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Bhutan – Life long learning

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CIEA Seminar August 2004 Dorji Dhradhul, MoA and O. Hartmann-F ssler, Helvetas Some key figures Official name: Druk ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bhutan – Life long learning


1
Life long learning in
Bhutan
CIEA Seminar August 2004
Dorji Dhradhul, MoA
and O. Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
2
Bhutan
  • Some key figures
  • Official name Druk Yul (Land of the Thunder
    Dragon)
  • Monarchy (with democratization and
    decentralization)
  • Area 47000 km2, mountainous terrain, difficult
    access to many areas, only 16 arable land
  • from 200 masl to gt7000 masl (Himalayas) extremes
    of agroclimatic zones (sub-tropical to alpine)
  • Population 600 000 - 800 000 (various ethnic
    groups)
  • Language Dzongkha (Nepali, English)
  • Religions Bhuddism, Hinduism
  • GDP ca. 700 per capita

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
2
3
Natural Resources Agriculture in Bhutan
  • Ca. 70 under forest cover
  • NRM Sector 34 , Hydropower ca. 10 of GNP
  • Agricultural workforce ca. 75 of population
  • Mostly small farm structures (82 of people lt
    4ha) subsistence farming, hill agriculture,
    mixed farming system, almost no mechanization
  • Main crops rice, maize, potato (wheat, millet,
    buckwheat, barley) and citrus fruit. For export
    cardamom and various fruit
  • Livestock cattle, yak, goats/sheep, pigs,
    poultry
  • Overuse (close to settlements) vs. fallow in
    remote areas

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
3
4
Situation in Education in Bhutan
  • Formal schooling since 35 years
  • Schooling language English and Dzongkag
  • School enrolment-rate 72 (primary), 46
    (overall)
  • Almost no opportunities of further education for
    early school leavers
  • Limited opportunities for further education after
    10/12th class (RGoB)
  • Youth unemployment developing fast
  • Private sector no prominent employer

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
4
5
Rural Learning - on the move....
  • Before 2000 - very limited options
  • farmers and early school leavers
  • Extension service only/mayor direct source
  • rare trainings, also at Research Centres, not
    evenly distributed
  • for 10/12 class graduates
  • NRM Sector - NRTI one standard career, all to
    join civil service
  • BSc in Natural Science Sherubtse, Curriculum
    imported from India
  • Since 2000 slowly increasing offers
  • 2000 First technical courses targeted at farmers
    (Farm Business Training)
  • 2002 Food Inspector Training at NRTI
  • 2003 Royal University of Bhutan gt BSc and MSc
    NRM
  • At present - new offers being developed!

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
5
6
Rural Learning and Education Stakeholders and
Offers
Adult education
CIEA Seminar August 2004
O. Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
6
7
Characteristics of Existing and New Offers
CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
7
8
Educational Offers NRM Sector
MSc NRM
Community, Coop. Association Leaders
Farm Business Training
Non-farm Income source training
BSc Nat. Sci. BSc NRM
In-service Training
Taining by Extensionists Research C.s
Apprenticeship
Diploma Extension
Dipl. Food Inspectors
Non-formal Adult Education
School Ariculture Programme
School Ariculture Programme
Basic Education
CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
8
9
Offers for Change Agents
  • Diploma in Extension
  • Food Inspectors
  • In-service Training
  • BSc/MSc

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
9
10
Diploma in Extension (existing)
  • Description
  • Target group XII class pass (Science), good
    communication skills
  • 2 years three specialisations
  • classroom teaching, practicals, block days,
    blockweeks and field attachment
  • Job prospects Government extension agents
  • Goal
  • applied technical knowledge and skills in one
    subject area
  • AND integrated approach (mixed farming system!)
  • high social competences

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
10
11
Diploma in Extension (existing) contd.
  • Identification of Need and Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Need existing structure of extension service,
    departmentalization
  • CD ILO approach participatory based on job
    analysis
  • M E Tracer Studies (1995, 1998, 2003)
  • Planning and Implementation
  • Sequence of CD (1 y), teaching methodology (3 m)
    and production of teaching materials (3 m)
  • First batch 1992
  • Continuous upgrading of teachers
  • Major adjustments entry criteria (X to XII class
    pass), integration of new contents based on
    tracer studies (computer science...)

