples from
a humid environment and from an arid environment.)
  • Uneven insolation over Earth's surface, varying
    with latitude, is the energy input for the
    climate system. Daylength and temperature
    patterns vary diurnally (every day) and
    seasonally. The principal controls of temperature
    are latitude, altitude, land-water heating
    differences, and the amount and duration of cloud
    cover. The moisture input to climate is
    precipitation in the forms of rain, sleet, snow,
    and hail. Figure 10-2 (next slide) shows the
    worldwide distribution of precipitation and
    identifies several patterns.

8
Worldwide average annual precipitation. Factors
like latitude, altitude, land-water heating
differences, and the amount and duration of cloud
cover determine the level of precipitation.
(p.278).
9
The relationships among a climatic region,
ecosystem, and biome.
  • One type of climatic analysis involves discerning
    areas of similar weather statistics and grouping
    these into climatic regions that contain
    characteristic weather patterns. Climate
    classifications are an effort to formalize these
    patterns and determine their related implications
    to humans. Interacting populations of plants and
    animals in an area forms a community. An
    ecosystem involves the interplay between a
    community of plants and animals and its abiotic
    physical environment. A biome is a large, stable
    terrestrial ecosystem.

10
What are the differences between a genetic and an
empirical classification system?
  • Classification is the process of ordering or
    grouping data or phenomena in related classes. A
    classification based on causative factorsfor
    example, the genesis of climate based on the
    interaction of air massesis called a genetic
    classification. An empirical classification is
    based on statistics or other data used to
    determine general categories. Climate
    classifications based on temperature and
    precipitation data are empirical classifications.

11
Köppen's approach to climatic classification and
the factors used in this system
  • Wladimir Köppen (1846-1940), a German
    climatologist and botanist, designed the Köppen
    classification system, widely used for its ease
    of comprehension. First published in stages,
    his classification began with an article on heat
    zones in 1884. By 1900, he was considering plant
    communities in his selection of some temperature
    criteria, using a world vegetation map prepared
    by French plant physiologist A. de Candolle in
    1855. Letter symbols then were added to
    designate climate types. Later he reduced the
    role played by plants in setting boundaries and
    moved his system strictly toward climatological
    empiricism. The first wall map showing world
    climates, co-authored with his student Rudolph
    Geiger, was introduced in 1928 and soon was
    widely used. The Köppen system is best viewed for
    what it is a valuable tool for general
    understanding, best limited to small scale
    hemispheric and world maps showing general
    climatic relationships and patterns. Most
    criticism of his system stems from asking the
    classification model to do what it was not
    designed to do, that is, produce specific
    climatic descriptions for local areas.

12
The Thornthwaite system
  • Some background on the Thornthwaite system
  • The development of a simple method for the
    determination of potential evapo-transpiration
    led Thornthwaite to his climate classification
    system. Thornthwaite was critical of Köppen's
    choice of criteria for his climatic boundaries,
    and especially, the boundaries between the humid
    and dry climates. Temperature efficiency and
    precipitation effectiveness were concepts
    contributed by Thornthwaite. His 1948
    classification introduced a moisture index
    concept as a basis for classification.
    Thornthwaite's classification is marred only by
    its complexity and lack of widespread use.
    Otherwise, the system in several ways is more
    accurate than is the Köppen system in its
    depiction of the humid-dry boundaries, especially
    those in North America.

13
Thornthwaite Contd
  • The key to Thornthwaite's approach is that
    temperature and precipitation alone are not the
    most active factors in the distribution of
    vegetation rather, Thornthwaite regarded POTET
    (the amount of water needed for maximized plant
    growth) and its relation to precipitation and
    plant moisture needs as the critical factor.
    Whereas Köppen used average annual temperature
    and precipitation for the determination of a
    moisture index, Thornthwaite used POTET and
    established a moisture index based on
    calculations of water balance moisture surpluses
    and moisture deficits. The moisture index can
    range from 100 as a measure of the degree PRECIP
    exceeds POTET, to a low of 100, where no PRECIP
    is received. When the moisture index is at zero,
    it is at the midpoint along the boundary line
    between the humid and dry climates. Thornthwaite
    established five climate classifications arid,
    semiarid, subhumid, humid, and perhumid.

