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Variation in the use of leadership skills at different organizational level Situational Aspects Successful leadership require behavior that unites and stimulates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Chapter 7

  • The Nature Of Leadership
  • The Difference between Traits and behavior
  • Difference Leadership Styles
  • EarlyApproches to Leadership
  • Contingency Approches to Leadership
  • Substitudes for Leadership
  • Self-Leadership and Superleadership
  • Coaching as a Leadership Role

  • Leadership is the process of influencing and
    supporting others work enthusiastically toward
    achieving objectives.
  • Its the critical factor that helps an individual
    or a group identify its goals and then motivates
    and assists in achieving the stated goals.
  • The three important elements in the definition
    are - - Influence/support,
    - Voluntary effort, - Goal
    achievement. Without leadership, an
    organization would be only a confusion of people
    and machines.

Management and Leadership
  • Leadership is an important part of management,
    but its not the whole story. The primary role
    of a leader is to influence others to voluntarily
    seek defined objectives.
  • Managers also plan activities, organize
    appropriate structures, and control resources.
    Managers hold formal influence while acting as a

Traits of Effective Leaders
  • People have been concerned about the nature of
  • since the beginning of history.
  • Early research tried to identify the
    traitsphysical, intellectual, or personality
    characteristicsthat differed between leaders and
    non leaders or between successful and
    unsuccessful leaders.
  • Many cognitive and psychological factors, such as
    intelligence, ambition, and aggressiveness, were
    studied. Other researchers examined physical
    characteristics, such as height, body size and
    shape, and personal attractiveness.

Leadership Behavior
  • Much research has focused on identifying the
  • Behaviors. - In this view, successful leadership
    depends more on appropriate behavior,
    skills, and actions, and less on personal
    traits. The difference is similar to that
    between latent energy and kinetic energy in
    physics one type (the traits) provides the
    latent potential, and the other (the behaviors,
    skills, and actions) is the successful release
    and expression of those traits, much like kinetic
    energy. The three broad types of skills leaders
    use are Technical, Human, and Conceptual.

  • Technical Skills refers to a persons knowledge
    of and ability in any type of process or
    technique. Technical skills is the distinguishing
    feature of job performance at the operating and
    professional levels, but as employees are
    promoted to leadership responsibilities, their
    technical skills become proportionality less
  • Human Skills is the ability to work effectively
    with people and to build teamwork. No leader at
    any organizational level escapes the requirement
    for effective human skill. It is a major part of
    leadership behavior and is discussed throughout
    this book. Lack of human skills has been the
    downfall of many managers.

  • Conceptual skill Is the ability to think in
    terms of models, frameworks, and broad relation
    ships, such as long range plans. It becomes
    increasingly important in higher managerial jobs.
    Conceptual skill deals with ideas, whereas human
    skill concerns people and technical skill
    involves things.

Variation in the use of leadership skills at
different organizational level
Situational Aspects
  • Successful leadership require behavior that
    unites and stimulates followers toward defined
    objectives in specific situations.
  • All three elements Leader, Followers, and
    Situationare variables that affect one another
    in determining appropriate leadership behavior.

  • With few exception, leaders in organizations are
  • followers. They nearly always report to someone
    else. Even the president of a public firm or
    nonprofit organization report to a board of
    directors. Leaders must be able to wear both hats
    , relating effectively both upward and downward.

Followership behavior include
  • Not competing with the leader to be in the
  • Being loyal and supportive, a team player
  • Not being a yes person who automatically agree
  • Acting as a devils advocated by raising
    penetrating question
  • Constructively confronting the leaders ideas,
    values, and actions
  • Anticipating potential problems and preventing

  • The total pattern of Explicit and Implicit
    leaders action as seen by employees is called
    Leadership style. It represent a consistent
    combination of philosophy. Each style also
    reflects, implicitly or explicitly, a managers
    beliefs about a subordinates capabilities.

Positive and Negative Leaders
  • There are differences in the ways leaders
    approach people to motivate them. If the approach
    emphasizes rewardseconomic or otherwise the
    leader uses positive leadership.
  • Better employee education, greater demands for
    independence , and other factors have made
    satisfactory employee motivation more dependent
    on positive leadership.