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
11
12
Diploma in Extension (existing) contd.
  • ID of Needs and Curriculum Development
  • Training policy (define structure, duration
    etc.)
  • Job Analysis (duties and functions gt tasks and
    skills) with feed-back from employers and
    target group
  • Evaluation of Job analysis (by clients and
    external people do tasks/skills meet real
    requirements and future trends)
  • Analysis of Target Group (intellectual and
    practical skills of the target group capable
    to cope with the indicated tasks and skills?)
  • Analysis of Training Needs (based on analysis of
    jobs and target group)
  • Syllabi Development (ranking of training needs
    according to importance and group into
    subjects)
  • Evaluation of Syllabi (crosschecking by clients
    and future employers)
  • Curriculum Development (conversion of syllabi
    into curriculum)

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
12
13
Diploma Extension (existing) contd.
  • Lessons learnt
  • Participatory CD - long, intensive, but pays
    back!
  • Integrated approach dependent on structure at
    central level!
  • Tracer Studies - methodology act on findings and
    publish actions!
  • Curriculum constant need for adaptation and
    review institutionalize!
  • Student follow-up crucial, but difficult
  • Issues / Upcoming Challenges
  • Saturation of market
  • Functions of extensionists in light of
    decentralized planning
  • 12 class passmotivation to work with farmers?
  • Need for flexible careers credits?
  • NRTI member college of Royal University of
    Bhutan

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
13
14
In-service Trainings (existing)
  • Description
  • Target group selected in-service staff
  • 7-30d classroom teaching, practicals, often ToT
    approach
  • collaboration with external experts
  • Goal
  • (in)directly refresh update knowledge and
    skills of extension staff
  • Opportunities for NRTI teaching staff
  • Identification of Need and Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Needs Refresher jointly by NRTI and MoA - from
    field
  • Need Updating f (new technologies, new
    policies and acts)
  • CD NRTI i. collaboration with clients

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
14
15
In-service Trainings (existing)
  • Planning and Implementation
  • Yearly plan of action, (often) adhoc
  • Issues/Challenges
  • Donor driven?!
  • Participant selection criteria? Motivation?
  • Lessons learnt
  • Formalize/institutionalize integration of new
    topics!

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
15
16
BSc and MSc (planned)
  • Goal
  • In-country higher education
  • Prepare students for higher level jobs in
    government service and private sector (industry,
    and ?)
  • Proposed Structure
  • Duration as per international standards
  • 12th class pass, science background (diploma?)
  • Flexible structures, various career prospects
    (core subjects, specific subjects and subjects of
    choice)

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
16
17
BSc and MSc (planned)
  • Identification Need Curriculum Development (CD)
  • Need stakeholders from Government and private
    sector (profiles, numbers needed)
  • CD participatory, similar diploma course NRTI
  • Planning and implementation
  • BSc to start in July 2006
  • Additional infrastructure and HRD needs
  • Challenges/Issues and open Questions
  • Clarification on future functions of graduates as
    base!
  • Streamline qualifications with TORs

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
17
18
Offers for Rural Households
  • Non-farm activity courses
  • Extension Offers by Extensionists
  • Farm Business Courses
  • Agricultural Apprenticeship
  • Cooperative Assoc. Leaders

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
18
19
Extension Offers by Extensionists
  • Infrastructure
  • Block Extension agents (agriculture, livestock,
    forestry)
  • Block Extension Centers (RNR, agriculture,
    livestock)
  • Research Centers/sub centers
  • Methods/Avenues
  • Farm visits by extension agents
  • Meetings
  • Trainings
  • Demonstration (on farm trials)
  • Study visits/exchange visits
  • Exhibitions shows

CIEA Seminar August 2004
Dorji Dhradhul, MoA
19
20
Extension Offers by Extensionists
  • Goal
  • To give the farmers the opportunity to learn
    about new technologies (knowledge and skills)
    prymarily for enhancing their income through
    increase in farm productivity and indrectly to
    enhance their overall knowledge and skills level
  • Identification of Need and Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Geog Planning Process (participatory),
  • Based on Plan document ( 9 FYP)
  • adhoc offers from different projects /agencies

CIEA Seminar August 2004
Dorji Dhradhul, MoA
20
21
Extension Offers by Extensionists
  • Planning and implementation
  • RNR extension agents (supported by District ,
    regional central staff), central agencies
  • Participation by nomination (not based on needs
    and interest)
  • Sometimes voluntary (need based)
  • Challenges /Issues
  • Needs identification more participatory
  • Feedback mechanism in curriculum development
  • Participatant selction/identificatiopn
  • Incentives for participation (DSA)
  • Target oriented
  • Guidelines on standards to be developed

CIEA Seminar August 2004
Dorji Dhradhul, MoA
21
22
Farm Business Courses (existing, review needed)
  • Description
  • Target Group min. 18y, min. Class VI, land
    resources, farming experiences, project concept
  • 2 weeks - 3 month various subjects emphasis on
    practical skills, including farm management and
    economics
  • Goal
  • Enable interested farmers to gain technical and
    entrepreneurial knowledge and skills for income
    generating activities (farm businesses)

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
22
23
Farm Business Courses (existing, review needed)
  • Modules of Farm Business Courses
  • Vegetable production
  • Mushroom production
  • Nursery farming
  • Piggery
  • Poultry Production
  • Dairy Husbandry
  • Bee Keeping
  • Fishery
  • Forest Harvesting (Chain saw)
  • Cultivation of Medicinal Plants
  • Essential Oil Production