14
The principal climate designations according to
Köppen. In which one of these general types do
you live? See next slide.
  • Köppen Guidelines
  • A Climate Tropical Climates
  • B Climate Dry arid and semiarid climates.
  • C Climate Mesoothermal climates.
  • D Climate Microtheraml climates.
  • E Climate Polar climates.
  • H Climate Highland climate. Denotes cold
    climate due to elevation.

15
Tropical Climates (A)
16
Dry, Arid, and Semiarid Climates (B)  
17
Mesothermal Climates (C)
18
(No Transcript)
19
Microthermal Climates (D)
20
Polar Climates (E)
21
Köppen Climate System (Fig. 10.5)
Figure 10.5
22
Example, characterizing the tropical A climates
in terms of temperature, moisture, and location.
  • The key temperature criterion for an A climate is
    that the coolest month must be warmer than 18C
    (64.4F), making these climates truly winterless.
    The consistent daylength and almost perpendicular
    Sun angle throughout the year generates this
    warmth. Subdivisions of the A climates are based
    upon the distribution of precipitation during the
    year. Thus, in addition to consistent warmth, an
    Af climate (tropical rain forest climate) is
    constantly moist, with no month recording less
    than 6 cm (2.4 in.) of precipitation. Indeed,
    most stations in Af climates receive in excess of
    250 cm (100 in.) of rainfall a year. Not
    surprisingly, the water balances in these regions
    exhibit enormous water surpluses, creating the
    world's largest stream discharges in the Amazon
    and Congo (Zaire) Rivers.

23
Which of the major climate types occupies the
most land and ocean area on Earth?
  • In terms of total land and ocean area, tropical A
    climates are the most extensive, occupying about
    36 of Earth's surface. The A climate
    classification extends along all equatorial
    latitudes, straddling the tropics from about 20
    N to 20 S and stretching as far north as the tip
    of Florida and south-central Mexico, central
    India, and southeast Asia.

24
Mesothermal C climates occupy the second-largest
portion of Earth's entire surface. Description
(temperature, moisture, and precipitation
characteristics).
  • The word mesothermal suggests warm and temperate
    conditions, with the coldest month averaging
    below 18C (64.4F) but with all months averaging
    above 0C (32F). The C climates, and nearby
    portions of the D climates, are regions of great
    weather variability, for these are the latitudes
    of greatest air-mass conflict. The C climatic
    region marks the beginning of true seasonality,
    with contrasts in temperature as evidenced by
    vegetation, soils, and human lifestyle
    adaptations. Subdivisions of the C classification
    are based on precipitation variability.

25
Explaining the distribution of the humid
continental Cfa and Mediterranean dry-summer Csa
climates (part of the C mesothermal climate) at
similar latitudes and the difference in
precipitation patterns between the two types.
Also, the difference in vegetation associated
with these two climate types.
  • Cfa climates are located in the eastern and
    east-central portions of the continents and are
    influenced during the summer by the maritime
    tropical air masses generated over warm coastal
    waters off eastern coasts. The warm, moist,
    unstable air forms convectional showers over
    land. In fall, winter, and spring, maritime
    tropical and continental polar air masses
    interact, generating frontal activity and
    frequent midlatitude cyclonic storms.

26
Cfa/Csa continued.
  • Across the planet during summer months, shifting
    cells of subtropical high pressure block
    moisture-bearing winds from adjacent regions. As
    an example, in summer the continental tropical
    air mass over the Sahara in Africa shifts
    northward over the Mediterranean region and
    blocks maritime air masses and cyclonic systems.
    This shifting of stable, warm-to-hot, dry air
    over an area in summer and away from these
    regions in the winter creates a pronounced
    dry-summer and wet-winter pattern. The
    designation s (hence Csa) specifies that at
    least 70 of annual precipitation occurs during
    the winter months.