  • If emphasis is placed on penalties, the leader is
    applying negative relationship. This approach can
    get acceptable performance in many situations,
    but it has high human costs. Negative leaders act
    domineering and superior with people.
  • A continuum of leadership styles exist, ranging
    from strongly positive to strongly negative.

  • Style is related to ones model of organizational
    behavior. The autocratic model tends to produce a
    negative style the custodial model is somewhat
    positive and the supportive, collegial, and
    system models are clearly positive. Positive
    leadership generally results in higher job
    satisfaction and performance.

Autocratic, Consultative, and Participative
  • Autocratic Leaders Centralize power and decision
    making in themselves.
  • Advantages
  • Satisfying for the leaders
  • Permits quick decision
  • Allows the use of less components subordinates

  • Consultative leaders approach one or more
    employees and ask them for inputs prior to making
    a decision.
  • Participative leaders Clearly decentralize
    authority. The leader and the group are acting as
    a social unit. Employees are informed about
    conditions affecting their job and encourage to
    express their ideas make suggestions, and take

Leader use of consideration and structure
  • Two different leadership styles used with
    employees are consideration and structure also
    known as employee orientation and task
  • Considerate leaders are concerned about the human
    needs of their employees.
  • Structured, task-oriented leaders, on the other
    hand believe that they get results by keeping
    people constantly busy, ignoring personal issues
    and emotions and urging them to produce.

  • The most successful managers are those who
    combine relatively high consideration and
    structure, giving somewhat more emphasis to

Contingency approaches to leadership style
  • The positive, participative, considerate
    leadership style is not always the best style to
    use. At times there are exceptions, and the prime
    need for leaders is to identify when to use a
    different style. A number of models have been
    developed that explained these exceptions, and
    they are called contingency approaches. These
    models states that the most appropriate style of
    leadership depends on an analysis of nature of
    situation facing the leader.

Fiedlers Contingency Model
  • Fiedler shows that a leaders effectiveness is
    determined by the interaction of
    employee-orientation with three additional
    variables that relate to the followers, the task,
    and the organization. They are leader-member
    relations, task structure and leader position

  • Leader-member relations are determined by the
    manner in which the leader is accepted by the
  • Task structure reflects the degree to which one
    specific way is required to do the job.
  • Leader position power describes the
    organizational power that goes with the position
    the leader occupies.

Hersey Blancharts Situational Leadership Model
  • Another contingency approach, the situational
    leadership(or life-cycle) model developed by Paul
    Hersey and Kenneth Blanchart, suggest that the
    most important factor affecting the selection of
    the leaders style is the development level of
    the subordinate. Development level is the task
    specific combination of and employee's task
    competence and motivation to perform.

  • Employees typically become better develped on a
    task as they reside appropriate guidance, gain
    job experience, and see the reward for
    cooperative behavior both the competence to
    perform a given task and the commitment to do so
    can vary among employees, therefore development
    levels demand different response from leaders.

Path-Gold Model of the Leadership
  • Robert halls and others have further developed a
    Path-Gold view of leadership initially presented
    by Martin G. Evans, which is derive from the
    expectancy model of motivation. Path-Gold
    leadership states that the leaders job is to use
    structure, support, and rewards to create a work
    environment that helps employees reach the
    organizations goal. The two major rules involved
    are to create a goal-orientation and to improve
    the path toward the goals so that they will be

  • The Path-Goal Leadership Process

Leader connects reward with goals
Leader identifies employee needs
Appropriate goal are established
Leaders provide assistant on employee path toward
Employees become satisfied and motivated, and
they are accept the leader
Effective performance occurs
Both employees and organization are better able
to which their goals
Vrooms Decision-making Model
  • The useful decision-making model for selecting
    among various degrees of leadership style
    developed by V.H. Vroom and others they recognize
    the problem-solving situation differ, so they
    developed the structure approach for managers to
    examine the nature of those differences and to
    respond appropriately.