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
23
24
Farm Business Courses (existing, review needed)
  • Identification of Need, Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Need brainstorming (NRTI, MoA)
  • CD NRTI teaching staff, external experts
  • Planning and implementation
  • Start-up at NRTI, handing over to RDT (Rural
    Development Training Centre )

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
24
25
Farm Business Courses (existing, review needed)
  • Challenges /Issues
  • Effective (and cost efficient) distribution of
    information
  • An-alphabets excluded? If include? Teaching
    material!
  • Decentralization of training
  • Interest in content vs. income from training!
  • Need/possibilities to combine with other non-NRM
    offers (handicraft, vocational trg?)
  • Lessons Learnt
  • Need for access to investment credit
  • Need for technical support after course (who?
    How?)
  • Entrepreneurship, Economics, Market orientation -
    mainstreaming in teaching staff and extensionists
    for decentralised provision of courses

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
25
26
Agricultural Apprenticeship (in work)
  • Goal
  • To provide farmers with knowledge and skills on
  • sustainable and viable production
  • farm managmeent
  • To improve income and living conditions of
    farmers
  • To make life in rural areas more attractive
  • Suggested Structure
  • 2 years practical work on progressive farm,
  • theoretical and practical inputs in blocks,
    tailored to needs, flexible
  • Target Group min. Class VIII, reading and
    writing

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
26
27
Agricultural Apprenticeship (in work)
  • Identification of Need and Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Need f (rural-urban migration, subsistence
    farming)
  • CD skill-based, with stakeholders, tailor to
    regional differences
  • Planning and implementation
  • Pilot batch with progressive farmers and first
    group of students
  • On the job training of Master-farmers
  • Challenges/ Issues/Open Questions
  • Inhomogeneous groups (level of schooling)
  • Multitude of needs - different agro-climatic
    zones
  • Selection of Masterfarmers
  • Small structures vs. Idea of Masterfarmer
    (work-load)
  • Financial incentives for Masterfarmers?
  • Distances vs. timing of practical/theoretical
    inputs
  • Combine with other non-NRM offers (handicraft,
    vocational trg)?

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
27
28
Cooperative Association Leaders Training
(planned)
  • Goal
  • Improving effectivenes and efficiency of rural
    community-based groups (production/marketing etc.
    not political or administrative)
  • provide tools, knowledge and skills to manage
    small groups
  • Create awareness about cooperatives and
    associations etc.
  • Proposed Structure
  • Short courses, in series,
  • task oriented (partly on the job)
  • decentralised
  • Identifiction of Need and Curriculum Development
    (CD)
  • Need given by developments in policy,
    cooperative act (2001), access to new markets,
    WTO
  • CD instructors RDT in collaboration with Royal
    Institute of Management and NRTI in-service
    courses
  • Planning and implementation
  • Start in project regions and where market
    access/potential
  • Challenges/Issues and open Questions
  • Inhomogeneous groups

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler, Helvetas
28
29
Major Issues and Possible Solutions
  • Training DSA as income source and main motivation
    for participation
  • gt no DSA, training/lodging and travel free of
    cost
  • Neglecting of trans-sectoral issues
  • gt coordinating body proactive inclusion of
    trans-sectoral issues in all trainings
  • Variety of agro-climatic zones gt varying farming
    systems/practices
  • gt self-contained course modules core modules
    plus optional/choice modules
  • Decentralized training vs. Difficult logistics
    and quality insurance
  • gt ME group to constantly evaluate quality of
    trainings
  • Need for conducive framework for
    use/implementation of course content
  • follow-up of students for provision of technical
    support
  • facilitate access to funds
  • careful selection of candidates and/or strict
    adherence to entry criteria
  • Provide links with non-agri offers (e.g. Taxi
    driving) with potential for income generation.

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
29
30
Conclusions for discussion
  • Rural Learning
  • can benefit rural population indirectly (through
    change agents) or directly
  • has to provide life-long learning opportunities
    for both change agents and rural households (not
    same offers BUT interlinked and interdependent)
    need for coordination
  • for change agents can be centrally offered,
    long-term and throughout the year.
  • for private households, most training must be
    locally/decentrally offered, as
    short-term/evening courses and during less busy
    times of year.
  • Participatory need analysis and curriculum
    develpment is best for all trainings, however,
    can be difficult due to lack of time,
    interest/knowledge of farmers/rural communities
    or due to logistic problems.

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
30
31
The END Thank you for your
attention!Tashi Delek!
CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
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32
Questions for Group Work
  • Look at the overview of learning offers in the
    rural area in Bhutan. What (kind of) offers are
    missing?
  • Do you agree on the distinction between offers
    for learning agents (indirect) and rural
    households (direct)? Why?
  • How do the recommendations and conclusions given
    coincide with your experience? Where do you
    disagree? Why?
  • What additional recommendations/conclusions would
    you draw?
  • Do a SWOT analysis for both the apprenticeship
    and the degree level courses (BSc/MSc) and add
    any recommendation to improve the suggested
    structure etc.

CIEA Seminar August 2004 O.
Hartmann-Fässler
32
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