27
Which climates are characteristic of the Asian
monsoon region?
  • Cwa or C (mesothermal) w (winter dry) a (hot
    summer, warmest month above 22C) climates are
    related to the winter-dry, seasonal pulse of the
    monsoons and extend poleward from the Aw
    (tropical savanna) climates. Köppen identified
    the wettest Cwa summer month as receiving 10
    times more precipitation than the driest winter
    month. Cherrapunji, India, receiving the most
    precipitation in a single year, is an extreme
    example of this classification. In that location
    the contrast between the dry and wet monsoons is
    most severe, ranging from dry winds in the winter
    to torrential rains and floods in the summer.
    Downstream from the Assam Hills, such heavy rains
    produced floods in Bangladesh in 1988 and 1991,
    among other years.

28
How can a marine west coast Cfb climate type can
occur in the Appalachian region of the eastern
United States?
  • An interesting anomaly relative to the marine
    west coast climate occurs in the eastern United
    States. Increased elevation in portions of the
    Appalachian highlands moderates summer
    temperatures in the Cfa humid continental
    classification, producing a Cfb marine west coast
    designation. Vegetation similarities between the
    Appalachians and the Pacific Northwest are quite
    noticeable, enticing many emigrants who relocate
    from the East to settle in this climatically
    familiar environment in the west.

29
The climatic designation for the coldest places
on Earth outside the poles. What do each of the
letters in the Köppen classification indicate?
  • The Dwc and Dwd microthermal subarctic climates
    occur only within Russia. Köppen selected the
    tertiary letter d for the intense cold of Siberia
    and north-central and eastern Asia it designates
    a coldest month with an average temperature lower
    than 38C (36.4F). A typical Dwd station is
    Verkhoyansk, Siberia. For four months of the year
    average temperatures fall below 34C (29.2F).
    Verkhoyansk frequently reaches minimum winter
    temperatures that are lower than 68C (90F).
    However, higher summer temperatures in the same
    area produce the world's greatest annual
    temperature range from winter to summer, a
    remarkable 63C (113.4F).

30
Global Warming
  • Significant climatic changes has occurred on
    Earth in the past and most certainly will occur
    in the future. There is nothing society can do
    about long-term influences that cycle Earth
    through swings from ice ages to warmer periods.
    However, our global society must address
    short-term changes that are influencing global
    temperatures within the life span of present
    generations.
  • Record-high global temperatures dominated the
    past two decades, records for both land and ocean
    and for both day and night. 1998 was the
    all-time record year for warmth, 2001 was second
    and eclipsed the previous records set in 1997 and
    1995. Understanding the warming and all related
    impacts is an important applied topic of Earth
    systems science and the spatial analysis ability
    of physical geography. (Movie at the end of
    lecture).

31
Global Temperatures
Figure 10.28
32
1998 Temperature records.
33
Carbon Dioxide Sources
Figure 10.29
34
July 2029 Temperature Forecast
Figure 10.31
35
Antarctic Peninsula Ice Disintegration
Figure 10.32
36
(No Transcript)
37
Potential Climate Change Impacts
Health Weather-related mortality Infectious
diseases Air-quality respiratory illnesses
Agriculture Crop yields Irrigation demands
Climate Changes
Forests Change in forest composition Shift
geographic range of forests Forest health and
productivity
Temperature
Precipitation
Water Resources Changes in water supply Water
quality Increased competition for water
Sea Level Rise
Coastal Areas Erosion of beaches Inundation of
coastal lands Costs to protect coastal communities
Species and Natural Areas Shift in ecological
zones Loss of habitat and species
Source EPA
38
Global Warming Questions
  • What is the potential climatic effects of global
    warming on polar and high-latitude regions. What
    are the implications of these climatic changes
    for persons living at lower latitudes?

39
Answers
  • Perhaps the most pervasive climatic effect of
    increased warming would be the rapid escalation
    of ice melt. The additional water, especially
    from continental ice masses that are grounded,
    would raise sea level worldwide. Scientists are
    currently studying the ice sheets of Greenland
    and Antarctica for possible changes in the
    operation of the hydrologic cycle, including
    snowlines and the rate at which icebergs break
    off (calve) into the sea. The key area being
    watched is the West Antarctic ice sheet, where
    the Ross Ice Shelf holds back vast grounded ice
    masses.
  • Loss of polar ice mass, augmented by melting of
    alpine and mountain glaciers, will affect
    sea-level rise. A quick survey of world
    coastlines shows that even a moderate rise could
    bring change of unparalleled proportions. At
    stake are the river deltas, lowland coastal
    farming valleys, and low-lying mainland areas,
    all contending with high water, high tides, and
    higher storm surges. There will be both internal
    and international migration of affected
    populations, spread over decades, away from
    coastal flooding if sea levels continue to rise.