Guiding questions in the Vrooms Decision-making
  • How important is technical quality with regard to
    the decision being made?
  • How important is subordinate commitment to the
  • Do you already have sufficient information to
    make high-quality decision?
  • Is the problem well structured?
  • If you made the decision, would the subordinate
    be likely to accept it?
  • Do subordinate share the goals to be attained in
    solving the problem?
  • Is there likely to be conflict among subordinate
    over alternative solutions?
  • Do subordinate have sufficient information to
    allow them to reach a high-quality solution?

Emerging Approaches to Leadership
  • Substitutes and Enhancers for leadership a
    totally different approach to leadership that
    still has a modest contingency flavor has been
    proposed by Steven Kerr and others.
  • Substitutes for leadership are factors that make
    leadership roles unnecessary through replacing
    them with other sources.
  • Enhancers for leadership are elements that
    amplify a leaders impact on the employees.

Potential neutralizers, substitute, and enhancers
for leadership Neutralizers
Substitutes Enhancers Physical
distance peer
superordinate goals Between leader and
gain-sharing reward
Increased group

status Employee indifference toward rewards
staff available for
status and
reward Intrinsically satisfying

power tasks
redesigned for
more feedback
Leader as the
central Inflexible work rules
source of information
methods for
supply Rigid reward systems
interpersonal conflict
Increased subordinates Cohesive work groups
team building to help view of leaders
expertise solve work-related
influence, and imaging Employees
with high problems
Ability, experience, or
use of crises to Knowledge intrinsic
satisfaction demonstrate
from the work itself
  • Self-Leadership and Superleadership the
    substitute for leadership provide partial
    compensation for a leaders weakness and the
    enhancers build on a leaders strengths. In
    another emerging approach to leadership, a
    dramatic substitute for leadership is the idea of
    self-leadership, which has been advocated by
    Charles Mans and Henry Sims. This process has to
    thrusts leading oneself to perform naturally
    motivating tasks and managing oneself to do work
    that is required but not naturally rewarding.
    Self-leadership requires employees to apply the
    behavior of skills of self-observation, self-set
    goals, self-criticism.

  • It also involves the mental activities of
    building natural rewards into tasks, focusing
    thinking on natural rewards, and establishing
    effective thought patterns such as mental imagery
    and self-talk. The net result is employees who
    influence themselves to use their self-motivation
    and self-direction to perform well.

  • Superleadership begins with a set of positive
    beliefs about workers. it requires practicing
    self-leadership oneself and modeling it for
    others to see. Superleaders also communicate
    positive self-expectation to employees, reward
    their progress toward self-leadership, and make
    self-leadership and essential part of the units
    desired culture.

  • A rapidly emerging metaphor for the leader is
    that of a coach. borrowed and adapted from the
    sports domain, coaching means that the leader
    prepares, guides, and directs a player but does
    not play the game. these leaders recognize that
    they are on the sidelines, not on the playing
    field. Their role is to select the right players,
    to teach and develop subordinates, to be
    available for problem-oriented consultation,
    review resource needs, to ask question, and to
    listen to input from employees.

  • Coaches see themselves as cheerleaders and
    facilitators while also recognizing the
    occasional need to be tough and demanding.
  • Coaching can be a powerful leadership tool, if
    handled correctly. Good coaching focuses mostly
    on enhanced performance as supported by high
    expectation and timely feed-back while building
    on the tools of trust, mutual respect, integrity,
    openness, and common purpose.

  • The specific areas that most managers admit
    needing coaching in are
  • Improving their interaction style
  • Dealing more effectively with change
  • Developing their listening and speaking skills

Other Approaches
  • Two other perspectives on leadership deserve
    mention. Visionary leadersthose who can paint a
    portrait of what the organization needs to become
    and then use the communication skills to motivate
    others to achieve the visionplay specially
    important rules during times of transition. A
    second approach looks at the reciprocal nature of
    influence between managers and their employees
    and studies the exchanges that take place between

  • Leadership is the process of influencing and
    supporting others to work enthusiastically toward
    achieving objectives. It is determined partially
    by traits, which provide the potential for
    leadership, and also by rule behavior. Leaders
    roles combine technical, human, and conceptual
    skills, which leaders apply in different degrees
    at various organizational levels. Their behavior
    as followers is also important to the
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