40
How is climatic change affecting agricultural and
food production? Natural environments? Forests?
The possible spread of disease?
  • Modern single-crop agriculture is more
    delicate and susceptible to temperature change,
    water demand and irrigation needs, and soil
    chemistry than is traditional multicrop
    agriculture. Specifically, the southern and
    central grain-producing areas of North America
    are forecast to experience hot and dry weather by
    the middle of the next century as a result of
    higher temperatures. An increased probability of
    extreme heat waves is forecast for these U.S.
    grain regions. Also, available soil moisture is
    projected to be at least 10 less throughout the
    midlatitudes over the next 30 years than present
    levels. Scientists are considering changing to
    late-maturing, heat-resistant crop varieties and
    adjusting fertilizer applications and irrigation.

41
Contd
  • Biosphere models predict that a global average of
    30 of the present forest cover will undergo
    major species redistribution, the greatest change
    occurring in high latitudes. Many plant species
    are already "on the move" to more favorable
    locations. Land dwellers must also adapt to
    changing forage. Warming is already stressing
    some embryos as they reach their thermal limit.
    Particularly affected are amphibians, whose
    embryos develop in shallow water. The warming of
    large bodies of water may benefit some species,
    and harm others.
  • Recent studies suggest that climate change may
    affect health on a global basis. Populations
    previously unaffected by malaria,
    schistosomiasis, sleeping sickness, and yellow
    fever would be at greater risk in subtropical and
    midlatitude areas.

42
What are the present actions being taken to delay
the effects of global climate change? What is the
Kyoto Protocol? The operation of the Conference
of the Parties? What is the current status of the
United States and Canadian government action on
the Protocol?
  • A product of the 1992 Earth Summit in
    Rio de Janeiro, the largest environmental
    gathering of countries ever, was the United
    Nations Framework Convention on Climate
    Convention (FCCC). The leading body of the
    Convention is the Conference of the Parties (COP)
    operated by the countries that ratified the FCCC,
    some 170 by 1998. Subsequent meetings were held
    in Berlin (COP-1, 1995) and Geneva (COP-2, 1996).
    These meetings set the stage for COP-3 in Kyoto,
    Japan, December 1997, where 10,000 participants
    adopted the Kyoto Protocol by consensus. The
    latest gatherings were COP-6 held in the Hague in
    late 2000 and COP-7 in Marrakech, Morocco, in
    2001. Seventeen national academies of sciences
    endorsed the Kyoto Protocol. (For updates on the
    status of the Kyoto Protocol see
    http//www.unfccc.int/ resource/kpstats.pdf

43
Contd
  • The Protocol binds more developed countries to a
    collective 5.2 reduction in greenhouse gas
    emissions as measured at 1990 levels for the
    period 2008 to 2012. Within this group goal,
    various countries promised cuts U.S. 7 (the
    105th Senate leadership announced they would not
    ratify the Protocol), Canada 6, European Union
    8, Australia 8, among many others. The Group of
    77 countries plus China favor a 15 reduction by
    2010.
  • The Protocol is far-reaching in scope, including
    calling for international cooperation in meeting
    goals, technology development and transfers,
    leniency for less developed countries, clean
    development initiatives, and emissions trading
    schemes between industrialized countries and
    individual industries. The goal, simply and
    boldly stated is to prevent dangerous
    anthropogenic interference with the climate
    system. In 2001 and 2002 the U.S. Administration
    abandoned the protocol process and the agreement
    reached at COP-7.
  • This momentum lead to Earth Summit 2002
    (http//www.earthsummit2002.org/) in
    Johannesburg, South Africa, with an agenda
    including climate change, freshwater, gender
    issues, global public goods, HIV/AIDS,
    sustainable finance, and the five Rio
    Conventions.

44
  • Ten Steps to Reduce Your Global Warming Impact

45
  • Individual choices can have an impact on global
    climate change. Reducing your family's
    heat-trapping emissions does not mean forgoing
    modern conveniences it means making smart
    choices and using energy-efficient products,
    which may require an additional investment up
    front, but often pay you back in energy savings
    within a couple of years.

46
  • Since Americans' per capita emissions of
    heat-trapping gases is 5.6 tonsmore than double
    the amount of western Europeanswe can all make
    choices that will greatly reduce our families'
    global warming impact.

47
1. The car you drive the most important personal
climate decision.
  • When you buy your next car, look for the one with
    the best fuel economy in its class. Each gallon
    of gas you use releases 25 pounds of
    heat-trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) into the
    atmosphere. Better gas mileage not only reduces
    global warming, but will also save you thousands
    of dollars at the pump over the life of the
    vehicle. Compare the fuel economy of the cars
    you're considering and look for new technologies
    like hybrid engines.

48
2. Choose clean power.
  • More than half the electricity in the United
    States comes from polluting coal-fired power
    plants. And power plants are the single largest
    source of heat-trapping gas. None of us can live
    without electricity, but in some states, you can
    switch to electricity companies that provide 50
    to 100 percent renewable energy.
  •                 

49
3. Look for Energy Star.
  • When it comes time to replace appliances, look
    for the Energy Star label on new appliances
    (refrigerators, freezers, furnaces, air
    conditioners, and water heaters use the most
    energy). These items may cost a bit more
    initially, but the energy savings will pay back
    the extra investment within a couple of years.
    Household energy savings really can make a
    difference If each household in the United
    States replaced its existing appliances with the
    most efficient models available, we would save
    15 billion in energy costs and eliminate 175
    million tons of heat-trapping gases.


50
4. Unplug a freezer.
  • One of the quickest ways to reduce your global
    warming impact is to unplug the extra
    refrigerator or freezer you rarely use (except
    when you need it for holidays and parties). This
    can reduce the typical family's carbon dioxide
    emissions by nearly 10 percent.

51
5. Get a home energy audit.
  • Take advantage of the free home energy audits
    offered by many utilities. Simple measures, such
    as installing a programmable thermostat to
    replace your old dial unit or sealing and
    insulating heating and cooling ducts, can each
    reduce a typical family's carbon dioxide
    emissions by about 5 percent.

52
6. Light bulbs matter.
  • If every family in the United States replaced one
    regular light bulb with an energy-saving model,
    we could reduce global warming pollution by more
    than 90 billion pounds, the same as taking 7.5
    million cars off the road. So, replace your
    incandescent bulbs with more efficient compact
    fluorescents, which now come in all shapes and
    sizes. You'll be doing your share to cut back on
    heat-trapping pollution and you'll save money on
    your electric bills and light bulbs.

                     
53
7. Think before you drive.
  • If you own more than one vehicle, use the less
    fuel-efficient one only when you can fill it with
    passengers. Driving a full minivan may be kinder
    to the environment than two midsize cars.
    Whenever possible, join a carpool or take mass
    transit.

54
8. Buy good wood.
  • When buying wood products, check for labels that
    indicate the source of the timber. Supporting
    forests that are managed in a sustainable fashion
    makes sense for biodiversity, and it may make
    sense for the climate too. Forests that are well
    managed are more likely to store carbon
    effectively because more trees are left standing
    and carbon-storing soils are less disturbed.

55
9. Plant a tree.
  • You can also make a difference in your own
    backyard. Get a group in your neighborhood
    together and contact your local arborist or urban
    forester about planting trees on private property
    and public land. In addition to storing carbon,
    trees planted in and around urban areas and
    residences can provide much-needed shade in the
    summer, reducing energy bills and fossil fuel
    use.

56
10. Let policymakers know you are concerned about
global warming.
  • Our elected officials and business leaders need
    to hear from concerned citizens. Sign up for the
    Union of Concerned Scientists Action Network to
    ensure that policymakers get the timely, accurate
    information they need to make informed decisions
    about global warming solutions.
  • http//www.ucsaction.org/join/index.asp

57
Movie Whats Up With the Weather?
  • A look at the greenhouse effect and global
    warming. Explores the question of whether or not
    the global climate is altered by human activity.
  • NOVA C2000
  • WGBH Television Station Boston, Mass.
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